Publications by authors named "Andrzej Zawal"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Freezing: how do water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) survive exposure to sub-zero temperatures?

Exp Appl Acarol 2021 Jul 21;84(3):565-583. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Institute of Marine and Environmental Sciences, Center of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland.

Until now, very little is known about the ability of adult and deutonymph water mites (Acari, Hydrachnidia) to survive in sub-zero temperatures. Information concerns mainly water mites from vernal astatic waters, and the knowledge has never been experimentally verified. To determine the sensitivity of water mites to freezing, experiments were conducted on (1) the impact of acclimatization, (2) temperature, and (3) duration of freezing on survival, (4) the survival rate of water mites from various types of water bodies, and (5) the survival rate of water mites from different climatic zones. The experiments were carried out in a phytotron chamber, and water mites were placed in containers (10 × 10 × 5 cm) filled with 4/5 of water for 10 specimens each. Water mites were identified to the species level after finishing the experiments. The temperature was lowered 1 °C every hour until the target temperature was reached. After a certain period of freezing (depending on the treatment) the temperature was raised by 1 °C every hour until it reached 4 °C. The time of the experiment was measured from the moment the desired temperature was reached (below 0 °C) until the ice thawed and the temperature of 4 °C was reached again. The highest survival rates had Limnochares aquatica, Piona nodata, Sperchon clupeifer and Lebertia porosa, followed by L. insignis, Hygrobates longipalpis, H. setosus, Limnesia undulatoides, Piona pusilla, Arrenurus globator, Hydrodroma despiciens, Piona longipalpis, Sperchonopsis verrucosa, Unionicola crassipes and Mideopsis crassipes; no specimens of Torrenticola amplexa survived. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) water mites can survive freezing to -2 °C, lower temperatures are lethal for them; (2) they survived better the short period of freezing (24-48 h) than the long period (168 h); (3) resistance to freezing seems to be an evolutionary trait of individual species, only partly related to the living environment; and (4) freezing survival rates are linked to the region of Europe and are much lower in Southern than in Central Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-021-00634-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257513PMC
July 2021

First detailed records of water mite larvae (Hydrachnidia: Hydrovolzidae, Hydryphantidae) parasitizing empidid flies (Diptera: Empididae: Clinocerinae).

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2020 Aug 11;12:165-171. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

University of Szczecin, Institute of Marine and Environmental Science, Wąska 13, 71-415, Szczecin, Poland.

Five species of the subfamily Clinocerinae from the Tatra Mountains (S Poland) were observed to be parasitized by larval water mites. Two of them: Mik, 1880 and Mik, 1880 are recorded from this massif for the first time. In addition, is new for Polish fauna. The most infected species was Zetterstedt, 1838, following by (Bezzi, 1899), Mik, 1880, Mik, 1880 and Niesiołowski, 1987. The highest number of hosts occurred in the case of (Walter, 1907) with five host species, following by both (Monti, 1905) and (Protz, 1896) with one species each. In the case of more parasites were recorded on males than on females and in more parasites were recorded on females. The abdomen of the hosts was the most often chosen by water mites larvae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2020.06.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7301174PMC
August 2020

Toxic Elements and Mineral Content of Different Tissues of Endemic Edible Snails ( and ) of Montenegro.

Foods 2020 Jun 3;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Biology, University of Montenegro, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro.

The objective of the present study is to determine the differences between the mineral content of various organs of and , the two most abundant edible snail species in Montenegro. The bioaccumulation of 12 examined elements (zinc, manganese, copper, aluminum, cadmium, lead, nickel, iron, chromium, lithium, selenium and mercury) was determined in the hepatopancreas, albumen gland, digestive tract, reproductive system, mantle, foot and shell from three sampling sites (Biogradska Gora, Nikšić and Malesija). The examined populations of and showed a significant difference in their lithium and selenium contents. The levels of the most examined metals (Zn, Mn, Cu, Al, Cd, Pb, Se and Hg) varied significantly among organs. The digestive tract and hepatopancreas tend to bioaccumulate selenium and cadmium. The general mean concentration of cadmium in the examined snail tissues exceeded the maximum allowable level at the Biogradska Gora and Malesija sites. Therefore, the use of the Montenegrin edible snails collected from the wilderness for human consumption seems to be limited by their higher bioaccumulation capacity for toxic elements such as cadmium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9060731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7353529PMC
June 2020

Marine mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) of the Mediterranean Sea: Descriptions of two new species, key for identification and future prospects.

Zootaxa 2019 Apr 15;4585(3):zootaxa.4585.3.6. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Montenegro, Cetinjski put b.b., 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro.

This paper provides a current overview of the diversity of the marine water mite family Pontarachnidae of the Mediterranean Sea. The checklist includes ten species from two genera, i.e. Litarachna Walter, 1925 and Pontarachna Philippi, 1840. Two species i.e., Litarachna muratsezgini sp. nov. and Pontarachna turcica sp. nov. from the Gulf of Antalya (Levantine Sea, Turkey), are described as new for science. Moreover, the key for the identification of Mediterranean Pontarachnidae species and a brief discussion on the current gaps and future prospects of our knowledge of this important but neglected component of the marine meiofauna are given.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4585.3.6DOI Listing
April 2019

New record of a parasitising species of (Acari, Hydrachnidia) on water beetles (Fabricius, 1781) (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Dytiscinae, Eretini).

Zookeys 2019 22;865:31-38. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, University of Szczecin, Waska 13, 71-415 Szczecin, Poland University of Szczecin Szczecin Poland.

The larvae of water mites of the genus parasitise water bugs and water beetles. Larvae of the genus attach to the thorax and abdomen sternites and tergites under the elytra. Up to now six species of were recorded from Iran, but there are no records on larvae parasitising on water beetles. There is some information about parasitising of on water beetles from the genus , which is very well adapted to dry climate. The aim of this paper is to describe the morphology of an unknown larva of the genus , found on .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.865.34532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6663934PMC
July 2019

Environmental factors affecting water mite assemblages along eucrenon-hypocrenon gradients in Mediterranean karstic springs.

Exp Appl Acarol 2019 Apr 22;77(4):471-486. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Limnology, University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland.

Springs are often recognized as biodiversity hotspots on the regional scale but at the same time they are among the most endangered freshwater habitats. Water mites are among the aquatic animal groups with highest share of crenobiotic (= spring-dwelling) species and, therefore, are possibly the best indicators of the ecological status of spring habitats. We studied water mites and environmental factors correlated with their distribution pattern along a eucrenon-hypocrenon gradient. The sampling was conducted in 14 karstic springs located in the Mediterranean part of Montenegro. We collected 17 water mite species of which four species were crenobiotic. We did not find significant differences between the water mite assemblages from the source and springbrook. Similarly, there were no significant differences in number of species and abundance between the studied spring sections, neither for crenobiotic taxa nor for non-crenobiotic taxa. We found that the number of non-crenobiotic taxa was predicted mainly by water depth, whereas the abundance of crenobionts was most strongly associated with temperature. No significant predictors for the number of crenobiotic species in spring habitats were found. Our results revealed also that distance from the nearby water body was the main driver of the crenobiotic species abundance in eucrenon suggesting the large effects of the local flooding events on crenobiotic species. Water mites may help in assessing the response of crenobiotic assemblages in those spring habitats which likely to be flooded in future as the results of ongoing climatic changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-019-00360-wDOI Listing
April 2019

Effects of dredging on the vegetation in a small lowland river.

PeerJ 2019 22;7:e6282. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Institute for Research on Biodiversity, Faculty of Biology, University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland.

Background: Conventional river engineering operations have a substantial influence on the fluvial ecosystem. Regulation and channelization generally reduce the physical heterogeneity of river beds and banks and the heterogeneity of habitats. They determine the character, diversity and species richness of plant communities. The effect of river regulation on vegetation has been repeatedly investigated, but few studies have been conducted within reaches of previously regulated rivers. The aim of this work is to expand and current knowledge about the impact of dredging on the vegetation of a regulated section of a lowland river.

Materials & Methods: The study included pre-dredging (1 year before) and post-dredging surveys (results 1 and 2 years after dredging). The vegetation was analysed in terms of species composition, origin of species, life forms, distribution of Grime's life strategies, and selected ecological factors. The Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index (H) and evenness were also analysed in each year of the study. The impact of dredging on the vascular flora was assessed by 'before-after-control-impact' (BACI) analysis.

Results: The number of species and biodiversity as measured by the Shannon-Wiener index (H) increased in the analysed section of the river valley. However, enrichment of the flora was observed only on the floodplain, on the surface of the deposited dredging material, while the number of species in the river channel decreased, as dredging of the river bed and levelling of the banks had markedly reduced habitat diversity. Although species richness in the second year after the dredging approached the values recorded before the intervention, the absence of particularly species or phytocenoses associated with shallow river banks and sandbars was still observed. The change in habitat conditions and the destruction of the vegetation cover during the dredging enabled penetration by numerous previously unrecorded alien species of plants and apophytes. There was a perceptible increase in the role of therophytes in the flora. It is worth noting that the number of alien species and therophytes declined significantly in the second year after the dredging. Analysis of the proportions of species representing various life strategies showed that previously unrecorded species with the type R (ruderal) life strategy had appeared, representing by pioneer species occurring in frequently disturbed habitats. There was also a marked increase in the share of species representing the mixed C-R (competitive-ruderal) strategy, occurring in habitats with low levels of stress, whose competitive abilities are limited by repeated disturbances. By the second year after the dredging, however, these changes were largely no longer observed.

Conclusions: Through appropriate maintenance of the regulated river, it can be rapidly recolonized by vegetation after the procedure, but it may lead to the loss of some species and phytocoenoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346983PMC
January 2019

A new species in the water mite subgenus Majumderatax Vidrine, 1993 from Sri Lanka (Acari: Hydrachnidia).

Zootaxa 2018 Aug 8;4457(2):346-350. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Department of Biology, University of Montenegro, Cetinjski put b.b., 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro..

Majumderatax was originally established by Vidrine (1993) as a subgenus of Unionicola Haldeman, 1842 with U. hankoi Szalay, 1927 as type species. It is probably a monophyletic clade (Gerecke et al. 2016), characterized by the following features: (i) I-L-5 with a characteristic, blade-like distoventral seta, and (ii) P-5 short and stocky, with a strong, bifurcated claw.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4457.2.11DOI Listing
August 2018

A checklist of epibiont suctorian and peritrich ciliates (Ciliophora) on halacarid and hydrachnid mites (Acari: Halacaridae Hydrachnidia).

Zootaxa 2018 Aug 9;4457(3):415-430. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Crescent International School, Bario, Govindpur, Dhanbad 828109, Jharkhand, India..

Based on published records and original data, a list of the epibiont suctorian and peritrich ciliates (Ciliophora) on halacarid and hydrachnid mites is presented. Altogether 13 suctorian and 10 peritrich species from hydrachnid and halacarid mites were listed. From this list, six suctorian and one peritrich species have been reported from halacarid mites, while four suctorian and four peritrich species were found on hydrachnid mites determined up to species level. The remaining specimens were determined upto the generic level. The halacarid and hydrachnid species do not share any suctorian and peritrich species and some of the ciliate species are specific to certain taxonomic groups of the hosts.The host specificity of both suctorian and peritrich ciliates, localization on the host body and environment are discussed. Some ciliate species specific to hydrachnid mites prefer lotic or lentic habitats. In most cases, both suctorian and peritrich ciliates prefer only marine or only fresh water bodies. It was also mentioned that both suctorian and peritrich ciliates have not distinct preferences in localization on their host body.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4457.3.4DOI Listing
August 2018

Effect of changes in the fractal structure of a littoral zone in the course of lake succession on the abundance, body size sequence and biomass of beetles.

PeerJ 2018 26;6:e5662. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Limnology, Institute for Research for Biodiversity, Centre of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland.

Dystrophic lakes undergo natural disharmonic succession, in the course of which an increasingly complex and diverse, mosaic-like pattern of habitats evolves. In the final seral stage, the most important role is played by a spreading mat, which gradually reduces the lake's open water surface area. Long-term transformations in the primary structure of lakes cause changes in the structure of lake-dwelling fauna assemblages. Knowledge of the succession mechanisms in lake fauna is essential for proper lake management. The use of fractal concepts helps to explain the character of fauna in relation to other aspects of the changing complexity of habitats. Our 12-year-long study into the succession of water beetles has covered habitats of 40 selected lakes which are diverse in terms of the fractal dimension. The taxonomic diversity and density of lake beetles increase parallel to an increase in the fractal dimension. An in-depth analysis of the fractal structure proved to be helpful in explaining the directional changes in fauna induced by the natural succession of lakes. Negative correlations appear between the body size and abundance. An increase in the density of beetles within the higher dimension fractals is counterbalanced by a change in the size of individual organisms. As a result, the biomass is constant, regardless of the fractal dimension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6163033PMC
September 2018

Water mites (Acari, Hydrachnidia) of riparian springs in a small lowland river valley: what are the key factors for species distribution?

PeerJ 2018 24;6:e4797. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Biology, University of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro.

This paper examines the impact of disturbance factors-flooding and intermittency-on the distribution of water mites in the riparian springs situated in the valley of a small lowland river, the Krąpiel. The landscape factors and physicochemical parameters of the water were analysed in order to gain an understanding of the pattern of water mite assemblages in the riparian springs. Three limnological types of springs were examined (helocrenes, limnocrenes and rheocrenes) along the whole course of the river and a total of 35 water mite species were found. Our study shows that flooding influences spring assemblages, causing a decrease in crenobiontic water mites in flooded springs. The impact of intermittency resulted in a high percentage of species typical of temporary water bodies. Surprisingly, the study revealed the positive impact of the anthropogenic transformation of the river valley: preventing the riparian springs from flooding enhances the diversity of crenobiontic species in non-flooded springs. In the conclusion, our study revealed that further conservation strategies for the protection of the riparian springs along large rivers would take into account ongoing climatic changes and possible the positive impact of the anthropogenic transformation of river valleys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4797DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5971099PMC
May 2018

Supplement to the Checklist of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from the Balkan peninsula.

Zootaxa 2018 Mar 13;4394(2):151-184. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Department of Biology, University of Montenegro, Cetinjski put b.b., 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro..

The last checklist of the water mites of the Balkan countries published in 2010 by Pešić et al. is updated to November 2017. This supplement includes new records of water mite species from the Balkan countries (Croatia, Bosnia Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Macedonia, Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece) published after 2010, as well as unpublished records based on material collected from Croatia, Montenegro, Albania, Macedonia, and Greece. Numerous new records for the national faunas, including one species new for the Mediterranean region (Arrenurus stjordalensis Thor, 1899), are reported and one species new to science (Trichothyas jadrankae Pešić sp. nov.) is described. With these additions, a total number of 390 water mite species and subspecies from 34 families and 77 genera is now recorded from the Balkan peninsula (including the Greek Islands).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4394.2.1DOI Listing
March 2018

First record of larvae of the water mite Piersig, 1895 from Turkey (Acari, Hydrachnidia, Hydrachnidae).

Zookeys 2018 19(738):89-96. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

Fırat University, Faculty of Science, Elazığ, Turkey.

Larvae of water mite Piersig, 1895 (Acari, Hydrachnidiae) were reported on diving beetles Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) from Turkey. The redescription of the larva was made. Earlier, the larva was described as , but it was subsequently synonymized with . The larva of is a new record for the Turkish fauna. All larvae of were found on the mesosternum of the one specimens (prevalence = 16.7%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.738.21021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5904403PMC
February 2018

Influence of temperature and light-dark cycle on hatching of Eylais extendens.

Exp Appl Acarol 2018 Mar 5;74(3):283-289. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Department of Plant Taxonomy and Phytogeography, Institute for Research on Biodiversity, Center of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Szczecin, Wąska 13, 71-415, Szczecin, Poland.

Little research has been done on egg diapause and the embryonic development of water mites. The aim of this study was to check the impact of temperature and periods of light on hatching of larvae of Eylais extendens. Three batches of eggs which were spawned on 30 July were placed at one of three temperatures (4, 10 and 20 °C) and two periods of light (7 and 14 h per day). Egg hatching (both, percentage of hatched larvae and rate of hatching) was found to differ between 4 versus 10 °C and between 4 versus 20 °C, but not between 10 versus 20 °C. The periods of light had no influence on hatching. This synchronization of hatching, enabling the eggs to emerge from diapause in the spring, could be considered an evolutionary adaptation aimed at postponing hatching of late-spawned eggs until a time allowing for completion of the full development cycle, including the parasitic larval stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-018-0238-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5851706PMC
March 2018

New records of host-parasite relationships between Coenagrion scitulum (Rambur, 1842) (Odonata) and water mite larvae (Hydrachnidia) in core and edge host populations.

Acta Parasitol 2017 Mar;62(1):38-45

The relationships between water mite larvae parasitizing Coenagrion scitulum in core and edge populations were described. A total of 636 larvae of 7 water mite species were found on 143 C. scitulum adults (82 females and 61 males). C. scitulum was recorded for the first time as a host species for Arrenurus cuspidator, A. bruzelii, A. bicuspidator, A. tricuspidator, A. claviger and Hydryphantes octoporus. The degree of infestation by particular parasite species was typical for these species. In contrast, the parasites' preferences for host body parts were not typical, as they preferred abdominal segments 2-4, which in earlier studies had been avoided by water mite larvae. No differences were found in degree of infestation of Coenagrion scitulum individuals between core and edge populations, with the exception of Hydryphantes octoporus, which parasitized damselflies only in core populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ap-2017-0004DOI Listing
March 2017

First record of parasitism of water mite larva (Acari: Hydrachnidia) on the pupa of Trichoptera.

Acta Parasitol 2015 Jun;60(2):196-9

During the studies on ecology of Trichoptera of anthropogenic water bodies we have unexpectedly discovered the parasitic larvae of water mites of the species Tiphys torris on the pupa of Triaenodes bicolor. This is the first documented case of the parasitism of water mites on the caddisfly pupa as well as the first ever record of the species which is regarded as a dipteran parasite on caddisflies. The situation is very untypical for preimaginal stages of caddisflies are used by phoretic and not parasitic water mite larvae. Parasitism has been confirmed in this case by the formation of stylostomes and enlarged sizes of the bodies of the larvae. This is probably the case of facultative parasitism in which the pupa has served as a substitute of the adult form of a caddisfly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ap-2015-0028DOI Listing
June 2015

Parasitism of Odonata by Arrenurus (Acari: Hydrachnidia) larvae in the Lake Świdwie, nature reserve (NW Poland).

Acta Parasitol 2013 Dec 13;58(4):486-95. Epub 2013 Dec 13.

Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Limnology, University of Szczecin, Wąska 13 Str., PL-71-415, Szczecin, Poland,

Larvae of a vast majority of water mite species are parasites of aquatic insects. Owing to this, they migrate to new localities, and are able to survive unfavourable environmental conditions. This also concerns species from subgenus Arrenurus s. str., parasites of dragonflies. The detailed analysis of this phenomenon, however, has only been possible in the last several years, since the key to the identification of larvae from genus Arrenurus Dug. was published. In 2010, the parasitism of Arrenurus s. str. larvae on dragonflies in the Lake Świdwie reserve (NW Poland) was analysed. Larvae of 9 species of water mites were recorded on 107 imagines of dragonflies from 8 species. The following were identified as hosts of water mites for the first time: Anax imperator, Libellula quadrimaculata, and Leucorrhinia caudalis. The highest prevalence occurred in the case of: Erythromma najas and Lestes dryas (100%), Coenagrion pulchellum (96.5%), and C. puella (80.0%). Coenagrion pulchellum was infested by 9 species of parasites, C. puella by 6, and Erythromma najas and Lestes dryas by three species. The highest number of host species occurred in the case of Arrenurus maculator (5); followed by A. cuspidator, A. batillifer cf., A. bicuspidator, and A. tetracyphus (3 each); A. papillator, A. tricuspidator, and A. bruzelii (2 each), and A. claviger (1). Differentiation of preferences of particular parasites towards various parts of the host body was observed, probably related to the coevolution of parasites and hosts, and competition between the host species. The body sizes of the parasites suggest that approximately 50% of body size growth of water mites from subgenus Arrenurus s. str. occurs at the stage of parasitic larva.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-013-0162-6DOI Listing
December 2013

First observations in Turkish Thrace on water mite larvae parasitism of Ranatra linearis by Hydrachna gallica (Acari: Hydrachnidia).

Acta Parasitol 2013 Mar 2;58(1):57-63. Epub 2013 Feb 2.

Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Limnology, University of Szczecin, 71-415, Szczecin, Waska 13, Poland.

Many aquatic insect species, including aquatic Hemiptera, are parasitized by water mite larvae. Although this situation may cause damaging impacts to the hosts, the mites can disperse and colonize new localities in this way. Little is known about the frequency of water mite ectoparasitism amongst the aquatic Hemiptera in Turkey. In this study, larval water mite parasitism on aquatic Hemiptera, which have been collected from different localities in Turkish Thrace, was evaluated. It was found that only nine individuals, belonging two different species in a total of 367 hemipteran specimens, were parasitized by larval water mites. Furthermore, variations in sizes and shapes of the mites on the waterscorpion Ranatra linearis Linne, 1758 and Nepa cinerea Linne, 1758 were determined. These are the first records for larval mite parasitism on R. linearis and N. cinerea in Turkish Thrace.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-013-0106-1DOI Listing
March 2013