Publications by authors named "Andrew Wighton"

3 Publications

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Effects of dexmedetomidine and propofol on patient-ventilator interaction in difficult-to-wean, mechanically ventilated patients: a prospective, open-label, randomised, multicentre study.

Crit Care 2016 Jul 2;20(1):206. Epub 2016 Jul 2.

Department of Intensive Care and Anaesthesia, Catholic University of Rome, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Largo F. Vito 1, Rome, 00168, Italy.

Background: Dexmedetomidine can be used for sedation of mechanically ventilated patients and has minor respiratory effects. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of patient-ventilator dyssynchronies during sedation with dexmedetomidine or propofol.

Methods: We conducted a multicentre, prospective, open-label, randomised clinical trial, comparing dexmedetomidine with standard propofol sedation at three intensive care units of university hospitals in Italy. Twenty difficult-to-wean patients for whom the first weaning trial had failed and who were on pressure support ventilation were randomised to receive sedation with either dexmedetomidine or propofol at a similar level of sedation (Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale [RASS] score +1 to -2). The asynchrony index (AI) was calculated using tracings of airflow, airway pressure and electrical activity of the diaphragm sampled at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h.

Results: The mean AI was lower with dexmedetomidine than with propofol from 2 h onwards, although the two groups significantly differed only at 12 h (2.68 % vs 9.10 %, p < 0.05). No further difference was observed at 18 and 24 h.

Conclusions: When sedation with propofol and dexmedetomidine was compared at similar RASS scores of patients in whom first weaning trial had failed, the AI was lower with dexmedetomidine than with propofol, and this difference was statistically significant at 12 h. These results suggest that sedation with dexmedetomidine may offer some advantages in terms of patient-ventilator synchrony.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-016-1386-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4930611PMC
July 2016

Population pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine in critically ill patients.

Clin Drug Investig 2013 Aug;33(8):579-87

Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, PO Box 1624, 70211, Kuopio, Finland.

Background And Objectives: Although the pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine in healthy volunteers have been studied, there are limited data about the pharmacokinetics of long-term administration of dexmedetomidine in critically ill patients.

Methods: This population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed to quantify the pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine in critically ill patients following infusions up to 14 days in duration. The data consisted of three phase III studies (527 patients with sparse blood sampling, for a total of 2,144 samples). Covariates were included in a full random-effects covariate model and the most important covariate relationships were tested separately. The linearity of dexmedetomidine clearance was evaluated by observing steady-state plasma concentrations acquired at various infusion rates.

Results: The data were adequately described with a one-compartment model. The clearance of dexmedetomidine was 39 (95 % CI 37-41) L/h and volume of distribution 104 (95 % CI 93-115) L. Both clearance and volume of distribution were highly variable between patients (coefficients of variation of 62 and 57 %, respectively), which highlights the importance of dose titration by response. Covariate analysis showed a strong correlation between body weight and clearance of dexmedetomidine. The clearance of dexmedetomidine was constant in the dose range 0.2-1.4 μg/kg/h.

Conclusions: The pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine are dose-proportional in prolonged infusions when dosing rates of 0.2-1.4 μg/kg/h, recommended by the Dexdor(®) summary of product characteristics, are used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40261-013-0101-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3717151PMC
August 2013

Pharmacokinetics of prolonged infusion of high-dose dexmedetomidine in critically ill patients.

Crit Care 2011 26;15(5):R257. Epub 2011 Oct 26.

Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care, Emergency Care and Pain Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, PO Box 52, FI-20521 Turku, Finland.

Introduction: Only limited information exists on the pharmacokinetics of prolonged (> 24 hours) and high-dose dexmedetomidine infusions in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of long dexmedetomidine infusions and to assess the dose linearity of high doses. Additionally, we wanted to quantify for the first time in humans the concentrations of H-3, a practically inactive metabolite of dexmedetomidine.

Methods: Thirteen intensive care patients with mean age of 57 years and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II score of 45 were included in the study. Dexmedetomidine infusion was commenced by using a constant infusion rate for the first 12 hours. After the first 12 hours, the infusion rate of dexmedetomidine was titrated between 0.1 and 2.5 μg/kg/h by using predefined dose levels to maintain sedation in the range of 0 to -3 on the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale. Dexmedetomidine was continued as long as required to a maximum of 14 days. Plasma dexmedetomidine and H-3 metabolite concentrations were measured, and pharmacokinetic variables were calculated with standard noncompartmental methods. Safety and tolerability were assessed by adverse events, cardiovascular signs, and laboratory tests.

Results: The following geometric mean values (coefficient of variation) were calculated: length of infusion, 92 hours (117%); dexmedetomidine clearance, 39.7 L/h (41%); elimination half-life, 3.7 hours (38%); and volume of distribution during the elimination phase, 223 L (35%). Altogether, 116 steady-state concentrations were found in 12 subjects. The geometric mean value for clearance at steady state was 53.1 L/h (55%). A statistically significant linear relation (r2 = 0.95; P < 0.001) was found between the areas under the dexmedetomidine plasma concentration-time curves and cumulative doses of dexmedetomidine. The elimination half-life of H-3 was 9.1 hours (37%). The ratio of AUC0-∞ of H-3 metabolite to that of dexmedetomidine was 1.47 (105%), ranging from 0.29 to 4.4. The ratio was not statistically significantly related to the total dose of dexmedetomidine or the duration of the infusion.

Conclusions: The results suggest linear pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine up to the dose of 2.5 μg/kg/h. Despite the high dose and prolonged infusions, safety findings were as expected for dexmedetomidine and the patient population.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00747721.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/cc10518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3334808PMC
August 2012