Publications by authors named "Andrew R Wood"

122 Publications

Genetic insights into biological mechanisms governing human ovarian ageing.

Nature 2021 08 4;596(7872):393-397. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Genome Integrity and Instability Group, Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

Reproductive longevity is essential for fertility and influences healthy ageing in women, but insights into its underlying biological mechanisms and treatments to preserve it are limited. Here we identify 290 genetic determinants of ovarian ageing, assessed using normal variation in age at natural menopause (ANM) in about 200,000 women of European ancestry. These common alleles were associated with clinical extremes of ANM; women in the top 1% of genetic susceptibility have an equivalent risk of premature ovarian insufficiency to those carrying monogenic FMR1 premutations. The identified loci implicate a broad range of DNA damage response (DDR) processes and include loss-of-function variants in key DDR-associated genes. Integration with experimental models demonstrates that these DDR processes act across the life-course to shape the ovarian reserve and its rate of depletion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that experimental manipulation of DDR pathways highlighted by human genetics increases fertility and extends reproductive life in mice. Causal inference analyses using the identified genetic variants indicate that extending reproductive life in women improves bone health and reduces risk of type 2 diabetes, but increases the risk of hormone-sensitive cancers. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms that govern ovarian ageing, when they act, and how they might be targeted by therapeutic approaches to extend fertility and prevent disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03779-7DOI Listing
August 2021

Higher adiposity and mental health: Causal inference using Mendelian randomisation.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Genetics of Complex Traits, The College of Medicine and Health, University of Exeter, The RILD Building, RD&E Hospital, Exeter, EX2 5DW.

Higher adiposity is an established risk factor for psychiatric diseases including depression and anxiety. The associations between adiposity and depression may be explained by the metabolic consequences and/or by the psychosocial impact of higher adiposity. We performed one- and two- sample Mendelian Randomisation(MR) in up to 145 668 European participants from the UK Biobank to test for a causal effect of higher adiposity on ten well-validated mental health and wellbeing outcomes derived using the Mental Health Questionnaire (MHQ). We used three sets of adiposity genetic instruments: a) a set of 72 BMI genetic variants, b) a set of 36 favourable adiposity variants and c) a set of 38 unfavourable adiposity variants. We additionally tested causal relationships (1) in men and women separately, (2) in a subset of individuals not taking antidepressants and (3) in non-linear MR models. Two-sample MR provided evidence that a genetically determined one standard deviation (1-SD) higher BMI (4.6 kg/m2) was associated with higher odds of current depression [OR: 1.50, 95%CI: 1.15, 1.95] and lower wellbeing [ß: -0.15, 95%CI: -0.26, -0.04]. Findings were similar when using the metabolically favourable and unfavourable adiposity variants, with higher adiposity associated with higher odds of depression and lower wellbeing scores. Our study provides further evidence that higher BMI causes higher odds of depression and lowers wellbeing. Using genetics to separate out metabolic and psychosocial effects, our study suggests that in the absence of adverse metabolic effects higher adiposity remains causal to depression and lowers wellbeing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab204DOI Listing
July 2021

A genome-wide association study identifies 5 loci associated with frozen shoulder and implicates diabetes as a causal risk factor.

PLoS Genet 2021 Jun 10;17(6):e1009577. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Shoulder Unit, Princess Elizabeth Orthopaedic Centre, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Exeter, United Kingdom.

Frozen shoulder is a painful condition that often requires surgery and affects up to 5% of individuals aged 40-60 years. Little is known about the causes of the condition, but diabetes is a strong risk factor. To begin to understand the biological mechanisms involved, we aimed to identify genetic variants associated with frozen shoulder and to use Mendelian randomization to test the causal role of diabetes. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of frozen shoulder in the UK Biobank using data from 10,104 cases identified from inpatient, surgical and primary care codes. We used data from FinnGen for replication and meta-analysis. We used one-sample and two-sample Mendelian randomization approaches to test for a causal association of diabetes with frozen shoulder. We identified five genome-wide significant loci. The most significant locus (lead SNP rs28971325; OR = 1.20, [95% CI: 1.16-1.24], p = 5x10-29) contained WNT7B. This variant was also associated with Dupuytren's disease (OR = 2.31 [2.24, 2.39], p<1x10-300) as were a further two of the frozen shoulder associated variants. The Mendelian randomization results provided evidence that type 1 diabetes is a causal risk factor for frozen shoulder (OR = 1.03 [1.02-1.05], p = 3x10-6). There was no evidence that obesity was causally associated with frozen shoulder, suggesting that diabetes influences risk of the condition through glycemic rather than mechanical effects. We have identified genetic loci associated with frozen shoulder. There is a large overlap with Dupuytren's disease associated loci. Diabetes is a likely causal risk factor. Our results provide evidence of biological mechanisms involved in this common painful condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191964PMC
June 2021

Understanding Factors That Cause Tinnitus: A Mendelian Randomization Study in the UK Biobank.

Ear Hear 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust, Barrack Road, Exeter, United Kingdom Genetics of Complex Traits, University of Exeter Medical School, RILD building, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Exeter, United Kingdom Torbay and South Devon NHS Foundation Trust, Newton Road, Torquay, United Kingdom.

Objectives: To investigate the causal role of established risk factors and associated conditions to tinnitus and tinnitus severity in the UK Biobank.

Design: The prospective cohort study with large dataset of >500,000 individuals. The analytical sample of 129,731 individuals in the UK Biobank of European descent. Participants were recruited from National Health Service registries, baseline age range between 37 and 73 years, response rate to baseline survey 6%. Participants were asked subjective questions about tinnitus and its severity. Previously observed associations (n = 23) were confirmed in the UK Biobank using logistic and ordinal regression models. Two-sample Mendelian randomization approaches were then used to test causal relationships between the 23 predictors and tinnitus and tinnitus severity. The main outcome measures were observational and genetic association between key demographics and determinants and two tinnitus outcomes (current tinnitus and tinnitus severity).

Results: Prevalence of tinnitus was 20% and severe tinnitus 3.8%. The observational results are consistent with the previous literature, with hearing loss, older age, male gender, high BMI, higher deprivation, higher blood pressure, smoking history, as well as numerous comorbidities being associated with higher odds of current tinnitus. Mendelian randomization results showed causal correlations with tinnitus. Current tinnitus was predicted by genetically instrumented hearing loss (odds ratio [OR]: 8.65 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.12 to 12.23]), major depression (OR: 1.26 [95% CI: 1.06 to 1.50]), neuroticism (OR: 1.48 [95% CI: 1.28 to 1.71]), and higher systolic blood pressure (OR: 1.01 [95% CI:1.00 to 1.02]). Lower odds of tinnitus were associated with longer duration in education (OR: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.63 to 0.88]), higher caffeine intake (OR: 0.89 [95% CI: 0.83 to 0.95]) and being a morning person (OR: 0.94 [95% CI: 0.90 to 0.98]). Tinnitus severity was predicted by a higher genetic liability to neuroticism (OR: 1.15 [95% CI: 1.06 to 1.26]) and schizophrenia (OR: 1.02 [95% CI: 1.00 to 1.04]).

Conclusions: Tinnitus data from the UK Biobank confirm established associated factors in the literature. Genetic analysis determined causal relationships with several factors that expand the understanding of the etiology of tinnitus and can direct future pathways of clinical care and research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AUD.0000000000001074DOI Listing
June 2021

Using Mendelian Randomisation methods to understand whether diurnal preference is causally related to mental health.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Genetics of Complex Traits, The College of Medicine and Health, University of Exeter, The RILD Building, RD&E Hospital, Exeter, UK.

Late diurnal preference has been linked to poorer mental health outcomes, but the understanding of the causal role of diurnal preference on mental health and wellbeing is currently limited. Late diurnal preference is often associated with circadian misalignment (a mismatch between the timing of the endogenous circadian system and behavioural rhythms), so that evening people live more frequently against their internal clock. This study aims to quantify the causal contribution of diurnal preference on mental health outcomes, including anxiety, depression and general wellbeing and test the hypothesis that more misaligned individuals have poorer mental health and wellbeing using an actigraphy-based measure of circadian misalignment. Multiple Mendelian Randomisation (MR) approaches were used to test causal pathways between diurnal preference and seven well-validated mental health and wellbeing outcomes in up to 451,025 individuals. In addition, observational analyses tested the association between a novel, objective measure of behavioural misalignment (Composite Phase Deviation, CPD) and seven mental health and wellbeing outcomes. Using genetic instruments identified in the largest GWAS for diurnal preference, we provide robust evidence that early diurnal preference is protective for depression and improves wellbeing. For example, using one-sample MR, a twofold higher genetic liability of morningness was associated with lower odds of depressive symptoms (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.97). It is possible that behavioural factors including circadian misalignment may contribute in the chronotype depression relationship, but further work is needed to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01157-3DOI Listing
June 2021

A 3D Renal Proximal Tubule on Chip Model Phenocopies Lowe Syndrome and Dent II Disease Tubulopathy.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 19;22(10). Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Biomedical Science, Centre of Membrane Interactions and Dynamics, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK.

Lowe syndrome and Dent II disease are X-linked monogenetic diseases characterised by a renal reabsorption defect in the proximal tubules and caused by mutations in the OCRL gene, which codes for an inositol-5-phosphatase. The life expectancy of patients suffering from Lowe syndrome is largely reduced because of the development of chronic kidney disease and related complications. There is a need for physiological human in vitro models for Lowe syndrome/Dent II disease to study the underpinning disease mechanisms and to identify and characterise potential drugs and drug targets. Here, we describe a proximal tubule organ on chip model combining a 3D tubule architecture with fluid flow shear stress that phenocopies hallmarks of Lowe syndrome/Dent II disease. We demonstrate the high suitability of our in vitro model for drug target validation. Furthermore, using this model, we demonstrate that proximal tubule cells lacking OCRL expression upregulate markers typical for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including the transcription factor SNAI2/Slug, and show increased collagen expression and deposition, which potentially contributes to interstitial fibrosis and disease progression as observed in Lowe syndrome and Dent II disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161077PMC
May 2021

The trans-ancestral genomic architecture of glycemic traits.

Nat Genet 2021 06 31;53(6):840-860. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Glycemic traits are used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic health. To date, most genetic studies of glycemic traits have focused on individuals of European ancestry. Here we aggregated genome-wide association studies comprising up to 281,416 individuals without diabetes (30% non-European ancestry) for whom fasting glucose, 2-h glucose after an oral glucose challenge, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin data were available. Trans-ancestry and single-ancestry meta-analyses identified 242 loci (99 novel; P < 5 × 10), 80% of which had no significant evidence of between-ancestry heterogeneity. Analyses restricted to individuals of European ancestry with equivalent sample size would have led to 24 fewer new loci. Compared with single-ancestry analyses, equivalent-sized trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the number of estimated variants in 99% credible sets by a median of 37.5%. Genomic-feature, gene-expression and gene-set analyses revealed distinct biological signatures for each trait, highlighting different underlying biological pathways. Our results increase our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology by using trans-ancestry studies for improved power and resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00852-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610958PMC
June 2021

Genetic Evidence for Different Adiposity Phenotypes and Their Opposing Influences on Ectopic Fat and Risk of Cardiometabolic Disease.

Diabetes 2021 08 12;70(8):1843-1856. Epub 2021 May 12.

Genetics of Complex Traits, University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital, Exeter, U.K.

To understand the causal role of adiposity and ectopic fat in type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic diseases, we aimed to identify two clusters of adiposity genetic variants: one with "adverse" metabolic effects (UFA) and the other with, paradoxically, "favorable" metabolic effects (FA). We performed a multivariate genome-wide association study using body fat percentage and metabolic biomarkers from UK Biobank and identified 38 UFA and 36 FA variants. Adiposity-increasing alleles were associated with an adverse metabolic profile, higher risk of disease, higher CRP, and higher fat in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, liver, and pancreas for UFA and a favorable metabolic profile, lower risk of disease, higher CRP and higher subcutaneous adipose tissue but lower liver fat for FA. We detected no sexual dimorphism. The Mendelian randomization studies provided evidence for a risk-increasing effect of UFA and protective effect of FA for type 2 diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and polycystic ovary syndrome. FA is distinct from UFA by its association with lower liver fat and protection from cardiometabolic diseases; it was not associated with visceral or pancreatic fat. Understanding the difference in FA and UFA may lead to new insights in preventing, predicting, and treating cardiometabolic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db21-0129DOI Listing
August 2021

Genetic determinants of daytime napping and effects on cardiometabolic health.

Nat Commun 2021 02 10;12(1):900. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Center for Genomic Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Daytime napping is a common, heritable behavior, but its genetic basis and causal relationship with cardiometabolic health remain unclear. Here, we perform a genome-wide association study of self-reported daytime napping in the UK Biobank (n = 452,633) and identify 123 loci of which 61 replicate in the 23andMe research cohort (n = 541,333). Findings include missense variants in established drug targets for sleep disorders (HCRTR1, HCRTR2), genes with roles in arousal (TRPC6, PNOC), and genes suggesting an obesity-hypersomnolence pathway (PNOC, PATJ). Association signals are concordant with accelerometer-measured daytime inactivity duration and 33 loci colocalize with loci for other sleep phenotypes. Cluster analysis identifies three distinct clusters of nap-promoting mechanisms with heterogeneous associations with cardiometabolic outcomes. Mendelian randomization shows potential causal links between more frequent daytime napping and higher blood pressure and waist circumference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20585-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876146PMC
February 2021

Genetic predictors of participation in optional components of UK Biobank.

Nat Commun 2021 02 9;12(1):886. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit at the University of Bristol, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Large studies such as UK Biobank are increasingly used for GWAS and Mendelian randomization (MR) studies. However, selection into and dropout from studies may bias genetic and phenotypic associations. We examine genetic factors affecting participation in four optional components in up to 451,306 UK Biobank participants. We used GWAS to identify genetic variants associated with participation, MR to estimate effects of phenotypes on participation, and genetic correlations to compare participation bias across different studies. 32 variants were associated with participation in one of the optional components (P < 6 × 10), including loci with links to intelligence and Alzheimer's disease. Genetic correlations demonstrated that participation bias was common across studies. MR showed that longer educational duration, older menarche and taller stature increased participation, whilst higher levels of adiposity, dyslipidaemia, neuroticism, Alzheimer's and schizophrenia reduced participation. Our effect estimates can be used for sensitivity analysis to account for selective participation biases in genetic or non-genetic analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21073-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873270PMC
February 2021

Genetically defined favourable adiposity is not associated with a clinically meaningful difference in clinical course in people with type 2 diabetes but does associate with a favourable metabolic profile.

Diabet Med 2021 Sep 11;38(9):e14531. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Genetics of Complex Traits, University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, RILD Level 3, Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital, Exeter, UK.

Aims: Change in weight, HbA , lipids, blood pressure and cardiometabolic events over time is variable in individuals with type 2 diabetes. We hypothesised that people with a genetic predisposition to a more favourable adiposity distribution could have a less severe clinical course/progression.

Methods: We involved people with type 2 diabetes from two UK-based cohorts: 11,914 individuals with GP follow-up data from the UK Biobank and 723 from Salford. We generated a 'favourable adiposity' genetic score and conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal studies to test its association with weight, BMI, lipids, blood pressure, medication use and risk of myocardial infarction and stroke using 15 follow-up time points with 1-year intervals.

Results: The 'favourable adiposity' genetic score was cross-sectionally associated with higher weight (effect size per 1 standard deviation higher genetic score: 0.91 kg [0.59,1.23]) and BMI (0.30 kg/m [0.19,0.40]), but higher high-density lipoprotein (0.02 mmol/L [0.01,0.02]) and lower triglycerides (-0.04 mmol/L [-0.07, -0.02]) in the UK Biobank at baseline, and this pattern of association was consistent across follow-up. There was a trend for participants with higher 'favourable adiposity' genetic score to have lower risk of myocardial infarction and/or stroke (odds ratio 0.79 [0.62, 1.00]) compared to those with lower score. A one standard deviation higher score was associated with lower odds of using lipid-lowering (0.91 [0.86, 0.97]) and anti-hypertensive medication (0.95 [0.91, 0.99]).

Conclusions: In individuals with type 2 diabetes, having more 'favourable adiposity' alleles is associated with a marginally better lipid profile long-term and having lower odds of requiring lipid-lowering or anti-hypertensive medication in spite of relatively higher adiposity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dme.14531DOI Listing
September 2021

Common maternal and fetal genetic variants show expected polygenic effects on risk of small- or large-for-gestational-age (SGA or LGA), except in the smallest 3% of babies.

PLoS Genet 2020 12 7;16(12):e1009191. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Child Health, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.

Babies born clinically Small- or Large-for-Gestational-Age (SGA or LGA; sex- and gestational age-adjusted birth weight (BW) <10th or >90th percentile, respectively), are at higher risks of complications. SGA and LGA include babies who have experienced environment-related growth-restriction or overgrowth, respectively, and babies who are heritably small or large. However, the relative proportions within each group are unclear. We assessed the extent to which common genetic variants underlying variation in birth weight influence the probability of being SGA or LGA. We calculated independent fetal and maternal genetic scores (GS) for BW in 11,951 babies and 5,182 mothers. These scores capture the direct fetal and indirect maternal (via intrauterine environment) genetic contributions to BW, respectively. We also calculated maternal fasting glucose (FG) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) GS. We tested associations between each GS and probability of SGA or LGA. For the BW GS, we used simulations to assess evidence of deviation from an expected polygenic model. Higher BW GS were strongly associated with lower odds of SGA and higher odds of LGA (ORfetal = 0.75 (0.71,0.80) and 1.32 (1.26,1.39); ORmaternal = 0.81 (0.75,0.88) and 1.17 (1.09,1.25), respectively per 1 decile higher GS). We found evidence that the smallest 3% of babies had a higher BW GS, on average, than expected from their observed birth weight (assuming an additive polygenic model: Pfetal = 0.014, Pmaternal = 0.062). Higher maternal SBP GS was associated with higher odds of SGA P = 0.005. We conclude that common genetic variants contribute to risk of SGA and LGA, but that additional factors become more important for risk of SGA in the smallest 3% of babies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721187PMC
December 2020

Sleep characteristics across the lifespan in 1.1 million people from the Netherlands, United Kingdom and United States: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Nat Hum Behav 2021 01 16;5(1):113-122. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Research Institute of Child Development and Education, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

We aimed to obtain reliable reference charts for sleep duration, estimate the prevalence of sleep complaints across the lifespan and identify risk indicators of poor sleep. Studies were identified through systematic literature search in Embase, Medline and Web of Science (9 August 2019) and through personal contacts. Eligible studies had to be published between 2000 and 2017 with data on sleep assessed with questionnaires including ≥100 participants from the general population. We assembled individual participant data from 200,358 people (aged 1-100 years, 55% female) from 36 studies from the Netherlands, 471,759 people (40-69 years, 55.5% female) from the United Kingdom and 409,617 people (≥18 years, 55.8% female) from the United States. One in four people slept less than age-specific recommendations, but only 5.8% slept outside of the 'acceptable' sleep duration. Among teenagers, 51.5% reported total sleep times (TST) of less than the recommended 8-10 h and 18% report daytime sleepiness. In adults (≥18 years), poor sleep quality (13.3%) and insomnia symptoms (9.6-19.4%) were more prevalent than short sleep duration (6.5% with TST < 6 h). Insomnia symptoms were most frequent in people spending ≥9 h in bed, whereas poor sleep quality was more frequent in those spending <6 h in bed. TST was similar across countries, but insomnia symptoms were 1.5-2.9 times higher in the United States. Women (≥41 years) reported sleeping shorter times or slightly less efficiently than men, whereas with actigraphy they were estimated to sleep longer and more efficiently than man. This study provides age- and sex-specific population reference charts for sleep duration and efficiency which can help guide personalized advice on sleep length and preventive practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-00965-xDOI Listing
January 2021

Telomere length and risk of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a mendelian randomisation study.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 03 13;9(3):285-294. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Institute of Biomedical & Clinical Science, College of Medicine & Health, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK; Exeter Patients in Collaboration for PF, Exeter, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease accounting for 1% of UK deaths. In the familial form of pulmonary fibrosis, causal genes have been identified in about 30% of cases, and a majority of these causal genes are associated with telomere maintenance. Prematurely shortened leukocyte telomere length is associated with IPF and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease with similar demographics and shared risk factors. Using mendelian randomisation, we investigated evidence supporting a causal role for short telomeres in IPF and COPD.

Methods: Mendelian randomisation inference of telomere length causality was done for IPF (up to 1369 cases) and COPD (13 538 cases) against 435 866 controls of European ancestry in UK Biobank. Polygenic risk scores were calculated and two-sample mendelian randomisation analyses were done using seven genetic variants previously associated with telomere length, with replication analysis in an IPF cohort (2668 cases vs 8591 controls) and COPD cohort (15 256 cases vs 47 936 controls).

Findings: In the UK Biobank, a genetically instrumented one-SD shorter telomere length was associated with higher odds of IPF (odds ratio [OR] 4·19, 95% CI 2·33-7·55; p=0·0031) but not COPD (1·07, 0·88-1·30; p=0·51). Similarly, an association was found in the IPF replication cohort (12·3, 5·05-30·1; p=0·0015) and not in the COPD replication cohort (1·04, 0·71-1·53; p=0·83). Meta-analysis of the two-sample mendelian randomisation results provided evidence inferring that shorter telomeres cause IPF (5·81 higher odds of IPF, 95% CI 3·56-9·50; p=2·19 × 10). There was no evidence to infer that telomere length caused COPD (OR 1·07, 95% CI 0·90-1·27; p=0·46).

Interpretation: Cellular senescence is hypothesised as a major driving force in IPF and COPD; telomere shortening might be a contributory factor in IPF, suggesting divergent mechanisms in COPD. Defining a key role for telomere shortening enables greater focus in telomere-related diagnostics, treatments, and the search for a cure in IPF. Investigation of therapies that improve telomere length is warranted.

Funding: Medical Research Council.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30364-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Is disrupted sleep a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease? Evidence from a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 07;50(3):817-828

MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, at the University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: It is established that Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients experience sleep disruption. However, it remains unknown whether disruption in the quantity, quality or timing of sleep is a risk factor for the onset of AD.

Methods: We used the largest published genome-wide association studies of self-reported and accelerometer-measured sleep traits (chronotype, duration, fragmentation, insomnia, daytime napping and daytime sleepiness), and AD. Mendelian randomization (MR) was used to estimate the causal effect of self-reported and accelerometer-measured sleep parameters on AD risk.

Results: Overall, there was little evidence to support a causal effect of sleep traits on AD risk. There was some suggestive evidence that self-reported daytime napping was associated with lower AD risk [odds ratio (OR): 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50-0.99). Some other sleep traits (accelerometer-measured 'eveningness' and sleep duration, and self-reported daytime sleepiness) had ORs of a similar magnitude to daytime napping, but were less precisely estimated.

Conclusions: Overall, we found very limited evidence to support a causal effect of sleep traits on AD risk. Our findings provide tentative evidence that daytime napping may reduce AD risk. Given that this is the first MR study of multiple self-report and objective sleep traits on AD risk, findings should be replicated using independent samples when such data become available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271193PMC
July 2021

RETRACTION: Mendelian randomization supports a causative effect of TSH on thyroid carcinoma.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2020 11;27(11):Z1

Genetics of Complex Traits, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/ERC-20-0067rDOI Listing
November 2020

Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Pancreatic Beta-Cell Glucose Sensitivity.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 01;106(1):80-90

Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Context: Pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensitivity is the slope of the plasma glucose-insulin secretion relationship and is a key predictor of deteriorating glucose tolerance and development of type 2 diabetes. However, there are no large-scale studies looking at the genetic determinants of beta-cell glucose sensitivity.

Objective: To understand the genetic determinants of pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensitivity using genome-wide meta-analysis and candidate gene studies.

Design: We performed a genome-wide meta-analysis for beta-cell glucose sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic subjects from 6 independent cohorts (n = 5706). Beta-cell glucose sensitivity was calculated from mixed meal and oral glucose tolerance tests, and its associations between known glycemia-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genome-wide association study (GWAS) SNPs were estimated using linear regression models.

Results: Beta-cell glucose sensitivity was moderately heritable (h2 ranged from 34% to 55%) using SNP and family-based analyses. GWAS meta-analysis identified multiple correlated SNPs in the CDKAL1 gene and GIPR-QPCTL gene loci that reached genome-wide significance, with SNP rs2238691 in GIPR-QPCTL (P value = 2.64 × 10-9) and rs9368219 in the CDKAL1 (P value = 3.15 × 10-9) showing the strongest association with beta-cell glucose sensitivity. These loci surpassed genome-wide significance when the GWAS meta-analysis was repeated after exclusion of the diabetic subjects. After correction for multiple testing, glycemia-associated SNPs in or near the HHEX and IGF2B2 loci were also associated with beta-cell glucose sensitivity.

Conclusion: We show that, variation at the GIPR-QPCTL and CDKAL1 loci are key determinants of pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa653DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7765651PMC
January 2021

A single nucleotide polymorphism genetic risk score to aid diagnosis of coeliac disease: a pilot study in clinical care.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2020 10 13;52(7):1165-1173. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, UK.

Background: Single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic risk scores (GRS) model genetic risk as a continuum and can discriminate coeliac disease but have not been validated in clinic. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ gene testing is available in clinic but does not include non-HLA attributed risk and is limited by discrete risk stratification.

Aims: To accurately characterise both HLA and non-HLA coeliac disease genetic risk as a single nucleotide polymorphism-based GRS and evaluate diagnostic utility.

Methods: We developed a 42 single nucleotide polymorphism coeliac disease GRS from a European case-control study (12 041 cases vs 12 228 controls) using HLA-DQ imputation and published genome-wide association studies. We validated the GRS in UK Biobank (1237 cases) and developed direct genotyping assays. We tested the coeliac disease GRS in a pilot clinical cohort of 128 children presenting with suspected coeliac disease.

Results: The GRS was more discriminative of coeliac disease than HLA-DQ stratification in UK Biobank (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve [ROC-AUC] = 0.88 [95% CIs: 0.87-0.89] vs 0.82 [95% CIs: 0.80-0.83]). We demonstrated similar discrimination in the pilot clinical cohort (114 cases vs 40 controls, ROC-AUC = 0.84 [95% CIs: 0.76-0.91]). As a rule-out test, no children with coeliac disease in the clinical cohort had a GRS below 38th population centile.

Conclusions: A single nucleotide polymorphism-based GRS may offer more effective and cost-efficient testing of coeliac disease genetic risk in comparison to HLA-DQ stratification. As a comparatively inexpensive test it could facilitate non-invasive coeliac disease diagnosis but needs detailed assessment in the context of other diagnostic tests and against current diagnostic algorithms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15826DOI Listing
October 2020

Mendelian randomization supports a causative effect of TSH on thyroid carcinoma.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2020 10;27(10):551-559

Genetics of Complex Traits, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, UK.

Evidence from observational studies suggest a positive association between serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and differentiated thyroid carcinoma. However, the cause-effect relationship is poorly understood and these studies are susceptible to bias and confounding. This study aimed to investigate the causal role of TSH in both benign thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer in up to 451,025 UK Biobank participants, using a genetic technique, known as Mendelian randomization (MR). Hospital Episode Statistics and Cancer Registry databases were used to identify 462 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and 2031 patients with benign nodular thyroid disease. MR methods using genetic variants associated with serum TSH were used to test causal relationships between TSH and the two disease outcomes. Mendelian randomization provided evidence of a causal link between TSH and both thyroid cancer and benign nodular thyroid disease. Two-sample MR suggested that a 1 s.d. higher genetically instrumented TSH (approximately 0.8 mIU/L) resulted in 4.96-fold higher odds of benign nodular disease (95% CI 2.46-9.99) and 2.00-fold higher odds of thyroid cancer (95% CI 1.09-3.70). Our results thus support a causal role for TSH in both benign nodular thyroid disease and thyroid cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/ERC-20-0067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7497356PMC
October 2020

Genetic evidence that higher central adiposity causes gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a Mendelian randomization study.

Int J Epidemiol 2020 08;49(4):1270-1281

Genetics of Complex Traits, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, UK.

Background: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is associated with multiple risk factors but determining causality is difficult. We used a genetic approach [Mendelian randomization (MR)] to identify potential causal modifiable risk factors for GORD.

Methods: We used data from 451 097 European participants in the UK Biobank and defined GORD using hospital-defined ICD10 and OPCS4 codes and self-report data (N = 41 024 GORD cases). We tested observational and MR-based associations between GORD and four adiposity measures [body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), a metabolically favourable higher body-fat percentage and waist circumference], smoking status, smoking frequency and caffeine consumption.

Results: Observationally, all adiposity measures were associated with higher odds of GORD. Ever and current smoking were associated with higher odds of GORD. Coffee consumption was associated with lower odds of GORD but, among coffee drinkers, more caffeinated-coffee consumption was associated with higher odds of GORD. Using MR, we provide strong evidence that higher WHR and higher WHR adjusted for BMI lead to GORD. There was weak evidence that higher BMI, body-fat percentage, coffee drinking or smoking caused GORD, but only the observational effects for BMI and body-fat percentage could be excluded. This MR estimated effect for WHR equates to a 1.23-fold higher odds of GORD per 5-cm increase in waist circumference.

Conclusions: These results provide strong evidence that a higher waist-hip ratio leads to GORD. Our study suggests that central fat distribution is crucial in causing GORD rather than overall weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7750946PMC
August 2020

Large Copy-Number Variants in UK Biobank Caused by Clonal Hematopoiesis May Confound Penetrance Estimates.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 08 22;107(2):325-329. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, University of Exeter Medical School, RILD Building, Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital, Barrack Road, Exeter EX2 5DW, UK. Electronic address:

Large copy-number variants (CNVs) are strongly associated with both developmental delay and cancer, but the type of disease depends strongly on when and where the mutation occurred, i.e., germline versus somatic. We used microarray data from UK Biobank to investigate the prevalence and penetrance of large autosomal CNVs and chromosomal aneuploidies using a standard CNV detection algorithm not designed for detecting mosaic variants. We found 160 individuals that carry >10 Mb copy number changes, including 56 with whole chromosome aneuploidies. Nineteen (12%) individuals had a diagnosis of Down syndrome or other developmental disorder, while 84 (52.5%) individuals had a diagnosis of hematological malignancies or chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Notably, there was no evidence of mosaicism in the blood for many of these large CNVs, so they could easily be mistaken for germline alleles even when caused by somatic mutations. We therefore suggest that somatic mutations associated with blood cancers may result in false estimates of rare variant penetrance from population biobanks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.06.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413842PMC
August 2020

Clinical features and genetic risk of demyelination following anti-TNF treatment.

J Crohns Colitis 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

IBD Pharmacogenetics Group, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Background: Anti-TNF exposure has been linked to demyelination events. We sought to describe the clinical features of demyelination events following anti-TNF treatment and test whether affected patients were genetically predisposed to multiple sclerosis (MS).

Methods: We conducted a case-control study to describe the clinical features of demyelination events following anti-TNF. We compared genetic risk scores (GRS), calculated using carriage of 43 susceptibility loci for MS, in 48 cases to 1219 patients exposed to anti-TNF who did not develop demyelination.

Results: Overall, 39 (74%) cases were female. The median age (range) of patients at time of demyelination was 41.5 years (20.7 - 63.2). The median duration of anti-TNF treatment was 21.3 months (0.5 - 99.4) and 19 (36%) patients were receiving concomitant immunomodulators. Most patients had central demyelination affecting the brain, spinal cord or both. Complete recovery was reported in 12 (23%) patients after a median time of 6.8 months (0.1 - 28.7). After 33.0 months of follow-up partial recovery was observed in 29 (55%) patients, relapsing and remitting episodes in 9 (17%), progressive symptoms in 3 (6%): 2 (4%) patients were diagnosed with MS. There was no significant difference between MS GRS scores in cases (mean -3.5 x 10-4, SD 0.0039) and controls (mean -1.1×10-3, SD 0.0042) (p=0.23).

Conclusions: Patients who experienced demyelination events following anti-TNF were more likely female, less frequently treated with an immunomodulator, and had a similar genetic risk to anti-TNF exposed controls who did not. Large prospective studies with pre-treatment neuroimaging are required to identify genetic susceptibility loci.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjaa104DOI Listing
June 2020

Does Obesity Cause Thyroid Cancer? A Mendelian Randomization Study.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 07;105(7)

Genetics of Complex Traits, College of Medicine and Health, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Background: The incidence of thyroid cancer is rising, and relatively little is known about modifiable risk factors for the condition. Observational studies have suggested a link between adiposity and thyroid cancer; however, these are subject to confounding and reverse causality. Here, we used data from the UK Biobank and Mendelian randomization approaches to investigate whether adiposity causes benign nodular thyroid disease and differentiated thyroid cancer.

Methods: We analyzed data from 379 708 unrelated participants of European ancestry in the UK Biobank and identified 1812 participants with benign nodular thyroid disease and 425 with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. We tested observational associations with measures of adiposity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. One and 2-sample Mendelian randomization approaches were used to investigate causal relationships.

Results: Observationally, there were positive associations between higher body mass index (odds ratio [OR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.22), higher waist-hip ratio (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.09-1.23), and benign nodular thyroid disease, but not thyroid cancer. Mendelian randomization did not support a causal link for obesity with benign nodular thyroid disease or thyroid cancer, although it did provide some evidence that individuals in the highest quartile for genetic liability of type 2 diabetes had higher odds of thyroid cancer than those in the lowest quartile (OR, 1.45; CI, 1.11-1.90).

Conclusions: Contrary to the findings of observational studies, our results do not confirm a causal role for obesity in benign nodular thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. They do, however, suggest a link between type 2 diabetes and thyroid cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274488PMC
July 2020

Mitochondrial genetic variation is enriched in G-quadruplex regions that stall DNA synthesis in vitro.

Hum Mol Genet 2020 05;29(8):1292-1309

Laboratory of Molecular Gerontology, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

As the powerhouses of the eukaryotic cell, mitochondria must maintain their genomes which encode proteins essential for energy production. Mitochondria are characterized by guanine-rich DNA sequences that spontaneously form unusual three-dimensional structures known as G-quadruplexes (G4). G4 structures can be problematic for the essential processes of DNA replication and transcription because they deter normal progression of the enzymatic-driven processes. In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that mitochondrial G4 is a source of mutagenesis leading to base-pair substitutions. Our computational analysis of 2757 individual genomes from two Italian population cohorts (SardiNIA and InCHIANTI) revealed a statistically significant enrichment of mitochondrial mutations within sequences corresponding to stable G4 DNA structures. Guided by the computational analysis results, we designed biochemical reconstitution experiments and demonstrated that DNA synthesis by two known mitochondrial DNA polymerases (Pol γ, PrimPol) in vitro was strongly blocked by representative stable G4 mitochondrial DNA structures, which could be overcome in a specific manner by the ATP-dependent G4-resolving helicase Pif1. However, error-prone DNA synthesis by PrimPol using the G4 template sequence persisted even in the presence of Pif1. Altogether, our results suggest that genetic variation is enriched in G-quadruplex regions that impede mitochondrial DNA replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddaa043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254849PMC
May 2020

Quantification of the overall contribution of gene-environment interaction for obesity-related traits.

Nat Commun 2020 03 13;11(1):1385. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

University Center for Primary Care and Public Health, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, 1010, Switzerland.

The growing sample size of genome-wide association studies has facilitated the discovery of gene-environment interactions (GxE). Here we propose a maximum likelihood method to estimate the contribution of GxE to continuous traits taking into account all interacting environmental variables, without the need to measure any. Extensive simulations demonstrate that our method provides unbiased interaction estimates and excellent coverage. We also offer strategies to distinguish specific GxE from general scale effects. Applying our method to 32 traits in the UK Biobank reveals that while the genetic risk score (GRS) of 376 variants explains 5.2% of body mass index (BMI) variance, GRSxE explains an additional 1.9%. Nevertheless, this interaction holds for any variable with identical correlation to BMI as the GRS, hence may not be GRS-specific. Still, we observe that the global contribution of specific GRSxE to complex traits is substantial for nine obesity-related measures (including leg impedance and trunk fat-free mass).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15107-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7070002PMC
March 2020

Using human genetics to understand the disease impacts of testosterone in men and women.

Nat Med 2020 02 10;26(2):252-258. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Medical Research Council (MRC) Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Testosterone supplementation is commonly used for its effects on sexual function, bone health and body composition, yet its effects on disease outcomes are unknown. To better understand this, we identified genetic determinants of testosterone levels and related sex hormone traits in 425,097 UK Biobank study participants. Using 2,571 genome-wide significant associations, we demonstrate that the genetic determinants of testosterone levels are substantially different between sexes and that genetically higher testosterone is harmful for metabolic diseases in women but beneficial in men. For example, a genetically determined 1 s.d. higher testosterone increases the risks of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio (OR) = 1.37 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.22-1.53)) and polycystic ovary syndrome (OR = 1.51 (95% CI: 1.33-1.72)) in women, but reduces type 2 diabetes risk in men (OR = 0.86 (95% CI: 0.76-0.98)). We also show adverse effects of higher testosterone on breast and endometrial cancers in women and prostate cancer in men. Our findings provide insights into the disease impacts of testosterone and highlight the importance of sex-specific genetic analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0751-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7025895PMC
February 2020

A Mendelian Randomization Study Provides Evidence That Adiposity and Dyslipidemia Lead to Lower Urinary Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio, a Marker of Microvascular Function.

Diabetes 2020 05 8;69(5):1072-1082. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Genetics of Complex Traits, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, U.K.

Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) is a marker of diabetic nephropathy and microvascular damage. Metabolic-related traits are observationally associated with ACR, but their causal role is uncertain. Here, we confirmed ACR as a marker of microvascular damage and tested whether metabolic-related traits have causal relationships with ACR. The association between ACR and microvascular function (responses to acetylcholine [ACH] and sodium nitroprusside) was tested in the SUMMIT study. Two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) was used to infer the causal effects of 11 metabolic risk factors, including glycemic, lipid, and adiposity traits, on ACR. MR was performed in up to 440,000 UK Biobank and 54,451 CKDGen participants. ACR was robustly associated with microvascular function measures in SUMMIT. Using MR, we inferred that higher triglyceride (TG) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels caused elevated ACR. A 1 SD higher TG and LDL-C level caused a 0.062 (95% CI 0.040, 0.083) and a 0.026 (95% CI 0.008, 0.044) SD higher ACR, respectively. There was evidence that higher body fat and visceral body fat distribution caused elevated ACR, while a metabolically "favorable adiposity" phenotype lowered ACR. ACR is a valid marker for microvascular function. MR suggested that seven traits have causal effects on ACR, highlighting the role of adiposity-related traits in causing lower microvascular function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db19-0862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611011PMC
May 2020

Effects of body mass index on relationship status, social contact and socio-economic position: Mendelian randomization and within-sibling study in UK Biobank.

Int J Epidemiol 2020 08;49(4):1173-1184

Genetics of Complex Traits, University of Exeter Medical School, RILD Level 3, Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital, Exeter, UK.

Background: We assessed whether body mass index (BMI) affects social and socio-economic outcomes.

Methods: We used Mendelian randomization (MR), non-linear MR and non-genetic and MR within-sibling analyses, to estimate relationships of BMI with six socio-economic and four social outcomes in 378 244 people of European ancestry in UK Biobank.

Results: In MR of minimally related individuals, higher BMI was related to higher deprivation, lower income, fewer years of education, lower odds of degree-level education and skilled employment. Non-linear MR suggested both low (bottom decile, <22 kg/m2) and high (top seven deciles, >24.6 kg/m2) BMI, increased deprivation and reduced income. Non-genetic within-sibling analysis supported an effect of BMI on socio-economic position (SEP); precision in within-sibling MR was too low to draw inference about effects of BMI on SEP. There was some evidence of pleiotropy, with MR Egger suggesting limited effects of BMI on deprivation, although precision of these estimates is also low. Non-linear MR suggested that low BMI (bottom three deciles, <23.5 kg/m2) reduces the odds of cohabiting with a partner or spouse in men, whereas high BMI (top two deciles, >30.7 kg/m2) reduces the odds of cohabitation in women. Both non-genetic and MR within-sibling analyses supported this sex-specific effect of BMI on cohabitation. In men only, higher BMI was related to lower participation in leisure and social activities. There was little evidence that BMI affects visits from friends and family or having someone to confide in.

Conclusions: BMI may affect social and socio-economic outcomes, with both high and low BMI being detrimental for SEP, although larger within-family MR studies may help to test the robustness of MR results in unrelated individuals. Triangulation of evidence across MR and within-family analyses supports evidence of a sex-specific effect of BMI on cohabitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyz240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7750981PMC
August 2020

Assessment of Type 2 Diabetes Genetic Risk Modification by Shift Work and Morningness-Eveningness Preference in the UK Biobank.

Diabetes 2020 02 22;69(2):259-266. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Center for Genomic Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

Night shift work, behavioral rhythms, and the common risk single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs10830963, associate with type 2 diabetes; however, whether they exert joint effects to exacerbate type 2 diabetes risk is unknown. Among employed participants of European ancestry in the UK Biobank ( = 189,488), we aimed to test the cross-sectional independent associations and joint interaction effects of these risk factors on odds of type 2 diabetes ( = 5,042 cases) and HbA levels ( = 175,156). Current shift work, definite morning or evening preference, and rs10830963 risk allele associated with type 2 diabetes and HbA levels. The effect of rs10830963 was not modified by shift work schedules. While marginal evidence of interaction between self-reported morningness-eveningness preference and rs10830963 on risk of type 2 diabetes was seen, this interaction did not persist when analysis was expanded to include all participants regardless of employment status and when accelerometer-derived sleep midpoint was used as an objective measure of morningness-eveningness preference. Our findings suggest that risk allele carriers who carry out shift work or have more extreme morningness-eveningness preference may not have enhanced risk of type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db19-0606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6971490PMC
February 2020

Methods for quick, accurate and cost-effective determination of the type 1 diabetes genetic risk score (T1D-GRS).

Clin Chem Lab Med 2020 03;58(4):e102-e104

Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, University of Exeter Medical School, Level 3, RILD Building, Barrack Road, Exeter, Devon, EX2 5DW, UK, Phone: 01392 408538, Fax: 01392 408388.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2019-0787DOI Listing
March 2020
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