Publications by authors named "Andrew Odhiambo"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Knowledge, Practice, and Attitudes of Physicians in Low- and Middle-Income Countries on Fertility and Pregnancy-Related Issues in Young Women With Breast Cancer.

JCO Glob Oncol 2022 Jan;8:e2100153

Department of Medical Oncology, U.O. Clinica di Oncologia Medica, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy.

Purpose: Fertility and pregnancy-related issues are highly relevant for young (≤ 40 years) patients with breast cancer. Limited evidence exists on knowledge, practice, and attitudes of physicians from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) regarding these issues.

Methods: A 19-item questionnaire adapted from an international survey exploring issues about fertility preservation and pregnancy after breast cancer was sent by e-mail between November 2019 and January 2020 to physicians from LMICs involved in breast cancer care. Descriptive analyses were performed.

Results: A total of 288 physicians from Asia, Africa, America, and Europe completed the survey. Median age was 38 years. Responders were mainly medical oncologists (44.4%) working in an academic setting (46.9%). Among responders, 40.2% and 53.8% reported having never consulted the available international guidelines on fertility preservation and pregnancy after breast cancer, respectively. 25.0%, 19.1%, and 24.3% of responders answered to be not at all knowledgeable about embryo, oocyte, or ovarian tissue cryopreservation, respectively; 29.2%, 23.6%, and 31.3% declared that embryo, oocyte, and ovarian tissue cryopreservation were not available in their countries, respectively. 57.6% of responders disagreed or were neutral on the statement that controlled ovarian stimulation can be considered safe in patients with breast cancer. 49.7% and 58.6% of responders agreed or were neutral on the statement that pregnancy in breast cancer survivors may increase the risk of recurrence overall or only in those with hormone receptor-positive disease, respectively.

Conclusion: This survey showed suboptimal knowledge, practice, and attitudes of physicians from LMICs on fertility preservation and pregnancy after treatment completion in young women with breast cancer. Increasing awareness and education on these aspects are needed to improve adherence to available guidelines and to promote patients' oncofertility counseling.
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January 2022

The Emerging Role of Liquid Biopsy in Gastric Cancer.

J Clin Med 2021 May 13;10(10). Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa 1560, Ethiopia.

(1) Background: Liquid biopsy (LB) is a novel diagnostic method with the potential of revolutionizing the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of several solid tumors. The present paper aims to summarize the current knowledge and explore future possibilities of LB in the management of metastatic gastric cancer. (2) Methods: This narrative review examined the most recent literature on the use of LB-based techniques in metastatic gastric cancer and the current LB-related clinical trial landscape. (3) Results: In gastric cancer, the detection of circulating cancer cells (CTCs) has been recognized to have a prognostic role in all the disease stages. In the setting of localized disease, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) qualitative and quantitative detection have the potential to inform on the risk of cancer recurrence and metastatic dissemination. In addition, gastric cancer-released exosomes may play an essential part in metastasis formation. In the metastatic setting, the levels of cfDNA show a positive correlation with tumor burden. There is evidence that circulating tumor microemboli (CTM) in the blood of metastatic patients is an independent prognostic factor for shorter overall survival. Gastric cancer-derived exosomal microRNAs or clonal mutations and copy number variations detectable in ctDNA may contribute resistance to chemotherapy or targeted therapies, respectively. There is conflicting and limited data on CTC-based PD-L1 verification and cfDNA-based Epstein-Barr virus detection to predict or monitor immunotherapy responses. (4) Conclusions: Although preliminary studies analyzing LBs in patients with advanced gastric cancer appear promising, more research is required to obtain better insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to systemic therapies. Moreover, validation and standardization of LB methods are crucial before introducing them in clinical practice. The feasibility of repeatable, minimally invasive sampling opens up the possibility of selecting or dynamically changing therapies based on prognostic risk or predictive biomarkers, such as resistance markers. Research is warranted to exploit a possible transforming area of cancer care.
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May 2021

Cytopenia among CML Patients on Imatinib in Kenya: Types, Grades, and Time Course.

Adv Hematol 2020 12;2020:7696204. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Imatinib mesylate is the gold standard for the treatment of all phases of Philadelphia-positive chronic myeloid leukemia. Patients on imatinib treatment may develop cytopenia due to drug toxicity. This study aimed to determine the types, grades, and time course of cytopenia in CML patients on imatinib at a Nairobi hospital.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of adult patients aged ≥18 years followed up at the Glivec International Patient Access Program (GIPAP) clinic from 2007 to 2015. Patients who developed cytopenia within 12 months of initiating imatinib were eligible. Clinical and hematologic data were retrieved from the patients' charts and entered into a study proforma. Measures of central tendency such as mean, median, mode, standard deviation, and variance were used for analysis.

Results: Sixty three percent (63.6%) of the 94 patients developed a monocytopenia, with anemia seen in 34%, neutropenia in 27.6%, and thrombocytopenia in 8% of the 94 patients. Anemia plus neutropenia was the most common bicytopenia at 12.7%. Pancytopenia was seen in only 5 of the 94 patients. Most of the cytopenia was grades 2 and 3. Anemia was present at baseline while neutropenia and thrombocytopenia developed within 12 months of imatinib initiation. Anemia resolved during the first 12 months of therapy while neutropenia and thrombocytopenia resolved within 24-36 months of treatment.

Conclusion: Monocytopenia, especially anemia, was the most common type of cytopenia. The cytopenia was predominantly grade 2, developed in majority of the patients within 6 months after imatinib initiation, and had resolved by 24-36 months after imatinib initiation.
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May 2020

Treatment of Patients With Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer: ASCO Resource-Stratified Guideline.

JCO Glob Oncol 2020 03;6:414-438

Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH.

Purpose: To provide expert guidance to clinicians and policymakers in resource-constrained settings on the management of patients with late-stage colorectal cancer.

Methods: ASCO convened a multidisciplinary, multinational Expert Panel that reviewed existing guidelines, conducted a modified ADAPTE process, and used a formal consensus process with additional experts for two rounds of formal ratings.

Results: Existing sets of guidelines from four guideline developers were identified and reviewed; adapted recommendations from five guidelines form the evidence base and provided evidence to inform the formal consensus process, which resulted in agreement of ≥ 75% on all recommendations.

Recommendations: Common elements of symptom management include addressing clinically acute situations. Diagnosis should involve the primary tumor and, in some cases, endoscopy, and staging should involve digital rectal exam and/or imaging, depending on resources available. Most patients receive treatment with chemotherapy, where chemotherapy is available. If, after a period of chemotherapy, patients become candidates for surgical resection with curative intent of both primary tumor and liver or lung metastatic lesions on the basis of evaluation in multidisciplinary tumor boards, the guidelines recommend patients undergo surgery in centers of expertise if possible. On-treatment surveillance includes a combination of taking medical history, performing physical examinations, blood work, and imaging; specifics, including frequency, depend on resource-based setting.Additional information is available at
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March 2020