Publications by authors named "Andy Habib"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Phenobarbital as alternate anticonvulsant for organophosphate-induced benzodiazepine-refractory status epilepticus and neuronal injury.

Epilepsia Open 2020 Jun 14;5(2):198-212. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics College of Medicine Texas A&M University Health Science Center Bryan TX USA.

Objective: Organophosphates (OPs) such as diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) and soman are lethal chemical agents that can produce seizures, refractory status epilepticus (SE), and brain damage. There are few optimal treatments for late or refractory SE. Phenobarbital is a second-line drug for SE, usually after lorazepam, diazepam, or midazolam have failed to stop SE. Practically, 40 minutes or less is often necessary for first responders to arrive and assist in a chemical incident. However, it remains unclear whether administration of phenobarbital 40 minutes after OP intoxication is still effective. Here, we investigated the efficacy of phenobarbital treatment at 40 minutes postexposure to OP intoxication.

Methods: Acute refractory SE was induced in rats by DFP injection as per a standard paradigm. After 40 minutes, subjects were given phenobarbital intramuscularly (30-100 mg/kg) and progression of seizure activity was monitored by video-EEG recording. The extent of brain damage was assessed 3 days after DFP injections by neuropathology analysis of neurodegeneration and neuronal injury by unbiased stereology.

Results: Phenobarbital produced a dose-dependent seizure protection. A substantial decrease in SE was evident at 30 and 60 mg/kg, and a complete seizure termination was noted at 100 mg/kg within 40 minutes after treatment. Neuropathology findings showed significant neuroprotection in 100 mg/kg cohorts in brain regions associated with SE. Although higher doses resulted in greater protection against refractory SE and neuronal damage, they did not positively correlate with improved survival rate. Moreover, phenobarbital caused serious adverse effects including anesthetic or comatose state and even death.

Significance: Phenobarbital appears as an alternate anticonvulsant for OP-induced refractive SE in hospital settings. A careful risk-benefit analysis is required because of negative outcomes on survival and cardio-respiratory function. However, the need for sophisticated support and critical monitoring in hospital may preclude its use as medical countermeasure in mass casualty situations.
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June 2020

Practice Intentions of Family Physicians Trained in Teaching Health Centers: The Value of Community-Based Training.

J Am Board Fam Med 2019 Mar-Apr;32(2):134-135

From The Robert Graham Center, Washington, DC (ZL, AB); West Side Community Health Services, Saint Paul, MN (PM); The American Board of Family Medicine, Lexington, KY (LP); Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (LP); Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (AH).

Family medicine residents who graduate from Federally Qualified Health Center-aligned Teaching Health Center (THC) training residencies are nearly twice as likely to pursue employment in safety-net settings compared with non-THC graduates. This trend has been consistent over the past few years, suggesting that the program is fulfilling its mission to strengthen primary care in underserved settings.
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April 2020

Postoperative prophylactic antibiotics for facial fractures: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Laryngoscope 2019 01 14;129(1):82-95. Epub 2018 May 14.

Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire.

Objective: Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing surgery for maxillofacial fractures is standard practice. However, the use of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis remains controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to evaluate the effect of postoperative antibiotic therapy on the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) in patients with maxillofacial fractures.

Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception through October 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies evaluating the efficacy of pre-, peri-, and postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing SSI in maxillofacial fractures were included. Data were extracted from studies using a standardized data collection form, with two reviewers independently performing extraction and quality assessment for each study. Risk ratios (RRs) for SSI were pooled using a random-effects model.

Results: Among 2,150 potentially eligible citations, 13 studies met inclusion criteria and provided data to be included in a meta-analysis. The addition of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis to a standard preoperative and/or perioperative antibiotic regimen showed no significant difference in the risk of SSI (RR = 1.11 [95% CI: 0.86-1.44], P > .1). There were also no differences in the risk of SSI when restricting the analysis to mandibular fractures (eight studies, RR = 1.22 [95% CI: 0.92-1.62]) or open surgical techniques (eight studies, RR = 1.02 [95% CI: 0.62-1.67]). A sensitivity analysis did not find any significant differences in risk when restricting to RCTs (seven trials, RR = 1.00 [95% CI: 0.61-1.67]) or cohort studies (six studies, RR = 1.21 [95% CI: 0.89-1.63]).

Conclusions: Our findings, along with the available evidence, does not support the routine use of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with maxillofacial fractures. Avoiding the unnecessary use of antibiotic therapy in the postoperative period could have important implications for healthcare costs and patient outcomes. Laryngoscope, 129:82-95, 2019.
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January 2019