Publications by authors named "Andrzej K Siwicki"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The brain-gut axis - where are we now and how can we modulate these connections?

Curr Neuropharmacol 2020 Nov 19. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Microbiology and Clinical Immunology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-957 Olsztyn. Poland.

A traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates an inflammatory response with molecular cascades triggered by the presence of necrotic debris including damaged myelin, hemorrhages and injured neuronal cells. Molecular cascades prominent in TBI-induced inflammation include the release of an excess of proinflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors, the degradation of tight junctions (TJs), cytoskeletal rearrangements and leukocyte and protein extravasation promoted by increased expression of adhesion molecules. The brain-gut axis consists of a complex network involving neuroendocrine and immunological signaling pathways and bi-directional neural mechanisms. Importantly, modifying the gut microbiome alters this axis, and in turn may influence brain injury and neuroinflammatory processes. In recent years it has been demonstrated that the activity and composition of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome population influences the brain through all of above mentioned pathways affecting homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). The GI microbiome is involved in the modulation of cellular and molecular processes which are fundamental to the progression of TBI-induced pathologies including neuroinflammation, abnormal blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, immune system responses, microglial activation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. It has been postulated that interaction between the brain and gut microbiome occurs mainly via the enteric nervous system and the vagus nerve through neuroactive compounds including serotonin or dopamine and activation by bacterial metabolites including endotoxin, neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors, and cytokines. In recent years the multifactorial impact of selected immunomodulatory drugs on immune processes occurring in the CNS and involving the brain-gut axis has been under intensive investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570159X18666201119155535DOI Listing
November 2020

Growing Trend of Fighting Infections in Aquaculture Environment-Opportunities and Challenges of Phage Therapy.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Jun 4;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Proteon Pharmaceuticals, 90-364 Lodz, Poland.

Phage therapy, a promising alternative to antimicrobial treatment of bacterial diseases, is getting more and more popular, especially due to the rising awareness of antibiotic resistance and restrictions in antibiotics' use. During recent years, we observed a growing trend of bacteriophages' application in aquaculture, which in each year reports high losses due to bacterial diseases. This review provides an update of the status of bacteriophage therapy for the treatment and prevention of infections in the aquatic environment. As it is still mostly in the scientific stage, there are a few constraints that may prevent effective therapy. Therefore, specific characteristics of bacteriophages, that can act in favor or against their successful use in treatment, were described. We underlined aspects that need to be considered: specificity of phages, bacterial resistance, safety, immune response of the host organism, formulation, administration and stability of phage preparations as well as bacteriophages' influence on the environment. The biggest challenge to overcome is finding the right balance between the desired and problematic characteristics of bacteriophages. Finally, regulatory approval challenges may be encountered by bacteriophage manufacturers. Even though there are still some technical constraints connected with the global use of bacteriophage therapy, it was concluded that it can be successfully applied in aquaculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9060301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7345527PMC
June 2020

The effects of radio-frequency radiation (RFR) exposure on the analgesic efficacy of morphine in healthy rats and rats with inflammation.

Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2019 Jul 3;32(4):465-474. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Warsaw, Poland (Department of Microwave Safety).

Objectives: The aim of this study, conducted at the Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology in Warsaw in 2017, was to evaluate the effects of a single (15 min) and repeated (5 times for 15 min) radio-frequency radiation (RFR) exposure of 1800 MHz frequency on the analgesic efficacy of morphine in healthy rats and rats with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced inflammation.

Material And Methods: Rats were injected intraperitoneally with morphine (MF) in the dose of 8 mg/kg or drug vehicle 15 min before RFR exposure. The authors used the plantar analgesia meter and the radiant heat paw-withdrawal test to assess the pain threshold.

Results: A single RFR exposure slightly influenced paw withdrawal latency (PWL) in healthy rats in the single exposure baseline group, and influenced PWL, 30 and 60 min after morphine or vehicle injection, in the repeated exposure group. There were differences between the sham-exposed groups (vehicle), 30, 60 and 90 min after injection, both in the single and repeated RFR-exposure groups. The antinociceptive effect of morphine in healthy rats was slightly decreased by RFR exposure at 60 and 90 min, both in the single and repeated exposure groups. The PWL was slightly decreased, both in the single and repeated exposure groups with inflammation (CFA and CFA/MF), at 30, 60 and 90 min, and PWL was increased in the sham-exposed groups (CFA and CFA/MF), both in the single and repeated exposure groups, at 30, 60 and 90 min. The antinociceptive effect of morphine in healthy rats was significantly increased by RFR exposure at 30 min after drug injection in the single exposure group, and increased at 30 and 60 min in the repeated exposure group.

Conclusions: The authors observed a minor influence of RFR exposure on the antinociceptive effects of morphine in healthy rats after repeated exposures and a statistically significant influence of repeated exposure on morphine mediated antinociceptive effects in the inflammation group. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(4):465-74.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13075/ijomeh.1896.01286DOI Listing
July 2019

Bacteriophage-based cocktail modulates selected immunological parameters and post-challenge survival of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

J Fish Dis 2019 Aug 27;42(8):1151-1160. Epub 2019 May 27.

Department of Microbiology and Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland.

Recently, a rapid increase in the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics admitted for use in aquaculture has been observed. This happens especially often in intensive breeding. The use of drugs in closed circuits is problematic because it can damage biological filters. Therefore, in recent years, there has been a growing interest in natural methods of combating pathogens. These include bacteriophages. The aim of the study was to determine the safety of the new BAFADOR bacteriophage-based preparation, its effect on selected immunological parameters and the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic use after experimental infections with pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The use of BAFADOR increased the activity of lysozyme, total protein level and immunoglobulin level. The level of ceruloplasmin in the rainbow trout serum remained unchanged regardless of the route of administration of the preparation. Potential killing activity and metabolic activity of spleen phagocytes and proliferation of pronephros lymphocytes were higher compared to the control group. Both therapeutic and prophylactic application of the preparation after mixed experimental infection of A. hydrophila and P. fluorescens limited the mortality of rainbow trout.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13026DOI Listing
August 2019

Cell cycle and transmembrane mitochondrial potential analysis after treatment with chromium(iii), iron(iii), molybdenum(iii) or nickel(ii) and their mixtures.

Toxicol Res (Camb) 2019 Mar 13;8(2):188-195. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Microbiology and Clinical Immunology , Faculty of Veterinary Medicine , University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn , Oczapowskiego 13 Str. , 10-957 Olsztyn , Poland . Email:

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chromium(iii), iron(iii), molybdenum(iii) and nickel(ii) and their combinations on the cell cycle and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) in BALB/3T3 and HepG2 cells. A statistically significant dose related decrease of the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 and S phases was observed. However, a statistically significant dose related increase of the percentage of cells in the G2/M phase after exposure to chromium(iii), nickel(ii) or molybdenum(iii) at 200-1000 μM concentrations in both cell lines was observed. Moreover, an increase of the percentage of cells in the subG1 phase was observed. In both cell lines a statistically significant dose related decrease of the percentage of cells in the G2/M phase after exposure to iron(iii) at 200-1000 μM concentrations was observed. However, a statistically significant dose related increase of the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase after exposure to iron(iii) at 200-1000 μM concentrations was observed. A concentration dependent statistically significant decrease in the level of the MTP was observed in both cell lines after exposure to chromium(iii), iron(iii), nickel(ii) and molybdenum(iii). The results obtained from both cell lines show that HepG2 cells are more sensitive when compared to BALB/3T3 cells. Additions of Cr(iii) at 200 μM plus Fe(iii) at 1000 μM showed a synergistic effect on the cell cycle and MTP. In the case of Cr(iii) at 200 μM plus Mo(iii) at 1000 μM, an antagonistic effect was observed in both analyses. In the case of Cr(iii) at 1000 μM plus Mo(iii), Ni(ii) and Fe(iii) at 200 μM, no changes in the percentage of cells in all phases were observed in both cell lines in both analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8tx00233aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6404159PMC
March 2019

In vitro immunomodulatory effect of nisin on porcine leucocytes.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2019 May 27;103(3):882-893. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Microbiology and Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland.

Nisin, a lantibiotic bacteriocin, has been used for years as a natural food preservative. In addition to its antimicrobial activity, nisin also shows immunomodulatory properties, and the nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis strain has been successfully tested as a probiotic in weaned piglets. However, the impact of nisin on porcine immune cells has not yet been explored. The objective of the present study was to examine the in vitro immunomodulatory effect of nisin on porcine peripheral blood leucocytes. The whole heparinized blood samples or freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were incubated with different nisin concentrations (0, 1.56, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25 or 50 µg/ml) for 1, 24, 48 or 72 hr. Escherichia coli bacteria were used to stimulate blood phagocytes, while concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide from E. coli were used as mitogens. Control cells remained unstimulated. MTT colorimetric assay was used to evaluate PBMCs viability and mitogenic response. Phagocyte activity and T-cell proliferation were measured by flow cytometry. Flow cytometer was also used for immunophenotyping of T cells. Cytokine levels in the culture media were determined using commercial immunoassay (ELISA) kits. The highest concentration of nisin exhibited proliferative activity (p ˂ 0.05), stimulated interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production (both at p ˂ 0.001), and increased the percentage of CD4 CD8 T cells (p ˂ 0.001) among unstimulated leucocytes. After cell stimulation, however, the highest nisin concentration showed antiproliferative activity (p ˂ 0.05), decreased phagocytic functions (p ˂ 0.05) and inhibited the synthesis of IL-6 (time- and concentration-dependent effect). As a typical bacterial product, nisin had a stronger impact on innate immune cells, and its effect on T cells was likely a consequence of the modulation of the activity of antigen-presenting cells. Nisin may be a good candidate as an immunomodulator in pig breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13085DOI Listing
May 2019

Immune-enhancing Activity of Potential Probiotic Strains of in the Common Carp () Fingerling.

J Vet Res 2018 Dec 31;62(4):485-492. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Fish Pathology and Immunology, Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland.

Introduction: Immune-potentiating functions of strains in the common carp were evaluated.

Material And Methods: Fourteen days of feeding fish dry diet supplemented with the bacteria provided parameters of nonspecific humoral immunity (lysozyme, ceruloplasmin, γ-globulin, total protein levels, and serum bactericidal activity) and cellular immunity (pinocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and potential killing activity of organ phagocytes), as well as the proliferative response of organ lymphocytes stimulated with mitogens. The resistance of fish to infection with was also determined.

Results: Dietary supplementation with had a substantial influence on the activity of organ phagocytes, especially the potential killing activity of head kidney cells. A significant increase in the proliferative activity of LPS-stimulated B lymphocytes and in the levels of γ-globulins and total protein was observed. The supplemented diet conveyed higher resistance than the control diet as the cumulative fish mortalities after infection with were 65% and 85%, respectively.

Conclusion: The results indicate that dietary supplementation with stimulates the antibacterial resistance of common carp and may reinforce defence against bacterial infections, but further studies need to be conducted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2018-0062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364158PMC
December 2018

Salmonid Alphavirus (SAV).

J Vet Res 2018 Mar 30;62(1):1-6. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Department of Fish Pathology and Immunology, Inland Fisheries Institute, 10-719, Olsztyn, Poland.

Salmonid alphavirus (SAV), genus , family , is a single-stranded RNA virus affecting Atlantic salmon () and rainbow trout (). It is known to be responsible for pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD) which are increasing problems, causing high fish mortality and economic losses in the European aquaculture industry. Pancreas disease was first described in Atlantic salmon in Scotland in 1976 and a similar disease caused by the closely related sleeping disease virus was first described in rainbow trout in France. There have also been reports of salmonid alphavirus infections from other European countries, including Ireland, England, Norway, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Salmonid alphaviruses have been classified into six subtypes (SAV1-6). SAV1 and SAV4-6 cause pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon in Ireland or Scotland, SAV2 is the causative agent of sleeping disease in rainbow trout, and SAV3 has been detected in Atlantic salmon in Norway. The aim of this paper was to summarise current knowledge of infections caused by salmonid alphavirus and diagnostic methods including the newest techniques, and to briefly describe prevention from SAV infections by vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2018-0001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5957455PMC
March 2018

The effect of 1800MHz radio-frequency radiation on NMDA receptor subunit NR1 expression and peroxidation in the rat brain in healthy and inflammatory states.

Biomed Pharmacother 2017 Aug 4;92:802-809. Epub 2017 Jun 4.

Department of Microwave Safety, Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Kozielska 4, 01-163, Warszawa, Poland.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated exposure (5 times for 15min) of 1800MHz radio-frequency radiation (RFR) on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 (NMDA-NR1) expression in the brains of rats in a persistent inflammatory state. We also measured the effect of RFR combined with tramadol (TRAM) to determine the potential antioxidant capacity of this agent.

Methods: The effects of the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) modulated 1800MHz RFR exposure on the expression and activity of glutamate receptor channels with antioxidative activity in brain tissue was measured using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and electron spin resonance (ESR) detection of the hydroxyl radical generated by the Fenton reaction. NMDA-NR1 was measured in the cerebral tissue of rats with inflammation (complete Freund's adjuvent) and those injected with tramadol after RFR exposure (RFR, RFR/TRAM) and in non-exposed (baseline, TRAM) rats.

Results: No differences between the baseline group and the exposed group (RFR) were observed. NMDA-NR1 expression decreased after CFA injection and RFR exposure, and an elevated expression of NMDA-NR1 was observed in healthy control rats of both groups: TRAM/RFR and RFR.

Conclusions: ORAC assessment revealed a robust effect of RFR, however the other experiments revealed equivocal effects. Further studies examining the combination of ORAC with NMDA are warranted to elucidate more clearly the effect of RFR on the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.05.133DOI Listing
August 2017

Synergistic Activity for Natural and Synthetic Inhibitors of Angiogenesis Induced by Murine Sarcoma L-1 and Human Kidney Cancer Cells.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2017;1020:91-104

Department of Immunology, Biochemistry and Nutrition, Warsaw Medical University, Oczki 3, 02-007, Warsaw, Poland.

Tumor angiogenesis is an important link in the process of tumor growth and metastasis. A number of substances with an anti-angiogenic activity has been described, but their efficiency remains low. Many researchers believe that a better therapeutic effect could be achieved using a cocktail of several anti-angiogenic agents, having different points of action. A lot of synthetic and natural products of plant and animal origin have anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of some combinations of angiogenesis inhibitors on the growth and neovascularization of murine sarcoma L-1 , and on angiogenesis induced in the mouse skin by grafting of human renal cancer. The influence of theobromine, sulindac and its metabolite sulindac sulfone, chlorogenic acid, and shark liver oil on the afferent and efferent angiogenesis pathways was tested. Individually, all of these substances suppressed tumor growth and angiogenesis. Synergy was found for a combination of theobromine, sulindac, and chlorogenic acid (L-1 sarcoma tumor growth), and for theobromine with sulindac sulfone or with shark liver oil, which were given to the mice grafted with human renal cancer cells (angiogenesis). No synergistic effects were shown after preincubation with tumor cells and inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2017_17DOI Listing
April 2019

Dietary resveratrol improves immunity but reduces reproduction of broodstock medaka Oryzias latipes (Temminck & Schlegel).

Fish Physiol Biochem 2017 Feb 18;43(1):27-37. Epub 2016 Jul 18.

Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-748, Olsztyn, Poland.

Here, we investigated the effect of dietary resveratrol (20, 40, and 80 µg/g BW/day) on cell-mediated immunity (activity of spleen phagocytes and proliferative response of lymphocytes) and reproductive parameters (egg and sperm quality, i.e. fecundity-total number of eggs produced by individual fish, fertility, embryo survival, and hatching rate) in medaka. Fish fed feed with resveratrol at 40 and 80 µg/g BW/day had significantly higher metabolic activity and intracellular phagocyte killing activity than control. The proliferative lymphocyte activity of the fish from R80 group was greater by more than 20 % in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05). The percentage of macrophages (MO) and their mean fluorescence intensities (MFI) in R40 and R80 groups were significantly higher compared to C and R20 groups (P < 0.05). The differences in MO and MFI values ranged from 52.5 % (±1.5; R0 group) to 65.8 % (±1.6; R80 group) and from 23.2 (±1.4; R0 group) to 38.2 (±2.4; R80 group), respectively. Moreover, resveratrol at 80 µg/g BW/day decreased liver COX activity, i.e. 5.4 in R80 group and 7.9 in R0 group (P < 0.05). The motility parameters of the sperm obtained from the males fed feed supplemented with resveratrol at 80 µg/g BW/day exhibited the highest values except the linearity, which was lower as compared to the control (P < 0.05). The results indicate that diet supplemented with resveratrol at a dosage of 40 µg/g BW/day improves phagocyte killing ability and lymphocyte proliferation in broodstock and accelerates offspring hatch. Also, the results suggest that COX activity influences sperm and oocyte quality in fish; the presence of a COX inhibitor in the dose of 40 µg/g BW/day decreased the embryo survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-016-0265-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5306266PMC
February 2017

The effect of kynurenic acid on the synthesis of selected cytokines by murine splenocytes - in vitro and ex vivo studies.

Cent Eur J Immunol 2016 24;41(1):39-46. Epub 2016 Mar 24.

Department of Microbiology and Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland.

Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a secondary product of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, known mainly as an endogenous neuroprotectant, shows also immunotropic properties. Some quantities of KYNA are present in food and are effectively absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Since the spleen is an important target of dietary immunomodulators, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of exogenous KYNA on murine splenocytes. Splenocytes isolated from adult BALB/c mice were used in the study. Firstly, the effect of increasing KYNA concentrations (0-5 mM) on the viability, and proliferative and cytokine response (interleukin 1β [IL-1β], IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]) of murine splenocytes under in vitro conditions was determined. Then, proliferative and cytokine responses were determined in cells derived from animals receiving kynurenic acid in drinking water at concentrations of 2.5, 25, or 250 mg/l for 7-14 days. Cytokine levels were measured using commercial immunoassay (ELISA) kits, and cell viability and proliferation was determined with MTT reduction assay. Exogenous KYNA was characterised by a low level of cytotoxicity towards murine splenocytes, and was well tolerated by the animals receiving it in drinking water. As expected, it exhibited anti-inflammatory action towards the activated splenocytes, under both in vitro and ex vivo conditions. Surprisingly, however, KYNA itself influenced the activity of resting, non-stimulated cells, exerting an immunostimulant effect in vitro, and an immunosuppressive effect under ex vivo conditions. The obtained results indicate not only anti-inflammatory, but also more complex, immunomodulating properties of KYNA, which require more detailed investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceji.2016.58815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4829820PMC
April 2016

Selected aspects of the action of cobalt ions in the human body.

Cent Eur J Immunol 2015 3;40(2):236-42. Epub 2015 Aug 3.

Department of Microbiology and Clinical Immunology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland.

Cobalt is widespread in the natural environment and can be formed as an effect of anthropogenic activity. This element is used in numerous industrial applications and nuclear power plants. Cobalt is an essential trace element for the human body and can occur in organic and inorganic forms. The organic form is a necessary component of vitamin B12 and plays a very important role in forming amino acids and some proteins in nerve cells, and in creating neurotransmitters that are indispensable for correct functioning of the organism. Its excess or deficiency will influence it unfavourably. Salts of cobalt have been applied in medicine in the treatment of anaemia, as well as in sport as an attractive alternative to traditional blood doping. Inorganic forms of cobalt present in ion form, are toxic to the human body, and the longer they are stored in the body, the more changes they cause in cells. Cobalt gets into the body in several ways: firstly, with food; secondly by the respiratory system; thirdly, by the skin; and finally, as a component of biomaterials. Cobalt and its alloys are fundamental components in orthopaedic implants and have been used for about 40 years. The corrosion of metal is the main problem in the construction of implants. These released metal ions may cause type IV inflammatory and hypersensitivity reactions, and alternations in bone modelling that lead to aseptic loosening and implant failure. The ions of cobalt released from the surface of the implant are absorbed by present macrophages, which are involved in many of the processes associated with phagocytose orthopaedic biomaterials particles and release pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and prostaglandin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceji.2015.52837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4637398PMC
November 2015

Influence of nematode Anguillicoloides crassus infestation on the cellular and humoral innate immunity in European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.).

Cent Eur J Immunol 2015 3;40(2):127-31. Epub 2015 Aug 3.

Department of Fish Pathology and Immunology, The Stanislaw Sakowicz IFI in Olsztyn, Poland.

Parasitic invasions are recognized as one of the primary factors responsible for decreasing populations of European eel. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of infestation with the nematode Anguillicoloides crassus on the innate immunity in European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Anguillicoloides crassus parasitizes the swim bladder of this fish. Levels of the following immunological parameters were measured: spleen phagocyte respiratory burst activity, spleen phagocyte potential killing activity, pronephros lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by concanavaline A or lipopolisaccharide, plasma lysozyme and ceruloplasmin activity, total protein and immunoglobulin (Ig) serum levels. The analyses of the results of humoral and cellular immunity indicate that all studied parameters were statistically significant higher (p < 0.05) in non-infested fish compared to the ones with anguillicolosis except for ceruloplasmin level. These data suggest that the A. crassus infestation in European eel is responsible for a decreased immune response what could result in higher susceptibility to other pathogenic conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceji.2015.52824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4637385PMC
November 2015

Influence of β-glucan Leiber(®)Beta-S on selected innate immunity parameters of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in an intensive farming system.

Cent Eur J Immunol 2015 22;40(1):5-10. Epub 2015 Apr 22.

Department of Microbiology and Clinical Immunology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland.

Nutritional support plays an important role in promoting high cellular and humoral innate immunity activity and in preventing outbreaks of disease. The effects of β-glucan Leiber(®)Beta-S dietary supplementation on selected nonspecific immune parameters in juvenile European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in an intensive culture system were studied. The fish were fed commercial pellets containing either 0 (control group) or 200 mg Leiber(®)Beta-S kg-1 of feed (glucan-fed group). After four and eight weeks of feeding, the levels of the following immunological parameters were measured: phagocyte respiratory burst activity, phagocyte potential killing activity, lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by concanavaline A or lipopolysaccharide, serum lysozyme activity, and total immunoglobulin (Ig) serum levels. After four and eight weeks of feeding 200 mg Leiber(®)Beta-S kg feed-1 the levels of all immune parameters were statistically significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the glucan-treated group than in the control group. After eight weeks of feeding the fish 200 mg Leiber(®)Beta-S kg feed-1 and after an additional eight weeks in ponds, the levels of all immune parameters, excluding lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by concanavaline A, were statistically significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the glucan-fed group than in the control group. These data suggest that feeding juvenile eel Leiber(®)Beta-S for four and eight weeks might improve innate immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceji.2015.50826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4472534PMC
July 2015

On the toxicity of kynurenic acid in vivo and in vitro.

Pharmacol Rep 2014 Dec 8;66(6):1127-33. Epub 2014 Aug 8.

Department of Microbiology and Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland.

Background: Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a tryptophan metabolite is an antagonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors and alpha-7 nicotinic receptor. Moreover, it is an agonist of G-protein receptor GPR35. Its neuroprotective, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity was documented. KYNA is present in food and herbal medicines. However, the data on effects induced by a long-lasting treatment with KYNA is lacking. The aim of the study was the assessment of toxicity of a prolonged administration of KYNA in rodents. The cytotoxicity of KYNA in vitro was also examined.

Methods: Adult mice and rats were used. KYNA was administered in the drinking water in concentrations of 25 or 250mg/L for 3-21 days. The following cells were cultured in an in vitro study: mouse fibroblast (NIH/3T3), green monkey kidney cells and primary chick embryo cells (CECC). Cell viability was determined with methyl thiazol tetrazolium reduction assay, neutral red uptake assay and lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay.

Results: KYNA affected neither body gain nor body composition. Blood counts were also unaffected. The viability of cells in the culture was lowered at high millimolar concentrations of KYNA. An elevated viability of GMK and CECC cells was detected in the presence of KYNA in micromolar concentrations.

Conclusions: The obtained results showed that a long-term application of KYNA in the drinking water is well-tolerated by rodents. No evidence of a toxic response was recorded. Achieved results indicate that diets containing a high amount of KYNA or enriched with KYNA should not cause any risk to the human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2014.07.013DOI Listing
December 2014

The innate immunity of wild Eurasian beaver from Poland - present knowledge and the need for research.

Cent Eur J Immunol 2014 15;39(4):485-7. Epub 2014 Dec 15.

Department of Microbiology and Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland.

For the first time we tried to examine the basic parameters of innate immunity in beavers for developing the new methods of prevention against infectious diseases in different reintroduction and translocation programmes in Poland. The aim of the present study was to determine the selected innate immunity parameters in Eurasian beavers living in natural conditions. The analyses of the results showed that the phagocytic ability (RBA) and potential killing activity (PKA) of blood phagocytes were higher in adult beavers compared to the young animals. The similar pattern was observed in proliferative response of blood lymphocytes stimulated by mitogens Concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The highest proliferative response in adult Eurasian beavers was observed. The ceruloplasmin activity in plasma was on similar levels in adult and young Eurasian beavers. The results of humoral mediated immunity showed that the lysozyme activity, total protein and gamma-globulin levels in serum were higher in adult beavers compared to the young beavers. The results of this preliminary study are important in comparative and clinical immunology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceji.2014.47733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4439960PMC
July 2015

The Effect of Various Probiotic Strains or Avilamycin Feed Additive on Immune Defense Markers and Acute-Phase Response to Salmonella Infection in Chickens.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2010 Oct;2(3):175-85

CHUM l'Hôtel-Dieu, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, 3830 rue St. Urbain, Pav. Jeanne Mance, Rm. 7-134, Montreal, QC, H2W 1T8, Canada.

Probiotics are a nutritional tool for disease prevention. It has been proposed that stimulation of immune response could affect the growth-promoting properties of antimicrobial growth promoters as well as the control of foodborne pathogens. The current study compares immune response in the blood of 280 non-infected and Salmonella-infected chickens fed either with the growth promoter avilamycin or with one of five probiotic strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, which also showed growth-promoting properties. All of the probiotic strains stimulated superoxide anion production and the proliferation of leukocytes, while raising lysozyme and γ-globulin levels (by up to 65%, p < 0.01), which are important factors in native and cell-mediated immune defense against pathogens. In contrast, among the two strains examined, specific Salmonella antibodies were induced only by L. salivarius, and not by B. animalis, as assessed by the ELISA method and confirmed by an agglutination reaction (p < 0.05). In the avilamycin-fed group, both non-infected and infected chickens showed decreased levels of these immune markers (by 30%) and increased levels of ceruloplasmin by up to 35%. In contrast, the probiotics suppressed acute-phase response assessed by ceruloplasmin by up to 32%. This correlation implies that various antimicrobial feed additives have a distinct effect on immunomodulation, which may affect different mechanisms in the nutrition-related metabolism associated with the rate of weight gain in chickens. The data could contribute to the design of innovative antimicrobial feed additives in the food industry and consequently to well-being of humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-010-9054-3DOI Listing
October 2010

Influence of deltamethrin on nonspecific cellular and humoral defense mechanisms in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Environ Toxicol Chem 2010 Mar;29(3):489-91

Department of Infection Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn-Kortowo II, Poland.

The influence of deltamethrin on the innate immunity in rainbow trout was examined. Fish were immersed in deltamethrin at doses of 1, 2, and 4 microg/L for 30 min. The results showed that deltamethrin at doses of 2 and 4 microg/L decreased phagocytic activity of spleen macrophages and proliferative response of pronephros lymphocytes at days 1, 2, and 5 after immersion. Deltamethrin at these doses decreased the lysozyme activity, total protein, and immunoglobulin levels in serum. The greatest immunosuppressive influence of deltamethrin at dose 4 microg/L was observed at the end of the study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.75DOI Listing
March 2010

Resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 is influenced by major histocompatibility (MH) class II B gene polymorphism.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2009 May 27;26(5):737-43. Epub 2009 Mar 27.

Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ichthyobiology & Aquaculture in Gołysz, Zaborze, Chybie, Poland.

The role of MH class II B (Cyca-DAB1-like) genes in resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3), also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV) was analysed. The material consisted of 934 fish from six carp crosses. Fish were challenged with CyHV-3 at an age of 7 and 10 months. During challenge experiments the peak of mortality caused by CyHV-3 was observed at days 8-12 p.i. and the overall cumulative mortality reached 79.9%. Among six Cyca-DAB1-like genotypes, revealed by PCR-RF-SSCP analysis, one genotype (E) was found associated with higher resistance to CyHV-3. Three other genotypes (B, H and J) could be linked to higher susceptibility to CyHV-3. Analysis of the alleles that compose the Cyca-DAB1-like genotypes linked one particular allele (Cyca-DAB1*05) to significantly increased, and two alleles (Cyca-DAB1*02 and Cyca-DAB1*06) to significantly decreased resistance to CyHV-3. Our data indicate that MH class II B genes could be used as potential genetic markers in breeding of common carp for resistance to this virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2009.03.001DOI Listing
May 2009

The immunomodulatory effects of the dimer of lysozyme (KLP-602) in carp (Cyprinus carpio L)--in vivo study.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2005 May;61(1):121-7

Department of Physiology and Toxicology, Catholic University of Lublin, 14 Al. Racławickie Str., 20-950 Lubin, Poland.

The dimer of lysozyme was administered to carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in an attempt to reduce the suppression of response in fish exposed to the cypermethrin. Experimental studies were carried out on cells isolated from blood and pronephros of carp. In the in vivo studies fish were intoxicated with cypermethrin (synthetic pesticide) at a dose of LD5. After 24 h fish were injected intraperitoneally with a modulator-the dimer of lysozyme (KLP-602) at a dose of 0.02 mg/kg of body weight. In the study we determined the metabolic activity of phagocyte cells and the proliferative ability of lymphocytes stimulated by ConA and LPS. The results indicate that this modulator is useful for stimulation of cellular and humoral immunity after experimentally induced suppression by selected pesticide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2004.07.005DOI Listing
May 2005

The influence of nonspecific immunostimulation of pregnant sows on the immunological value of colostrum.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2002 Aug;87(1-2):89-95

Department and Clinic of Animal Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agriculture Gleboka 30, 20-612 Lublin, Poland.

The purpose of this experiment was to estimate the influence of nonspecific immunostimulation of pregnant sows on the immunological value of colostrum. The studies were done in the fall-winter season on 20 pregnant sows (Polish Landrace) divided into four groups, five animals each. The sows were clinically healthy and unvaccinated. Group I received isoprinosine, group II (TFX), group III (HMB), and group IV served a control. The immunostimulants were applicated 4-6 weeks before the expected date of delivery. The following parameters were determined in colostrum taken from sows after completed delivery: specific gravidity; total proteins, lysozyme activity, IgG level. It was found that the nonspecific immunostimulation of pregnant sows increased in colostrum the level of IgG, total protein content and lysozyme activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0165-2427(02)00004-1DOI Listing
August 2002