Publications by authors named "Andrew R Rezvani"

45 Publications

Umbilical cord blood or HLA-haploidentical transplantation: Real world outcomes vs randomized trial outcomes.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Nov 11. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Background: Randomized clinical trials offer the highest quality data for modifying clinical practice. Results of a phase III randomized trial of non-myeloablative transplantation for adults with high- risk hematologic malignancies with two umbilical cord blood (UCB) units (n=183) or HLA-haploidentical relative bone marrow (Haplo-BM) (n=154) revealed 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) of 41% and 35% after Haplo-BM and two-unit UCB transplantation, respectively (p=0.41); overall survival was 57% and 46%, respectively (p=0.04), BMT CTN 1101; NCT01597778.

Objectives: We sought to examine the generalizability of BMT CTN 1101 to a contemporaneous cohort beyond the trial's pre-specified 2-year outcomes. All transplantation occurred between June 2012 and June 2018 in the United States. We hypothesized that the results of a rigorous phase III randomized trial will be generalizable. Changes in graft selection for HLA-haploidentical relative transplantation during the trial period allowed comparison of outcomes after transplantation with Haplo-BM to those after haploidentical peripheral blood (Haplo-PB).

Study Design: The trial's broad eligibility criteria were applied to the data source of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to select non-trial subjects. Extended follow up of trial subjects was obtained from this data source. Three separate analyses were performed: 1) trial subjects beyond the trial's 2-year endpoint 2) comparison of trial subjects to a contemporaneous cohort of non-trial subjects (195 two-unit UCB, 358 Haplo-BM, 403 Haplo-PB) and 3) comparison of non-trial subjects by donor and graft type. Multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models for comparison of outcomes by treatment groups.

Results: With longer follow up of the trial cohorts, 5-year PFS (37% versus 29%, p=0.08) and overall survival (42% versus 36%, p=0.06) were not significantly different between treatment groups. We then compared the trial results to comparable real-world transplantations. Five-year overall survival after trial and non-trial two-unit UCB (36% versus 41%, p=0.48) and trial and non-trial Haplo-BM (42% versus 47%, p=0.80) transplantation were not different confirming generalizability. The randomized trial did not accrue as planned and therefore lacked the statistical power to detect a 15% difference in progression-free survival. With substantially larger numbers of non-trial Haplo-BM transplantations, 5-year survival was higher after non-trial Haplo-BM compared to trial two-unit UCB (47% versus 36%, p=0.012). Non-trial patients who received Haplo-PB transplantation had higher 5-year survival (54%) compared to trial (HR 0.76, p=0.044) and non-trial (HR 0.78, p=0.026) Haplo-BM. Similarly, survival was higher after Haplo-PB compared to trial (HR 0.57, p<0.0001) and non-trial UCB (HR 0.63, p=0.0002).

Conclusion: When considering alternative donor low intensity conditioning regimen transplantation, a haploidentical relative is preferred. Further, PB is the preferred graft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.11.002DOI Listing
November 2021

Concordance of peripheral blood and bone marrow measurable residual disease in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Blood Adv 2021 08;5(16):3147-3151

Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Monitoring of measurable residual disease (MRD) is essential to the management of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and is typically performed through repeated bone marrow (BM) assessments. Using a next-generation sequencing (NGS) MRD platform, we performed a prospective observational study evaluating the correlation between peripheral blood (PB) and BM MRD in adults with ALL receiving cellular therapies (hematopoietic cell transplantation [HCT] and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell [CAR-T] therapies). Among the study cohort (N = 69 patients; 126 paired PB/BM samples), we found strong correlation between PB and BM MRD (r = 0.87; P < .001), with a sensitivity and specificity of MRD detection in the PB of 87% and 90%, respectively, relative to MRD in the BM. MRD became detectable in the PB in 100% of patients who subsequently relapsed following HCT, with median time from MRD+ to clinical relapse of 90 days, and in 85% of patients who relapsed following CAR T, with median time from MRD+ to clinical relapse of 60 days. In adult patients with ALL undergoing cellular therapies, we demonstrate strong concordance between NGS-based MRD detected in the PB and BM. Monitoring of ALL MRD in the PB appears to be an adequate alternative to frequent invasive BM evaluations in this clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8405199PMC
August 2021

CAR T cells with dual targeting of CD19 and CD22 in adult patients with recurrent or refractory B cell malignancies: a phase 1 trial.

Nat Med 2021 08 26;27(8):1419-1431. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Despite impressive progress, more than 50% of patients treated with CD19-targeting chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR19) experience progressive disease. Ten of 16 patients with large B cell lymphoma (LBCL) with progressive disease after CAR19 treatment had absent or low CD19. Lower surface CD19 density pretreatment was associated with progressive disease. To prevent relapse with CD19 or CD19 disease, we tested a bispecific CAR targeting CD19 and/or CD22 (CD19-22.BB.z-CAR) in a phase I clinical trial ( NCT03233854 ) of adults with relapsed/refractory B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and LBCL. The primary end points were manufacturing feasibility and safety with a secondary efficacy end point. Primary end points were met; 97% of products met protocol-specified dose and no dose-limiting toxicities occurred during dose escalation. In B-ALL (n = 17), 100% of patients responded with 88% minimal residual disease-negative complete remission (CR); in LBCL (n = 21), 62% of patients responded with 29% CR. Relapses were CD19 in 50% (5 out of 10) of patients with B-ALL and 29% (4 out of 14) of patients with LBCL but were not associated with CD22 disease. CD19/22-CAR products demonstrated reduced cytokine production when stimulated with CD22 versus CD19. Our results further implicate antigen loss as a major cause of CAR T cell resistance, highlight the challenge of engineering multi-specific CAR T cells with equivalent potency across targets and identify cytokine production as an important quality indicator for CAR T cell potency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01436-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8363505PMC
August 2021

A Fructo-Oligosaccharide Prebiotic Is Well Tolerated in Adults Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Phase I Dose-Escalation Trial.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Nov 16;27(11):932.e1-932.e11. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California; Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California. Electronic address:

Alterations of the gut microbiota after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) are a key factor in the development of transplant-related complications such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Interventions that preserve the gut microbiome hold promise to improve HCT-associated morbidity and mortality. Murine models demonstrate that prebiotics such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs) may increase gut levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as butyrate and consequently induce proliferation of immunomodulatory FOXP3CD4 regulatory T cells (Tregs), which impact GVHD risk. We conducted a pilot phase I trial to investigate the maximum tolerated dose of FOS in patients undergoing reduced-intensity allo-HCT (n = 15) compared with concurrent controls (n = 16). We administered the FOS starting at pretransplant conditioning and continuing for a total of 21 days. We characterized the gut microbiome using shotgun metagenomic sequencing, measured stool short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and determined peripheral T cell concentrations using cytometry by time-of-flight. We found that FOS was safe and well-tolerated at 10 g/d without significant adverse effects in patients undergoing allo-HCT. Community-level gut microbiota composition differed significantly on the day of transplant (day 0) between patients receiving FOS and concurrent controls; however, FOS-associated alterations of the gut microbiota were not sustained after transplant. Although the impact of FOS was fleeting, transplantation itself impacted a substantial number of taxa over time. In our small pilot trial, no significant differences were observed in gut microbial metabolic pathways, stool SCFAs, or peripheral Tregs, although Tregs trended higher in those patients who received FOS. A marker of CD4 T cell activation (namely, CTLA4) was significantly higher in patients receiving FOS, whereas a non-significant trend existed for FOP3CD4 Treg cells, which were higher in those receiving FOS compared with controls. FOS is well tolerated at 10 g/d in patients undergoing reduced-intensity allo-HCT. Although the alterations in gut microbiota and peripheral immune cell composition in those receiving FOS are intriguing, additional studies are required to investigate the use of prebiotics in HCT recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.07.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8556222PMC
November 2021

Engraftment of Double Cord Blood Transplantation after Nonmyeloablative Conditioning with Escalated Total Body Irradiation Dosing to Facilitate Engraftment in Immunocompetent Patients.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 10 15;27(10):879.e1-879.e3. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

To improve accrual to a randomized clinical trial of double unrelated cord blood (dUCB) versus HLA-haploidentical bone marrow (haplo-BM) transplantation, patients with less previous therapy and potentially greater immunocompetence were enrolled. To reduce the risk of graft rejection, patients randomized to receive dUCB received a higher dose of total body irradiation (TBI) (300 cGy versus 200 cGy). In this study, we investigated whether the inclusion of recipients of 300 cGy TBI influenced the trial outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of dUCB recipients, 161 who received TBI 200 cGy and 18 who received TBI 300 cGy. Fine and Gray regression was used to evaluate the effect of TBI dose on relapse and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Cox regression was used for evaluation of neutrophil engraftment and overall survival. Patient characteristics were similar in the 2 TBI dose subgroups. The probability of neutrophil engraftment was 100% for patients who received TBI 300 cGy versus 91% (95% confidence interval, 86% to 95%) for those who received TBI 200 cGy (P = .64), which was similar after regression analysis adjusting for age, total infused nucleated cell dose, HLA matching to the patient, and comorbidity score. We also investigated whether the lower survival probability and higher cumulative incidence of NRM observed in the dUCB arm of BMT CTN 1101 could be influenced by the TBI 300 cGy patient subset. There was no significant difference in the 1-year incidences of NRM and relapse or in 1-year survival, even after adjustment in multivariate analysis. Patients in BMT CTN 1101 who received TBI 300 cGy and 200 cGy had similar engraftment and early mortality. We conclude that inclusion of a modified regimen for dUCB transplantation had no demonstrable influence on this large randomized trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.07.006DOI Listing
October 2021

Outcomes after delayed and second autologous stem cell transplant in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Nov 23;56(11):2664-2671. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

We evaluated the outcomes of 168 patients undergoing delayed or second autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) for relapsed multiple myeloma (MM) from 2010 to 2019. Overall, 21% (n = 35) patients had received a prior transplant and 69% (n = 116) underwent transplant at first relapse. Overall, 27% patients had high-risk cytogenetics and 15% had ISS stage III disease. Stem cell collection was performed after relapse in 72% and 35% of patients received maintenance therapy. Median PFS from salvage treatment and transplant were 28 and 19 months, respectively. Median OS from salvage treatment and transplant was 69 and 55 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that ASCT in first relapse was associated with superior PFS (HR 0.63, p = 0.03) and OS (HR 0.59, p = 0.04) compared to later lines of therapy. In addition, PFS of ≥36 months with prior therapy was associated with improved PFS (HR 0.62, p = 0.04) and OS (HR 0.41, p = 0.01). Ninety-five patients underwent delayed transplant at first relapse, median PFS and OS from start of therapy was 30 and 69 months, and median OS from diagnosis was 106 months. These data may serve as a guide when counseling patients undergoing ASCT for relapsed MM and provide a benchmark in designing clinical trials of transplantation/comparative treatments for relapsed MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01371-1DOI Listing
November 2021

Omidubicel vs standard myeloablative umbilical cord blood transplantation: results of a phase 3 randomized study.

Blood 2021 10;138(16):1429-1440

Hematology Department, Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

Omidubicel is an ex vivo expanded hematopoietic progenitor cell and nonexpanded myeloid and lymphoid cell product derived from a single umbilical cord blood unit. We report results of a phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy of omidubicel compared with standard umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). Between January 2017 and January 2020, 125 patients age 13 to 65 years with hematologic malignancies were randomly assigned to omidubicel vs standard UCBT. Patients received myeloablative conditioning and prophylaxis with a calcineurin inhibitor and mycophenolate mofetil for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The primary end point was time to neutrophil engraftment. The treatment arms were well balanced and racially diverse. Median time to neutrophil engraftment was 12 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 10-14 days) for the omidubicel arm and 22 days (95% CI, 19-25 days) for the control arm (P < .001). The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was 96% for patients receiving omidubicel and 89% for patients receiving control transplants. The omidubicel arm had faster platelet recovery (55% vs 35% recovery by 42 days; P = .028), had a lower incidence of first grade 2 to 3 bacterial or invasive fungal infection (37% vs 57%; P = .027), and spent more time out of hospital during the first 100 days after transplant (median, 61 vs 48 days; P = .005) than controls. Differences in GVHD and survival between the 2 arms were not statistically significant. Transplantation with omidubicel results in faster hematopoietic recovery and reduces early transplant-related complications compared with standard UCBT. The results suggest that omidubicel may be considered as a new standard of care for adult patients eligible for UCBT. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02730299.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021011719DOI Listing
October 2021

Outcomes Associated With Thiotepa-Based Conditioning in Patients With Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma After Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplant.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Jul;7(7):993-1003

Division of Blood & Marrow Transplantation, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Importance: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) requires induction and consolidation to achieve potential cure. High-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (AHCT) is an accepted and effective consolidation strategy for PCNSL, but no consensus exists on the optimal conditioning regimens.

Objective: To assess the outcomes in patients with PCNSL undergoing AHCT with the 3 most commonly used conditioning regimens: thiotepa/busulfan/cyclophosphamide (TBC), thiotepa/carmustine (TT-BCNU), and carmustine/etoposide/cytarabine/melphalan (BEAM).

Design, Setting, And Participants: This observational cohort study used registry data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research registry. The Center is a working group of more than 380 transplantation centers worldwide that contributed detailed data on HCT to a statistical center at the Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. The participant data were from 603 adult patients with PCNSL who underwent AHCT as initial, or subsequent, consolidation between January 2010 and December 2018. Patients were excluded if they had a non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtype other than diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or HIV; received an uncommon conditioning regimen; or were not in partial remission or complete remission prior to AHCT. Statistical analysis was performed from July 5, 2020, to March 1, 2021.

Interventions: Patients received 1 of 3 conditioning regimens: TBC (n = 263), TT-BCNU (n = 275), and BEAM (n = 65).

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was progression-free survival. Secondary outcomes included hematopoietic recovery, incidence of relapse, nonrelapse mortality, and overall survival.

Results: Of 603 patients, the mean age was 57 (range, 19-77) years and 318 (53%) were male. The 3-year adjusted progression-free survival rates were higher in the TBC cohort (75%) and TT-BCNU cohort (76%) compared with the BEAM cohort (58%) (P = .03) owing to a higher relapse risk in the BEAM cohort (hazard ratio [HR], 4.34; 95% CI, 2.45-7.70; P < .001). In a multivariable regression analysis, compared with the TBC cohort, patients who received TT-BCNU had a higher relapse risk (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.07-2.98; P = .03), lower risk of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.29-0.87; P = .01), and similar risk of all-cause mortality more than 6 months after HCT (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 0.93-2.55; P = .10). Age of 60 years or older, Karnofsky performance status less than 90, and an HCT-comorbidity index greater than or equal to 3 were associated with lower rates of survival across all 3 cohorts. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that patients aged 60 years and older had considerably higher NRM with TBC.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cohort study, thiotepa-based conditioning regimen was associated with higher rates of survival compared with BEAM, despite higher rates of early toxic effects and NRM; these findings may assist clinicians in choosing between TBC or TT-BCNU based on patient and disease characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.1074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283558PMC
July 2021

Stem Cell Mobilization in Multiple Myeloma: Comparing Safety and Efficacy of Cyclophosphamide +/- Plerixafor versus Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor +/- Plerixafor in the Lenalidomide Era.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 07 26;27(7):590.e1-590.e8. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California; Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California. Electronic address:

Growth factor and chemotherapy-based stem cell mobilization strategies are commonly used to treat patients with multiple myeloma. We retrospectively compared 398 patients mobilized between 2017 and 2020 using either cyclophosphamide (4 g/m) plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or G-CSF alone, with on demand plerixafor (PXF) in both groups. Although total CD34 yield was higher after chemomobilization compared with G-CSF +/- PXF (median, 13.6 × 10/kg versus 4.4 × 10/kg; P < .01), achievement of ≥2 × 10 CD34 cells (95% versus 93.7%; P = .61) and rates of mobilization failure (5% versus 6.3%; P = .61) were similar. Fewer patients required PXF with chemomobilization (12.3% versus 49.5%; P < .01), and apheresis sessions were fewer (median, 1 [range, 1 to 4] versus 2 [range, 1 to 5]). The rate of complications, including neutropenic fever, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations, was higher after chemomobilization (30% versus 7.4%; P < .01). Previous use of ≤6 cycles of lenalidomide did not impair cell yield in either group. The median cost of mobilization was 17.4% lower in the G-CSF +/- PXF group (P = .01). Between group differences in time to engraftment were not clinically significant. Given similar rates of successful mobilization, similar engraftment time, and less toxicity and lower costs compared with chemomobilization, G-CSF with on-demand PXF may be preferable in myeloma patients with adequate disease control and limited lenalidomide exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8378276PMC
July 2021

Guidelines for Adult Patient Selection and Conditioning Regimens in Cord Blood Transplant Recipients with Hematologic Malignancies and Aplastic Anemia.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 04;27(4):286-291

Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

For cord blood transplantation (CBT), appropriate patient and conditioning regimen selection is necessary to achieve long-term disease-free survival. This review aims to provide comprehensive guidelines on these issues using evidence from the literature and experience at dedicated CBT centers. Topics include patient and disease characteristics that make CBT a good or poor choice and a review of outcomes in commonly used conditioning regimens in CBT. This is accompanied with recommendations on regimen intensity based on disease, organ function, and patient performance status and age. In addition, the use of antithymocyte globulin in CBT is discussed, as is the choice of conditioning in aplastic anemia patients who have access to acceptable CB units.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.11.008DOI Listing
April 2021

Immune reconstitution and infectious complications following axicabtagene ciloleucel therapy for large B-cell lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2021 01;5(1):143-155

Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy targeting CD19 has significantly improved outcomes in the treatment of refractory or relapsed large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL). We evaluated the long-term course of hematologic recovery, immune reconstitution, and infectious complications in 41 patients with LBCL treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) at a single center. Grade 3+ cytopenias occurred in 97.6% of patients within the first 28 days postinfusion, with most resolved by 6 months. Overall, 63.4% of patients received a red blood cell transfusion, 34.1% of patients received a platelet transfusion, 36.6% of patients received IV immunoglobulin, and 51.2% of patients received growth factor (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) injections beyond the first 28 days postinfusion. Only 40% of patients had recovered detectable CD19+ B cells by 1 year, and 50% of patients had a CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells per μL by 18 months postinfusion. Patients with durable responses to axi-cel had significantly longer durations of B-cell aplasia, and this duration correlated strongly with the recovery of CD4+ T-cell counts. There were significantly more infections within the first 28 days compared with any other period of follow-up, with the majority being mild-moderate in severity. Receipt of corticosteroids was the only factor that predicted risk of infection in a multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 3.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-16.5). Opportunistic infections due to Pneumocystis jirovecii and varicella-zoster virus occurred up to 18 months postinfusion in patients who prematurely discontinued prophylaxis. These results support the use of comprehensive supportive care, including long-term monitoring and antimicrobial prophylaxis, beyond 12 months after axi-cel treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805341PMC
January 2021

CD22-directed CAR T-cell therapy induces complete remissions in CD19-directed CAR-refractory large B-cell lymphoma.

Blood 2021 04;137(17):2321-2325

Center for Cancer Cell Therapy, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

The prognosis of patients with large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) that progresses after treatment with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy targeting CD19 (CAR19) is poor. We report on the first 3 consecutive patients with autologous CAR19-refractory LBCL who were treated with a single infusion of autologous 1 × 106 CAR+ T cells per kilogram targeting CD22 (CAR22) as part of a phase 1 dose-escalation study. CAR22 therapy was relatively well tolerated, without any observed nonhematologic adverse events higher than grade 2. After infusion, all 3 patients achieved complete remission, with all responses continuing at the time of last follow-up (mean, 7.8 months; range, 6-9.3). Circulating CAR22 cells demonstrated robust expansion (peak range, 85.4-350 cells per microliter), and persisted beyond 3 months in all patients with continued radiographic responses and corresponding decreases in circulating tumor DNA beyond 6 months after infusion. Further accrual at a higher dose level in this phase 1 dose-escalation study is ongoing and will explore the role of this therapy in patients in whom prior CAR T-cell therapies have failed. This trial is registered on clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT04088890.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020009432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085484PMC
April 2021

Double unrelated umbilical cord blood vs HLA-haploidentical bone marrow transplantation: the BMT CTN 1101 trial.

Blood 2021 01;137(3):420-428

Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Results of 2 parallel phase 2 trials of transplantation of unrelated umbilical cord blood (UCB) or bone marrow (BM) from HLA-haploidentical relatives provided equipoise for direct comparison of these donor sources. Between June 2012 and June 2018, 368 patients aged 18 to 70 years with chemotherapy-sensitive lymphoma or acute leukemia in remission were randomly assigned to undergo UCB (n = 186) or haploidentical (n = 182) transplant. Reduced-intensity conditioning comprised total-body irradiation with cyclophosphamide and fludarabine for both donor types. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis for UCB transplantation was cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and for haploidentical transplantation, posttransplant cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, and MMF. The primary end point was 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). Treatment groups had similar age, sex, self-reported ethnic origin, performance status, disease, and disease status at randomization. Two-year PFS was 35% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28% to 42%) compared with 41% (95% CI, 34% to 48%) after UCB and haploidentical transplants, respectively (P = .41). Prespecified analysis of secondary end points recorded higher 2-year nonrelapse mortality after UCB, 18% (95% CI, 13% to 24%), compared with haploidentical transplantation, 11% (95% CI, 6% to 16%), P = .04. This led to lower 2-year overall survival (OS) after UCB compared with haploidentical transplantation, 46% (95% CI, 38-53) and 57% (95% CI 49% to 64%), respectively (P = .04). The trial did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference in the primary end point, 2-year PFS, between the donor sources. Although both donor sources extend access to reduced-intensity transplantation, analyses of secondary end points, including OS, favor haploidentical BM donors. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01597778.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020007535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819761PMC
January 2021

Impact of Rituximab and Host/Donor Fc Receptor Polymorphisms after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for CD20 B Cell Malignancies.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 10 18;26(10):1811-1818. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. Electronic address:

We previously reported a 24% 1-year relapse rate in 93 older or medically unfit patients with CD20 B cell malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with low-intensity conditioning. The current prospective study tested the hypothesis that disease relapse could be reduced and overall survival (OS) improved by peritransplantation administration of rituximab (RTX). Sixty-three patients received RTX (375 mg/m/day) on days -3, +10, +24, and +38 along with 2 to 3 Gy total body irradiation with or without fludarabine (30 mg/m for 3 days). Median RTX levels of >25 μg/mL were achieved through day +84 after transplantation, but RTX level was not correlated with relapse or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). HCT recipients with F/F and V/F FCγRIIIa polymorphisms showed a trend toward a higher relapse rate compared with those with V/V polymorphism (P= .15). No difference in outcome was found based on V/V donor pairing. Five-year relapse rates were similar between RTX-treated patients and historical controls (32% versus 28%; P = .94). RTX-treated patients had greater 5-year OS (47% versus 38%; P = .13) and progression-free survival (41% versus 32%; P = .12) compared with historical controls who underwent HCT without RTX, although the difference was not statistically significant. The incidence of acute GVHD was similar in the 2 groups (grade II-IV, 57% versus 56%; grade III-IV, 13% versus 17%), but the 5-year incidence of chronic GVHD was higher among RTX-treated patients (62% versus 47%). In patients with relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma, peritransplantation RTX neither reduced relapse nor improved GVHD. The role of donor-recipient pairing by FCγRIIIa polymorphisms in outcomes remains to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.07.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7549403PMC
October 2020

Autologous tumor cell vaccine induces antitumor T cell immune responses in patients with mantle cell lymphoma: A phase I/II trial.

J Exp Med 2020 09;217(9)

Division of Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Here, we report on the results of a phase I/II trial (NCT00490529) for patients with mantle cell lymphoma who, having achieved remission after immunochemotherapy, were vaccinated with irradiated, CpG-activated tumor cells. Subsequently, vaccine-primed lymphocytes were collected and reinfused after a standard autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). The primary endpoint was detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) within 1 yr after ASCT at the previously validated threshold of ≥1 malignant cell per 10,000 leukocyte equivalents. Of 45 evaluable patients, 40 (89%) were found to be MRD negative, and the MRD-positive patients experienced early subsequent relapse. The vaccination induced antitumor CD8 T cell immune responses in 40% of patients, and these were associated with favorable clinical outcomes. Patients with high tumor PD-L1 expression after in vitro exposure to CpG had inferior outcomes. Vaccination with CpG-stimulated autologous tumor cells followed by the adoptive transfer of vaccine-primed lymphocytes after ASCT is feasible and safe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20191712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7478738PMC
September 2020

Missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis of infectious diseases in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: an autopsy study.

Blood Adv 2019 11;3(22):3602-3612

Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine.

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is potentially curative for patients with hematologic disorders, but carries significant risks of infection-related morbidity and mortality. Infectious diseases are the second most common cause of death in HCT recipients, surpassed only by progression of underlying disease. Many infectious diseases are difficult to diagnose and treat, and may only be first identified by autopsy. However, autopsy rates are decreasing despite their value. The clinical and autopsy records of adult HCT recipients at our center who underwent autopsy between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2017 were reviewed. Discrepancies between premortem clinical diagnoses and postmortem autopsy diagnoses were evaluated. Of 185 patients who underwent autopsy, 35 patients (18.8%) had a total of 41 missed infections. Five patients (2.7%) had >1 missed infection. Of the 41 missed infections, 18 (43.9%) were viral, 16 (39.0%) were fungal, 5 (12.2%) were bacterial, and 2 (4.9%) were parasitic. According to the Goldman criteria, 31 discrepancies (75.6%) were class I, 5 (12.2%) were class II, 1 (2.4%) was class III, and 4 (9.8%) were class IV. Autopsies of HCT recipients frequently identify clinically significant infectious diseases that were not suspected premortem. Had these infections been suspected, a change in management might have improved patient survival in many of these cases. Autopsy is underutilized and should be performed regularly to help improve infection-related morbidity and mortality. Illustrative cases are presented and the lessons learned from them are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6880905PMC
November 2019

Costs and Outcomes with Once-Daily versus Every-6-Hour Intravenous Busulfan in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 01 13;26(1):145-149. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Stanford, California; Department of Medicine, Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

The high cost of healthcare in the United States has not been consistently associated with improved health outcomes or quality of care, necessitating a focus on value-based care. We identified busulfan dosing frequency during allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) conditioning as a potential target for optimization. To improve patient convenience and to decrease the cost of busulfan-based conditioning regimens, our institution changed busulfan dose frequency from every 6 hours (q6h) to once-daily (q24h). We compared costs and patient outcomes between these 2 dosing schedules. In June 2017, our institution transitioned from q6h to q24h busulfan dosing. We compared patients who received busulfan/cyclophosphamide conditioning regimens (BU/CY) for allogeneic HCT in the year before the dosing change (q6h cohort) and those who did so in the year after the dosing change (q24h cohort). The primary outcomes were differences in cost, day +90 mortality, and day +90 relapse. Between June 1, 2016, and June 1, 2018, 104 patients (median age 49 years; range, 20 to 63 years) received BU/CY before allogeneic HCT. Fifty-nine patients (57%) received q6h busulfan and 45 (43%) received q24h busulfan. There were fewer men in the q24h busulfan cohort compared with the q6h busulfan cohort (42% versus 64%; P = .024), but there were no other significant differences between the groups. There was an average annual cost savings of $19,990 per patient with q24h busulfan compared with q6h busulfan, and an annual busulfan cost savings of $899,550. There was a significantly lower day +90 mortality in the q24h busulfan cohort compared to the q6h busulfan cohort (0% versus 10%; P = .028). There were no significant differences in relapse at day +90 or in hospital length of stay. Our data indicate that i.v. busulfan dosing for allogeneic HCT conditioning is a target for improved value-based care. At our institution, patients who received q24h busulfan dosing had similar or superior outcomes compared with those receiving q6h dosing, with an average annual cost reduction of $19,990 per patient and an overall annual reduction in busulfan cost of approximately $900,000. These data support the adoption of q24h i.v. busulfan dosing as a standard of care to improve value-based care in allogeneic HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.09.008DOI Listing
January 2020

Nonmyeloablative TLI-ATG conditioning for allogeneic transplantation: mature follow-up from a large single-center cohort.

Blood Adv 2019 08;3(16):2454-2464

Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Department of Medicine.

Nonmyeloablative total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin (TLI-ATG) conditioning is protective against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), while retaining graft-versus-tumor activity across various hematologic malignancies. We report our comprehensive experience using TLI-ATG conditioning in 612 patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent allogeneic transplantation at Stanford University from 2001 to 2016. All patients received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood grafts and cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil for GVHD prophylaxis. The median age was 60 years (range, 21-78), with a median follow-up of 6.0 years (range, 1.0-16.4). Common diagnoses included acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 193), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 94), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; n = 80), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; n = 175), and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL; n = 35). Thirty-four percent of patients had a comorbidity index ≥3, 30% had a high to very high disease risk index, and 56% received unrelated donor grafts, including 15% with HLA-mismatched donors. Ninety-eight percent underwent transplant in the outpatient setting, and 57% were never hospitalized from days 0 through 100. The 1-year rates of nonrelapse mortality (NRM), grade II-IV acute GVHD, and extensive chronic GVHD were 9%, 14%, and 22%, respectively. The 4-year estimates for overall and progression-free survival were 42% and 32% for AML, 30% and 21% for MDS, 67% and 43% for CLL, 68% and 45% for NHL, and 78% and 49% for HL. Mixed chimerism correlated with the risk of relapse. TLI-ATG conditioning was well tolerated, with low rates of GVHD and NRM. Durable remissions were observed across hematologic malignancies, with particularly favorable outcomes for heavily pretreated lymphomas. Several efforts are underway to augment donor chimerism and reduce relapse rates while maintaining the favorable safety and tolerability profile of this regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6712526PMC
August 2019

Incidence of Active Tuberculosis After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Small but Real Threat.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 03;70(6):1261-1262

Divisions of Infectious Diseases & Geographic Medicine.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz592DOI Listing
March 2020

Transplantation of donor grafts with defined ratio of conventional and regulatory T cells in HLA-matched recipients.

JCI Insight 2019 05 16;4(10). Epub 2019 May 16.

Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

BACKGROUNDIn preclinical murine and early clinical studies of hematopoietic cell transplantation, engineering of donor grafts with defined ratios of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs to conventional T cells (Tcons) results in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease and improved immune reconstitution. The use of highly purified primary graft Tregs for direct cell infusion has potential advantages over impure immunomagnetic selection or culture expansion, but has not been tested clinically. We performed a phase I study of the timed addition of CD34-selected hematopoietic stem cells and Tregs, followed by Tcons for the treatment of patients with high-risk hematological malignancies.METHODSWe present interim evaluation of a single-center open phase I/II study of administration of human leukocyte-matched Tregs and CD34-selected hematopoietic cells, followed by infusion of an equal ratio of Tcons in adult patients undergoing myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) for high-risk or active hematological malignancies. Tregs were purified by immunomagnetic selection and high-speed cell sorting.RESULTSHere we report results for the first 12 patients who received Tregs of between 91% and 96% purity. Greater than grade II GVHD was noted in 2 patients in the first cohort of 5 patients, who received cryopreserved Tregs, but neither acute nor chronic GVHD was noted in the second cohort of 7 patients, who received fresh Tregs and single-agent GVHD prophylaxis. Patients in the second cohort appeared to have normal immune reconstitution compared with patients who underwent transplantation and did not develop GVHD.CONCLUSIONOur study shows that the use of highly purified fresh Tregs is clinically feasible and supports continued investigation of the strategy.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT01660607.FUNDINGNIH NHBLI R01 HL114591 and K08HL119590.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.127244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6542607PMC
May 2019

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation provides effective salvage despite refractory disease or failed prior autologous transplant in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: a CIBMTR analysis.

J Hematol Oncol 2019 01 10;12(1). Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd. PO Box 26509, Milwaukee, WI, 53226, USA.

Background: There is a paucity of data on the role of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) in patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). Using the CIBMTR registry, we report here the outcomes of AITL patients undergoing an allo-HCT.

Methods: We evaluated 249 adult AITL patients who received their first allo-HCT during 2000-2016.

Results: The median patient age was 56 years (range = 21-77). Majority of the patients were Caucasians (86%), with a male predominance (60%). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was predominantly calcineurin inhibitor-based approaches while the most common graft source was peripheral blood (97%). Median follow-up of survivors was 49 months (range = 4-170 months). The cumulative incidence of grade 2-4 and grade 3-4 acute GVHD at day 180 were 36% (95% CI = 30-42) and 12 (95% CI = 8-17), respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD at 1 year was 49% (95%CI 43-56). The 1-year non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 19% (95% CI = 14-24), while the 4-year relapse/progression, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were 21% (95% CI = 16-27), 49% (95% CI = 42-56), and 56% (95% CI = 49-63), respectively. On multivariate analysis, chemoresistant status at the time of allo-HCT was associated with a significantly higher risk for therapy failure (inverse of PFS) (RR = 1.73 95% CI = 1.08-2.77), while KPS < 90% was associated with a significantly higher risk of mortality (inverse of OS) (RR = 3.46 95% CI = 1.75-6.87).

Conclusion: Our analysis shows that allo-HCT provides durable disease control even in AITL patients who failed a prior auto-HCT and in those subjects with refractory disease at the time of allografting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-018-0696-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6329157PMC
January 2019

Outcomes of Medicare-age eligible NHL patients receiving RIC allogeneic transplantation: a CIBMTR analysis.

Blood Adv 2018 04;2(8):933-940

Hematology Department, Institut Català d'Oncologia-Hospitalet, Barcelona, Spain; and.

The application of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients ≥65 years in the United States is limited by lack of Medicare coverage for this indication. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) database, we report allo-HCT outcomes of NHL patients aged ≥65 years (older cohort; n = 446) compared with a cohort of younger NHL patients aged 55-64 years (n = 1183). We identified 1629 NHL patients undergoing a first reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) or nonmyeloablative conditioning allo-HCT from 2008 to 2015 in the United States. Cord blood or haploidentical transplants were excluded. The median age was 68 years (range 65-77) for the older cohort vs 60 years (range 55-64) in the younger cohort. The 4-year adjusted probabilities of nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse/progression (R/P), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) of the younger and older groups were 24% vs 30% ( = .03), 41% vs 42% ( = .82), 37% vs 31% ( = .03), and 51% vs 46% ( = .07), respectively. Using multivariate analysis, compared with the younger group, the older cohort was associated with increased NRM, but there was no difference between the 2 cohorts in terms of R/P, PFS, or OS. The most common cause of death was disease relapse in both groups. In NHL patients eligible for allo-HCT, there was no difference in OS between the 2 cohorts. Age alone should not determine allo-HCT eligibility in NHL, and Medicare should expand allo-HCT coverage to older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018018531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5916010PMC
April 2018

Infusion of donor-derived CD8 memory T cells for relapse following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Blood Adv 2018 03;2(6):681-690

Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation and.

Murine models showed that CD8CD44 memory T (T) cells could eradicate malignant cells without inducing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We evaluated the feasibility and safety of infusing freshly isolated and purified donor-derived phenotypic CD8 T cells into adults with disease relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Phenotypic CD8 T cells were isolated after unmobilized donor apheresis using a tandem immunomagnetic selection strategy of CD45RA depletion followed by CD8 enrichment. Fifteen patients received CD8 T cells at escalating doses (1 × 10, 5 × 10, or 10 × 10 cells per kg). Thirteen received cytoreduction before CD8 T cell infusion, and 9 had active disease at the time of infusion. Mean yield and purity of the CD8 T infusion were 38.1% and 92.8%, respectively; >90% had CD8 T effector memory phenotype, cytokine expression, and secretion profile. No adverse infusional events or dose-limiting toxicities occurred; GVHD developed in 1 patient (grade 2 liver). Ten patients (67%) maintained or achieved response (7 complete response, 1 partial response, 2 stable disease) for at least 3 months after infusion; 4 of the responders had active disease at the time of infusion. With a median follow-up from infusion of 328 days (range, 118-1328 days), median event-free survival and overall survival were 4.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1-19.3 months) and 19.6 months (95% CI, 5.6 months to not reached), respectively. Collection and enrichment of phenotypic CD8 T cells is feasible, well tolerated, and associated with a low incidence of GVHD when administered as a manipulated infusion of donor lymphocytes in patients who have relapsed after HCT. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01523223.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2017012104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5873230PMC
March 2018

Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease.

Authors:
Andrew R Rezvani

N Engl J Med 2018 02;378(6):585-586

Stanford University, Stanford, CA

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1716969DOI Listing
February 2018

HLA-mismatched unrelated donor transplantation using TLI-ATG conditioning has a low risk of GVHD and potent antitumor activity.

Blood Adv 2017 Jul 25;1(17):1347-1357. Epub 2017 Jul 25.

Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA.

Many patients lack a fully HLA-matched donor for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), and HLA mismatch is typically associated with inferior outcomes. Total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin (TLI-ATG) is a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen that is protective against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and we hypothesized that the protective effect would extend beyond HLA-matched donors. We report outcomes for all consecutively transplanted patients at Stanford University from December 2001 through May 2015 who received TLI-ATG conditioning and HCTs from 8 to 9 out of 10 HLA-mismatched unrelated donors (MMUDs, N = 72) compared with 10 out of 10 HLA-matched unrelated donors (MUDs, N = 193). The median age of the patients was 60 years with a median follow-up of 2 years, and there was a similar distribution of lymphoid and myeloid malignancies in both cohorts. There were no significant differences between MMUD and MUD cohorts in overall survival (46% vs 46% at 5 years, = .86), disease-free survival (38% vs 28% at 5 years, = .25), nonrelapse mortality (17% vs 12% at 2 years, = .34), acute GVHD grades III-IV (6% vs 3% at day +100, = .61), or chronic GVHD (39% vs 35% at 5 years, = .49). There was a trend toward less relapse in the MMUD cohort (45% vs 60% at 5 years, hazard ratio: 0.71, = .094), which was significant for patients with lymphoid malignancies (29% vs 57% at 5 years, hazard ratio: 0.55, = .044). Achieving full donor chimerism was strongly associated with lower relapse rates. TLI-ATG conditioning may overcome the traditionally poorer outcome associated with HLA-mismatched donors and may be particularly well suited for patients with lymphoid malignancies who lack HLA-matched donors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2017007716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5727975PMC
July 2017

Autologous Transplantation in Follicular Lymphoma with Early Therapy Failure: A National LymphoCare Study and Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Analysis.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 06 11;24(6):1163-1171. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

The Blood and Marrow Transplant Group of Georgia, Northside Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia.

Patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) experiencing early therapy failure (ETF) within 2 years of frontline chemoimmunotherapy have poor overall survival (OS). We analyzed data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) and the National LymphoCare Study (NLCS) to determine whether autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (autoHCT) can improve outcomes in this high-risk FL subgroup. ETF was defined as failure to achieve at least partial response after frontline chemoimmunotherapy or lymphoma progression within 2 years of frontline chemoimmunotherapy. We identified 2 groups: the non-autoHCT cohort (patients from the NLCS with ETF not undergoing autoHCT) and the autoHCT cohort (CIBMTR patients with ETF undergoing autoHCT). All patients received rituximab-based chemotherapy as frontline treatment; 174 non-autoHCT patients and 175 autoHCT patients were identified and analyzed. There was no difference in 5-year OS between the 2 groups (60% versus 67%, respectively; P = .16). A planned subgroup analysis showed that patients with ETF receiving autoHCT soon after treatment failure (≤1 year of ETF; n = 123) had higher 5-year OS than those without autoHCT (73% versus 60%, P = .05). On multivariate analysis, early use of autoHCT was associated with significantly reduced mortality (hazard ratio, .63; 95% confidence interval, .42 to .94; P = .02). Patients with FL experiencing ETF after frontline chemoimmunotherapy lack optimal therapy. We demonstrate improved OS when receiving autoHCT within 1 year of treatment failure. Results from this unique collaboration between the NLCS and CIBMTR support consideration of early consolidation with autoHCT in select FL patients experiencing ETF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.12.771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5993598PMC
June 2018

Increasing use of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients aged 70 years and older in the United States.

Blood 2017 08 3;130(9):1156-1164. Epub 2017 Jul 3.

Seidman Cancer Center, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH.

In this study, we evaluated trends and outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in adults ≥70 years with hematologic malignancies across the United States. Adults ≥70 years with a hematologic malignancy undergoing first allogeneic HCT in the United States between 2000 and 2013 and reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research were eligible. Transplant utilization and transplant outcomes, including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and transplant-related mortality (TRM) were studied. One thousand one hundred and six patients ≥70 years underwent HCT across 103 transplant centers. The number and proportion of allografts performed in this population rose markedly over the past decade, accounting for 0.1% of transplants in 2000 to 3.85% (N = 298) in 2013. Acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes represented the most common disease indications. Two-year OS and PFS significantly improved over time (OS: 26% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21% to 33%] in 2000-2007 to 39% [95% CI, 35% to 42%] in 2008-2013, < .001; PFS: 22% [16% to 28%] in 2000-2007 to 32% [95% CI, 29% to 36%] in 2008-2013, = .003). Two-year TRM ranged from 33% to 35% and was unchanged over time ( = .54). Multivariable analysis of OS in the modern era of 2008-2013 revealed higher comorbidity by HCT comorbidity index ≥3 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; = .006), umbilical cord blood graft (HR, 1.97; = .0002), and myeloablative conditioning (HR, 1.61; = .0002) as adverse factors. Over the past decade, utilization and survival after allogeneic transplant have increased in patients ≥70 years. Select adults ≥70 years with hematologic malignancies should be considered for transplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2017-03-772368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5580273PMC
August 2017

Rituximab-containing reduced-intensity conditioning improves progression-free survival following allogeneic transplantation in B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

J Hematol Oncol 2017 06 12;10(1):117. Epub 2017 Jun 12.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Background: In B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), rituximab-containing reduced-intensity conditioning regimens (R-RIC) have been shown to provide favorable outcomes in single-arm studies; however, large multicenter studies comparing R-RIC and non-rituximab-containing reduced-intensity conditioning regimens (nonR-RIC) have not been performed. Using the CIBMTR database, we report the outcomes of R-RIC versus nonR-RIC regimens in B-NHL.

Methods: We evaluated 1401 adult B-NHL patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) who received nonR-RIC (n = 1022) or R-RIC (n = 379) regimens. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was limited to calcineurin inhibitor-based approaches.

Results: Median follow-up of survivors in the R-RIC and nonR-RIC groups was 47 and 37 months, respectively. On multivariate analysis, no difference was seen between the R-RIC and nonR-RIC cohorts in terms of acute GVHD grade II-IV (RR = 1.14, 95%CI = 0.83-1.56, p = 0.43) or grade III-IV (RR = 1.16, 95%CI = 0.72-1.89, p = 0.54), chronic GVHD (RR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.92-1.46, p = 0.22), non-relapse mortality (RR = 0.90; 95%CI = 0.67-1.22; p = 0.51), relapse/progression (RR = 0.79; 95%CI = 0.63-1.01; p = 0.055), and mortality (RR = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.69-1.02, p = 0.08) risk. However, R-RIC was associated with a significantly improved progression-free survival (RR = 0.76; 95%CI 0.62-0.92; p = 0.006). On subgroup analysis, mortality benefit was noted in the R-RIC group patients not receiving busulfan-based RIC (RR = 0.76; 95%CI = 0.60-0.96; p = 0.02) and with the use of a higher cumulative rituximab dose (RR = 0.43; 95%CI = 0.21-0.90; p = 0.02).

Conclusion: Our analysis shows that inclusion of rituximab in RIC regimens improves progression-free survival in patients with B cell NHL. These data supports the use of R-RIC in B-NHL patients undergoing allo-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-017-0487-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5469142PMC
June 2017

Ibrutinib efficacy and tolerability in patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia following allogeneic HCT.

Blood 2016 12 1;128(25):2899-2908. Epub 2016 Nov 1.

Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.

Ibrutinib, a potent and irreversible small-molecule inhibitor of both Bruton's tyrosine kinase and interleukin-2 inducible kinase (ITK), has been used to treat relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with prolongation of progression-free and overall survival. Here, we present 27 patients with relapsed CLL following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) who subsequently received ibrutinib salvage therapy. Sixteen of these patients were part of multi-institutional clinical trials and achieved an overall response rate of 87.5%. An additional 11 patients were treated at Stanford University following US Food and Drug Administration approval of ibrutinib; 7 (64%) achieved a complete response, and 3 (27%) achieved a partial response. Of the 9 patients treated at Stanford who had mixed chimerism-associated CLL relapse, 4 (44%) converted to full donor chimerism following ibrutinib initiation, in association with disease response. Four of 11 (36%) patients evaluated by ClonoSeq achieved minimal residual disease negativity with CLL <1/10 000 white blood cells, which persisted even after ibrutinib was discontinued, in 1 case even after 26 months. None of the 27 patients developed graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) following ibrutinib initiation. We postulate that ibrutinib augments the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) benefit through a T-cell-mediated effect, most likely due to ITK inhibition. To investigate the immune modulatory effects of ibrutinib, we completed comprehensive immune phenotype characterization of peripheral B and T cells from treated patients. Our results show that ibrutinib selectively targets pre-germinal B cells and depletes Th2 helper cells. Furthermore, these effects persisted after drug discontinuation. In total, our results provide evidence that ibrutinib effectively augments GVL without causing GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-06-715284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5179333PMC
December 2016

A new standard for HIV-associated lymphoma.

Authors:
Andrew R Rezvani

Blood 2016 08;128(8):1026-7

STANFORD UNIVERSITY.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-06-723890DOI Listing
August 2016
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