Publications by authors named "Andrew N Miller"

63 Publications

Resolving the Mortierellaceae phylogeny through synthesis of multi-gene phylogenetics and phylogenomics.

Fungal Divers 2020 Sep 16;104(1):267-289. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824, USA.

Early efforts to classify Mortierellaceae were based on macro- and micromorphology, but sequencing and phylogenetic studies with ribosomal DNA (rDNA) markers have demonstrated conflicting taxonomic groupings and polyphyletic genera. Although some taxonomic confusion in the family has been clarified, rDNA data alone is unable to resolve higher level phylogenetic relationships within Mortierellaceae. In this study, we applied two parallel approaches to resolve the Mortierellaceae phylogeny: low coverage genome (LCG) sequencing and high-throughput, multiplexed targeted amplicon sequencing to generate sequence data for multi-gene phylogenetics. We then combined our datasets to provide a well-supported genome-based phylogeny having broad sampling depth from the amplicon dataset. Resolving the Mortierellaceae phylogeny into monophyletic groups led to the definition of 14 genera, 7 of which are newly proposed. Low-coverage genome sequencing proved to be a relatively cost-effective means of generating a well-resolved phylogeny. The multi-gene phylogenetics approach enabled much greater sampling depth and breadth than the LCG approach, but was unable to resolve higher-level organization of groups. We present this work to resolve some of the taxonomic confusion and provide a genus-level framework to empower future studies on Mortierellaceae diversity, biology, and evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13225-020-00455-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7751987PMC
September 2020

Setting scientific names at all taxonomic ranks in italics facilitates their quick recognition in scientific papers.

IMA Fungus 2020 Nov 17;11(1):25. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD, UK.

It is common practice in scientific journals to print genus and species names in italics. This is not only historical as species names were traditionally derived from Greek or Latin. Importantly, it also facilitates the rapid recognition of genus and species names when skimming through manuscripts. However, names above the genus level are not always italicized, except in some journals which have adopted this practice for all scientific names. Since scientific names treated under the various Codes of nomenclature are without exception treated as Latin, there is no reason why names above genus level should be handled differently, particularly as higher taxon names are becoming increasingly relevant in systematic and evolutionary studies and their italicization would aid the unambiguous recognition of formal scientific names distinguishing them from colloquial names. Several leading mycological and botanical journals have already adopted italics for names of all taxa regardless of rank over recent decades, as is the practice in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, and we hereby recommend that this practice be taken up broadly in scientific journals and textbooks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43008-020-00048-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7670697PMC
November 2020

The taxonomy of the model filamentous fungus .

MycoKeys 2020 25;75:51-69. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Systematic Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden Uppsala Univeristy Uppsala Sweden.

The filamentous fungus has been used as a model organism for more than 100 years and has proved to be an invaluable resource in numerous areas of research. Throughout this period, has been embroiled in a number of taxonomic controversies regarding the proper name under which it should be called. The most recent taxonomic treatment proposed to change the name of this important species to . The results of past name changes of this species indicate that the broader research community is unlikely to accept this change, which will lead to nomenclatural instability and confusion in literature. Here, we review the phylogeny of the species closely related to and provide evidence that currently available marker information is insufficient to resolve the relationships amongst many of the lineages. We argue that it is not only premature to propose a new name for based on current data, but also that every effort should be made to retain as the current name to ensure stability and to minimise confusion in scientific literature. Therefore, we synonymise with and suggest that either the type species of be moved to from or that all species within the Podosporaceae be placed in the genus .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.75.55968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710671PMC
November 2020

Delimitation, new species and teleomorph-anamorph relationships in , , and (Chaetosphaeriaceae).

MycoKeys 2020 19;74:17-74. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois 61820, USA University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Champaign United States of America.

The Chaetosphaeriaceae are a diverse group of pigmented, predominantly phialidic hyphomycetes comprised of several holomorphic genera including , the most prominent genus of the family. Although the morphology of the teleomorphs of the majority of is rather uniform, their associated anamorphs primarily exhibit the variability and evolutionary change observed in the genus. An exception from the morphological monotony among species is a group characterised by scolecosporous, hyaline to light pink, multiseptate, asymmetrical ascospores and a unique three-layered ascomatal wall. , the type species of the genus, exhibits these morphological traits and is compared with similar with craspedodidymum- and chloridium-like synanamorphs. Morphological comparison and phylogenetic analyses of the combined ITS-28S sequences of 35 isolates and vouchers with these characteristics revealed a strongly-supported, morphologically well-delimited clade in the Chaetosphaeriaceae containing 16 species. The generic name is applied to this monophyletic clade; eight new combinations and five new species, i.e. , , , and , are proposed. A key to is provided. Using morphology, cultivation studies and phylogenetic analyses of ITS and 28S rDNA, two additional new species from freshwater and terrestrial habitats, and , are described in the family. A codinaea-like anamorph of forms conidia with setulae at each end in axenic culture; this feature expands the known morphology of . A chaetosphaeria-like teleomorph is experimentally linked to , a sporodochial hyphomycete and type species of , for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.74.57824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7588497PMC
October 2020

Re-Evaluation of the Order Sordariales: Delimitation of Lasiosphaeriaceae s. str., and Introduction of the New Families Diplogelasinosporaceae, Naviculisporaceae, and Schizotheciaceae.

Microorganisms 2020 Sep 17;8(9). Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Mycology Unit, Medical School and IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/ Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Tarragona, Spain.

The order Sordariales includes the polyphyletic family Lasiosphaeriaceae, which comprises approximately 30 genera characterized by its paraphysate ascomata, asci with apical apparati, and mostly two-celled ascospores, which have a dark apical cell and a hyaline lower cell, frequently ornamented with mucilaginous appendages[...].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565071PMC
September 2020

Unambiguous identification of fungi: where do we stand and how accurate and precise is fungal DNA barcoding?

IMA Fungus 2020 10;11:14. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi, Champaign, IL USA.

True fungi () and fungus-like organisms (e.g. , ) constitute the second largest group of organisms based on global richness estimates, with around 3 million predicted species. Compared to plants and animals, fungi have simple body plans with often morphologically and ecologically obscure structures. This poses challenges for accurate and precise identifications. Here we provide a conceptual framework for the identification of fungi, encouraging the approach of integrative (polyphasic) taxonomy for species delimitation, i.e. the combination of genealogy (phylogeny), phenotype (including autecology), and reproductive biology (when feasible). This allows objective evaluation of diagnostic characters, either phenotypic or molecular or both. Verification of identifications is crucial but often neglected. Because of clade-specific evolutionary histories, there is currently no single tool for the identification of fungi, although DNA barcoding using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) remains a first diagnosis, particularly in metabarcoding studies. Secondary DNA barcodes are increasingly implemented for groups where ITS does not provide sufficient precision. Issues of pairwise sequence similarity-based identifications and OTU clustering are discussed, and multiple sequence alignment-based phylogenetic approaches with subsequent verification are recommended as more accurate alternatives. In metabarcoding approaches, the trade-off between speed and accuracy and precision of molecular identifications must be carefully considered. Intragenomic variation of the ITS and other barcoding markers should be properly documented, as phylotype diversity is not necessarily a proxy of species richness. Important strategies to improve molecular identification of fungi are: (1) broadly document intraspecific and intragenomic variation of barcoding markers; (2) substantially expand sequence repositories, focusing on undersampled clades and missing taxa; (3) improve curation of sequence labels in primary repositories and substantially increase the number of sequences based on verified material; (4) link sequence data to digital information of voucher specimens including imagery. In parallel, technological improvements to genome sequencing offer promising alternatives to DNA barcoding in the future. Despite the prevalence of DNA-based fungal taxonomy, phenotype-based approaches remain an important strategy to catalog the global diversity of fungi and establish initial species hypotheses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43008-020-00033-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7353689PMC
July 2020

Pyrophilous fungi detected after wildfires in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park expand known species ranges and biodiversity estimates.

Mycologia 2020 Jul-Aug;112(4):677-698. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California , Berkeley, California 94520-3102.

Following a late fall wildfire in 2016 in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, pyrophilous fungi in burn zones were documented over a 2-y period with respect to burn severity and phenology. Nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) barcodes were obtained to confirm morphological evaluations. Forty-one taxa of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were identified from burn sites and categorized as fruiting only in response to fire or fruiting enhanced by fire. Twenty-two species of Pezizales (Ascomycota) were among the earliest to form ascomata in severe burn zones, only one of which had previously been documented in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Nineteen species of Basidiomycota, primarily Agaricales, were also documented. Among these, only five species (, and ) were considered to be obligate pyrophilous taxa, but fruiting of two additional taxa ( and ) was clearly enhanced by fire. was an early colonizer of severe burn sites and persisted through the winter of 2017 and into spring and summer of 2018, often appearing in close association with seedlings. Fruiting of pyrophilous fungi peaked 4-6 mo post fire then diminished, but some continued to fruit up to 2.5 y after the fire. In all, a total of 27 previously unrecorded taxa were added to the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI) database (~0.9%). Most pyrophilous fungi identified in this study are either cosmopolitan or have a Northern Hemisphere distribution, but cryptic endemic lineages were detected in and . One new combination, var. f. , is proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2020.1740381DOI Listing
June 2020

Secret lifestyles of pyrophilous fungi in the genus Sphaerosporella.

Am J Bot 2020 06 4;107(6):876-885. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

School of Integrated Plant Science, Cornell University, 334 Plant Science Building, Ithaca, NY, 14853-5904, USA.

Premise: Pyrophilous fungi form aboveground fruiting structures (ascocarps) following wildfires, but their ecology, natural history, and life cycles in the absence of wildfires are largely unknown. Sphaerosporella is considered to be pyrophilous. This study explores Sphaerosporella ascocarp appearance following a rare 2016 wildfire in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP), compares the timing of ascocarp formation with recovery of Sphaerosporella DNA sequences in soils, and explores the association of Sphaerosporella with post-fire Table Mountain pine (Pinus pungens) seedlings.

Methods: Burned sites in the GSMNP were surveyed for pyrophilous fungal ascocarps over 2 years. Ascocarps, mycorrhizae, and endophyte cultures were evaluated morphologically and by Sanger sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal ITS gene region (fungal barcode; Schoch et al., 2012). DNA from soil cores was subjected to Illumina sequencing.

Results: The timing and location of post-fire Sphaerosporella ascocarp formation was correlated with recovery of Sphaerosporella DNA sequences in soils. Genetic markers (fungal barcode) of Sphaerosporella were also recovered from mycorrhizal root tips and endophyte cultures from seedlings of Pinus pungens.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that Sphaerosporella species, in the absence of fire, are biotrophic, forming both mycorrhizal and endophytic associations with developing Pinus pungens seedlings and may persist in nature in the absence of wildfire as a conifer symbiont. We speculate that Sphaerosporella may fruit only after the host plant is damaged or destroyed and that after wildfires, deep roots, needle endophytes, or heat-resistant spores could serve as a source of soil mycelium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.1482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7384086PMC
June 2020

Structure elucidation and absolute configuration of metabolites from the soil-derived fungus Dictyosporium digitatum using spectroscopic and computational methods.

Phytochemistry 2020 May 17;173:112278. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Molecular Targets Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD, 21702-1201, United States. Electronic address:

Following the discovery of a new class of compounds that inhibit the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation 1 (MALT1) protease in a prior study, further chemical investigation of the Dictyosporium digitatum fungus resulted in the identification of 16 additional metabolites, including 12 undescribed compounds (1-12). The constitution and relative configuration of these new molecules were established by comprehensive NMR and HRMS analyses. Their absolute configurations were determined by employing Mosher's ester analysis and TDDFT ECD calculations. Two sesquiterpenes, dictyosporins A (1) and B (2), possess an undescribed eudesmen-type of structural scaffold. The ability of the isolated compounds to inhibit MALT1 proteolytic activity was evaluated, but none of them exhibited significant inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2020.112278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7124996PMC
May 2020

Agglutinin-Like Sequence () Genes in the Species Complex: Blurring the Boundaries Between Gene Families That Encode Cell-Wall Proteins.

Front Microbiol 2019 26;10:781. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States.

The agglutinin-like sequence (Als) proteins are best-characterized in and known for their role in adhesion of the fungal cell to host and abiotic surfaces. sequences are often misassembled in whole-genome sequence data because each species has multiple loci that contain similar sequences, most notably tandem copies of highly conserved repeated sequences. The species complex includes , , and , three distinct but closely related species. Using publicly available genome resources, genome assemblies, and laboratory experimentation including Sanger sequencing, five genes were characterized in strain CDC317, three in strain 90-125, and four in strain ATCC 96143. The newly characterized genes shared similar features with the well-known family, but also displayed unique attributes such as novel short, imperfect repeat sequences that were found in other genes encoding fungal cell-wall proteins. Evidence of recombination between sequences and other genes was most obvious in , which had the 5' end of an gene and the repeated sequences and 3' end from the family. Together, these results blur the boundaries between the fungal cell-wall families that were defined in . TaqMan assays were used to quantify relative expression for each gene. Some measurements were complicated by the assay location within the gene. Considerable variation was noted in relative gene expression for isolates of the same species. Overall, however, there was a trend toward higher relative gene expression in saturated cultures rather than younger cultures. This work provides a complete description of the genes in the species complex and a toolkit that promotes further investigations into the role of the Als proteins in host-fungal interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6499006PMC
April 2019

rMyCoPortal - an R package to interface with the Mycology Collections Portal.

Biodivers Data J 2019 14(7):e31511. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, United States of America University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Champaign United States of America.

The understanding of the biodiversity and biogeographical distribution of fungi is still limited. The small number of online databases and the large effort required to access existing data have prevented their use in research articles. The Mycology Collections Portal was established in 2012 to help alleviate these issues and currently serves data online for over 4.3 million fungal records. However, the current process for accessing the data through the web interface is manual, therefore slow, and precludes the extensive use of the existing datasets. Here we introduce the software package rMyCoPortal, which allows users rapid, automated access to the data. rMyCoPortal makes data readily available for further computations and analyses in the open source statistical programming environment R. We will demonstrate the core functions of the package, and how rMyCoPortal can be employed to obtain fungal data that can be used to address basic research questions. rMyCoPortal is a free and open-source R package, available via GitHub.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.7.e31511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341041PMC
January 2019

Secondary Metabolites from the Fungus Dictyosporium sp. and Their MALT1 Inhibitory Activities.

J Nat Prod 2019 01 2;82(1):154-162. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Molecular Targets Program, Center of Cancer Research , National Cancer Institute , Frederick , Maryland 21701-1201 , United States.

Bioassay-guided separation of an extract from a Dictyosporium sp. isolate led to the identification of six new compounds, 1-6, together with five known compounds, 7-11. The structures of the new compounds were primarily established by extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The absolute configurations of compounds 3-6 were determined by comparison of their experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra with DFT quantum mechanical calculated ECD spectra. Compounds 3-5 possess novel structural scaffolds, and biochemical studies revealed that oxepinochromenones 1 and 7 inhibited the activity of MALT1 protease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.8b00871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7462088PMC
January 2019

, a New Genus and Species of Onygenalean Fungus Isolated from Shell Lesions of Freshwater Aquatic Turtles.

J Clin Microbiol 2019 02 30;57(2). Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Zoological Pathology Program, Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Brookfield, Illinois, USA.

The fungal order includes many pathogens of humans and animals, and recent studies have shown some onygenalean fungi to be significant emerging pathogens of reptiles. Although many of these fungi have similar morphological features in histologic tissue sections, recent molecular analyses have revealed a genetically complex and diverse group of reptile pathogens comprising several genera, most notably , , and Infections by members of these genera have been previously reported in a variety of reptile species, including crocodilians, lizards, snakes, and tuataras, with negative impacts on conservation efforts for some reptiles. Despite the well-documented pathogenicity of these fungi in all other extant reptile lineages, infection has not yet been reported in aquatic turtles. In this study, we report the isolation of an onygenalean fungus associated with shell lesions in freshwater aquatic turtles. The morphologic and genetic characteristics of multiple isolates ( = 21) are described and illustrated. Based on these features and results of a multigene phylogenetic analysis, a new genus and species, , are proposed for these fungi isolated from turtle shell lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00628-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355550PMC
February 2019

Revision of pyrophilous taxa of Pholiota described from North America reveals four species-P. brunnescens, P. castanea, P. highlandensis, and P. molesta.

Mycologia 2018 Nov-Dec;110(6):997-1016. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

a Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology , University of Tennessee , Dabney 569, Knoxville , Tennessee 37996-1610.

A systematic reevaluation of North American pyrophilous or "burn-loving" species of Pholiota is presented based on molecular and morphological examination of type and historical collections. Confusion surrounds application of the names P. brunnescens, P. carbonaria, P. castanea, P. fulvozonata, P. highlandensis, P. molesta, and P. subsaponacea, with multiple names applied to a single species and multiple species described more than once. Molecular annotations using nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer [ITS] barcode) and RPB2 (RNA polymerase II second largest subunit) are used to aid in application of these names in a phylogenetic context. Based on ITS molecular annotations of 13 types, the following heterotypic synonymies are proposed: P. highlandensis (syn. P. carbonaria and P. fulvozonata); P. molesta (syn. P. subsaponacea); and P. brunnescens (syn. P. luteobadia). In addition, we observed that the species P. castanea, known previously only from the type collection in Tennessee, is found commonly on burned sites near the Gulf Coast and other southeast regions of the United States. Overall, the pyrophilous trait is evolutionarily derived in Pholiota. Endophytic and endolichenic stages were deduced for P. highlandensis, the most widely distributed of the pyrophilous Pholiota. As a result, we introduce the "body snatchers" hypothesis that explains the maintenance of some pyrophilous fungi in ecosystems as endophytes and/or endolichenic fungi. Photographs, taxonomic descriptions, and a dichotomous key to pyrophilous species of Pholiota that occur in North America are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2018.1516960DOI Listing
April 2019

Ten reasons why a sequence-based nomenclature is not useful for fungi anytime soon.

IMA Fungus 2018 Jun 28;9(1):177-183. Epub 2018 May 28.

Department of Microbial Drugs, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung, Inhoffenstrasse 7, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany.

The large number of species still to be discovered in fungi, together with an exponentially growing number of environmental sequences that cannot be linked to known taxa, has fuelled the idea that it might be necessary to formally name fungi on the basis of sequence data only. Here we object to this idea due to several shortcomings of the approach, ranging from concerns regarding reproducibility and the violation of general scientific principles to ethical issues. We come to the conclusion that sequence-based nomenclature is potentially harmful for mycology as a discipline. Additionally, a classification based on sequences as types is not within reach anytime soon, because there is a lack of consensus regarding common standards due to the fast pace at which sequencing technologies develop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.01.11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6048572PMC
June 2018

Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa.

Authors:
Juan Carlos Zamora Måns Svensson Roland Kirschner Ibai Olariaga Svengunnar Ryman Luis Alberto Parra József Geml Anna Rosling Slavomír Adamčík Teuvo Ahti M Catherine Aime A Martyn Ainsworth László Albert Edgardo Albertó Alberto Altés García Dmitry Ageev Reinhard Agerer Begoña Aguirre-Hudson Joe Ammirati Harry Andersson Claudio Angelini Vladimír Antonín Takayuki Aoki André Aptroot Didier Argaud Blanca Imelda Arguello Sosa Arne Aronsen Ulf Arup Bita Asgari Boris Assyov Violeta Atienza Ditte Bandini João Luís Baptista-Ferreira Hans-Otto Baral Tim Baroni Robert Weingart Barreto Henry Beker Ann Bell Jean-Michel Bellanger Francesco Bellù Martin Bemmann Mika Bendiksby Egil Bendiksen Katriina Bendiksen Lajos Benedek Anna Bérešová-Guttová Franz Berger Reinhard Berndt Annarosa Bernicchia Alona Yu Biketova Enrico Bizio Curtis Bjork Teun Boekhout David Boertmann Tanja Böhning Florent Boittin Carlos G Boluda Menno W Boomsluiter Jan Borovička Tor Erik Brandrud Uwe Braun Irwin Brodo Tatiana Bulyonkova Harold H Burdsall Bart Buyck Ana Rosa Burgaz Vicent Calatayud Philippe Callac Emanuele Campo Massimo Candusso Brigitte Capoen Joaquim Carbó Matteo Carbone Rafael F Castañeda-Ruiz Michael A Castellano Jie Chen Philippe Clerc Giovanni Consiglio Gilles Corriol Régis Courtecuisse Ana Crespo Cathy Cripps Pedro W Crous Gladstone Alves da Silva Meiriele da Silva Marjo Dam Nico Dam Frank Dämmrich Kanad Das Linda Davies Eske De Crop Andre De Kesel Ruben De Lange Bárbara De Madrignac Bonzi Thomas Edison E Dela Cruz Lynn Delgat Vincent Demoulin Dennis E Desjardin Paul Diederich Bálint Dima Maria Martha Dios Pradeep Kumar Divakar Clovis Douanla-Meli Brian Douglas Elisandro Ricardo Drechsler-Santos Paul S Dyer Ursula Eberhardt Damien Ertz Fernando Esteve-Raventós Javier Angel Etayo Salazar Vera Evenson Guillaume Eyssartier Edit Farkas Alain Favre Anna G Fedosova Mario Filippa Péter Finy Adam Flakus Simón Fos Jacques Fournier André Fraiture Paolo Franchi Ana Esperanza Franco Molano Gernot Friebes Andreas Frisch Alan Fryday Giuliana Furci Ricardo Galán Márquez Matteo Garbelotto Joaquina María García-Martín Mónica A García Otálora Dania García Sánchez Alain Gardiennet Sigisfredo Garnica Isaac Garrido Benavent Genevieve Gates Alice da Cruz Lima Gerlach Masoomeh Ghobad-Nejhad Tatiana B Gibertoni Tine Grebenc Irmgard Greilhuber Bella Grishkan Johannes Z Groenewald Martin Grube Gérald Gruhn Cécile Gueidan Gro Gulden Luis Fp Gusmão Josef Hafellner Michel Hairaud Marek Halama Nils Hallenberg Roy E Halling Karen Hansen Christoffer Bugge Harder Jacob Heilmann-Clausen Stip Helleman Alain Henriot Margarita Hernandez-Restrepo Raphaël Herve Caroline Hobart Mascha Hoffmeister Klaus Høiland Jan Holec Håkon Holien Karen Hughes Vit Hubka Seppo Huhtinen Boris Ivančević Marian Jagers Walter Jaklitsch AnnaElise Jansen Ruvishika S Jayawardena Thomas Stjernegaard Jeppesen Mikael Jeppson Peter Johnston Per Magnus Jørgensen Ingvar Kärnefelt Liudmila B Kalinina Gintaras Kantvilas Mitko Karadelev Taiga Kasuya Ivona Kautmanová Richard W Kerrigan Martin Kirchmair Anna Kiyashko Dániel G Knapp Henning Knudsen Kerry Knudsen Tommy Knutsson Miroslav Kolařík Urmas Kõljalg Alica Košuthová Attila Koszka Heikki Kotiranta Vera Kotkova Ondřej Koukol Jiří Kout Gábor M Kovács Martin Kříž Åsa Kruys Viktor Kučera Linas Kudzma Francisco Kuhar Martin Kukwa T K Arun Kumar Vladimír Kunca Ivana Kušan Thomas W Kuyper Carlos Lado Thomas Læssøe Patrice Lainé Ewald Langer Ellen Larsson Karl-Henrik Larsson Gary Laursen Christian Lechat Serena Lee James C Lendemer Laura Levin Uwe Lindemann Håkan Lindström Xingzhong Liu Regulo Carlos Llarena Hernandez Esteve Llop Csaba Locsmándi Deborah Jean Lodge Michael Loizides László Lőkös Jennifer Luangsa-Ard Matthias Lüderitz Thorsten Lumbsch Matthias Lutz Dan Mahoney Ekaterina Malysheva Vera Malysheva Patinjareveettil Manimohan Yasmina Marin-Felix Guilhermina Marques Rubén Martínez-Gil Guy Marson Gerardo Mata P Brandon Matheny Geir Harald Mathiassen Neven Matočec Helmut Mayrhofer Mehdi Mehrabi Ireneia Melo Armin Mešić Andrew S Methven Otto Miettinen Ana M Millanes Romero Andrew N Miller James K Mitchell Roland Moberg Pierre-Arthur Moreau Gabriel Moreno Olga Morozova Asunción Morte Lucia Muggia Guillermo Muñoz González Leena Myllys István Nagy László G Nagy Maria Alice Neves Tuomo Niemelä Pier Luigi Nimis Nicolas Niveiro Machiel E Noordeloos Anders Nordin Sara Raouia Noumeur Yuri Novozhilov Jorinde Nuytinck Esteri Ohenoja Patricia Oliveira Fiuza Alan Orange Alexander Ordynets Beatriz Ortiz-Santana Leticia Pacheco Ferenc Pál-Fám Melissa Palacio Zdeněk Palice Viktor Papp Kadri Pärtel Julia Pawlowska Aurelia Paz Ursula Peintner Shaun Pennycook Olinto Liparini Pereira Pablo Pérez Daniëls Miquel À Pérez-De-Gregorio Capella Carlos Manuel Pérez Del Amo Sergio Pérez Gorjón Sergio Pérez-Ortega Israel Pérez-Vargas Brian A Perry Jens H Petersen Ronald H Petersen Donald H Pfister Chayanard Phukhamsakda Marcin Piątek Meike Piepenbring Raquel Pino-Bodas Juan Pablo Pinzón Esquivel Paul Pirot Eugene S Popov Orlando Popoff María Prieto Álvaro Christian Printzen Nadezhda Psurtseva Witoon Purahong Luis Quijada Gerhard Rambold Natalia A Ramírez Huzefa Raja Olivier Raspé Tania Raymundo Martina Réblová Yury A Rebriev Juan de Dios Reyes García Miguel Ángel Ribes Ripoll Franck Richard Mike J Richardson Víctor J Rico Gerardo Lucio Robledo Flavia Rodrigues Barbosa Cristina Rodriguez-Caycedo Pamela Rodriguez-Flakus Anna Ronikier Luis Rubio Casas Katerina Rusevska Günter Saar Irja Saar Isabel Salcedo Sergio M Salcedo Martínez Carlos A Salvador Montoya Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez J Vladimir Sandoval-Sierra Sergi Santamaria Josiane Santana Monteiro Hans Josef Schroers Barbara Schulz Geert Schmidt-Stohn Trond Schumacher Beatrice Senn-Irlet Hana Ševčíková Oleg Shchepin Takashi Shirouzu Anton Shiryaev Klaus Siepe Esteban B Sir Mohammad Sohrabi Karl Soop Viacheslav Spirin Toby Spribille Marc Stadler Joost Stalpers Soili Stenroos Ave Suija Stellan Sunhede Sten Svantesson Sigvard Svensson Tatyana Yu Svetasheva Krzysztof Świerkosz Heidi Tamm Hatira Taskin Adrien Taudière Jan-Olof Tedebrand Raúl Tena Lahoz Marina Temina Arne Thell Marco Thines Göran Thor Holger Thüs Leif Tibell Sanja Tibell Einar Timdal Zdenko Tkalčec Tor Tønsberg Gérard Trichies Dagmar Triebel Andrei Tsurykau Rodham E Tulloss Veera Tuovinen Miguel Ulloa Sosa Carlos Urcelay François Valade Ricardo Valenzuela Garza Pieter van den Boom Nicolas Van Vooren Aida M Vasco-Palacios Jukka Vauras Juan Manuel Velasco Santos Else Vellinga Annemieke Verbeken Per Vetlesen Alfredo Vizzini Hermann Voglmayr Sergey Volobuev Wolfgang von Brackel Elena Voronina Grit Walther Roy Watling Evi Weber Mats Wedin Øyvind Weholt Martin Westberg Eugene Yurchenko Petr Zehnálek Huang Zhang Mikhail P Zhurbenko Stefan Ekman

IMA Fungus 2018 Jun 24;9(1):167-175. Epub 2018 May 24.

Museum of Evolution, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 16, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden.

Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11 International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physical objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.01.10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6048565PMC
June 2018

What lies beneath? Fungal diversity at the bottom of Lake Michigan and Lake Superior.

J Great Lakes Res 2018 Apr 10;44(2):263-270. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois, 1816 South Oak Street, Champaign, IL 61820, USA.

Fungi are phylogenetically diverse organisms found in nearly every environment as key contributors to the processes of nutrient cycling and decomposition. To date, most fungal diversity has been documented from terrestrial habitats leaving aquatic habitats underexplored. In particular, comparatively little is known about fungi inhabiting freshwater lakes, particularly the benthic zone, which may serve as an untapped resource for fungal biodiversity. Advances in technology allowing for direct sequencing of DNA from environmental samples provide a new opportunity to investigate freshwater benthic fungi. In this study, we employed both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to evaluate the diversity of fungi in one of the largest freshwater systems on Earth, the North American Laurentian Great Lakes. This study presents the first comprehensive survey of fungi from sediment from Lake Michigan and Lake Superior, resulting in 465 fungal taxa with only 7% of sequence overlap between these two methods. Additionally, culture-independent analyses of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions revealed 49% and 72%, respectively, of the OTUs did not match a described fungal taxonomic group below kingdom Fungi. The low level of sequence overlap between methods and high percentage of fungal taxa that can only be classified at the kingdom level suggests an immense amount of fungal diversity remains to be studied in these aquatic fungal communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2018.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5935459PMC
April 2018

Worldwide Engagement for Digitizing Biocollections (WeDigBio): The Biocollections Community's Citizen-Science Space on the Calendar.

Bioscience 2018 Feb 17;68(2):112-124. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

Department of Biological Science at Florida State University, in Tallahassee.

The digitization of biocollections is a critical task with direct implications for the global community who use the data for research and education. Recent innovations to involve citizen scientists in digitization increase awareness of the value of biodiversity specimens; advance science, technology, engineering, and math literacy; and build sustainability for digitization. In support of these activities, we launched the first global citizen-science event focused on the digitization of biodiversity specimens: Worldwide Engagement for Digitizing Biocollections (WeDigBio). During the inaugural 2015 event, 21 sites hosted events where citizen scientists transcribed specimen labels via online platforms (DigiVol, Les Herbonautes, Notes from Nature, the Smithsonian Institution's Transcription Center, and Symbiota). Many citizen scientists also contributed off-site. In total, thousands of citizen scientists around the world completed over 50,000 transcription tasks. Here, we present the process of organizing an international citizen-science event, an analysis of the event's effectiveness, and future directions-content now foundational to the growing WeDigBio event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5862351PMC
February 2018

First report of the post-fire morel Morchella exuberans in eastern North America.

Mycologia 2017 25;109(5):710-714. Epub 2018 Jan 25.

f Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service , US Department of Agriculture , 1815 North University Street, Peoria , Illinois 61604.

Reports of true morels (Morchella) fruiting on conifer burn sites are common in western North America where five different fire-adapted species of black morels (Elata Clade) have been documented based on multilocus phylogenetic analyses. Fruiting of post-fire morels in eastern North America, by comparison, are rare and limited to a report from Minnesota in 1977 and eastern Ontario in 1991. Here, nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) sequences were used to identify the post-fire morel that fruited in great abundance the year following the 2012 Duck Lake Fire in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and after the 2016 large-scale fire in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in Tennessee as M. exuberans. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis suggests that the collections from eastern North America may be more closely related to those from Europe than from western North America, Europe, and China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2017.1408294DOI Listing
November 2018

Common Cutaneous Bacteria Isolated from Snakes Inhibit Growth of Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola.

Ecohealth 2018 03 13;15(1):109-120. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

Department of Biology, Tennessee Technological University, 1100 North Dixie Avenue, Box 5063, Cookeville, TN, 38505, USA.

There is increasing concern regarding potential impacts of snake fungal disease (SFD), caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo), on free-ranging snake populations in the eastern USA. The snake cutaneous microbiome likely serves as the first line of defense against Oo and other pathogens; however, little is known about microbial associations in snakes. The objective of this study was to better define the composition and immune function of the snake cutaneous microbiome. Eight timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and four black racers (Coluber constrictor) were captured in Arkansas and Tennessee, with some snakes exhibiting signs of SFD. Oo was detected through real-time qPCR in five snakes. Additional histopathological techniques confirmed a diagnosis of SFD in one racer, the species' first confirmed case of SFD in Tennessee. Fifty-eight bacterial and five fungal strains were isolated from skin swabs and identified with Sanger sequencing. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and PERMANOVA analyses indicated that the culturable microbiome does not differ between snake species. Fifteen bacterial strains isolated from rattlesnakes and a single strain isolated from a racer inhibited growth of Oo in vitro. Results shed light on the culturable cutaneous microbiome of snakes and probiotic members that may play a role in fighting an emergent disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10393-017-1289-yDOI Listing
March 2018

Asexual-sexual morph connection in the type species of .

IMA Fungus 2017 Jun 3;8(1):99-105. Epub 2017 May 3.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois Natural History Survey, 1816 South Oak Street, Champaign, IL 61820, USA.

is a polyphyletic genus comprising 37 dematiaceous hyphomycetous species. In this study, independent collections of the type species, , were made from Eastern North America. Nuclear internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS) and partial nuc 28S large subunit rDNA (LSU) sequences obtained from collections and subsequent cultures showed that is the asexual morph of (, ). Phylogenies inferred from Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of ITS-LSU sequence data confirmed this asexual-sexual morph connection and a re-examination of fungarium reference specimens also revealed the co-occurrence of ascomata and sporodochia. is therefore synonymized under on the basis of priority. A specimen identified as from Thailand is described as sp. nov., based on morphological and genetic distinctiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2017.08.01.07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5493540PMC
June 2017

The oldest fossil mushroom.

PLoS One 2017 7;12(6):e0178327. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Independent Researcher, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America.

A new fossil mushroom is described and illustrated from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of northeast Brazil. Gondwanagaricites magnificus gen. et sp. nov. is remarkable for its exceptional preservation as a mineralized replacement in laminated limestone, as all other fossil mushrooms are known from amber inclusions. Gondwanagaricites represents the oldest fossil mushroom to date and the first fossil mushroom from Gondwana.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0178327PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5462346PMC
September 2017

Fungal Identification Using Molecular Tools: A Primer for the Natural Products Research Community.

J Nat Prod 2017 03 15;80(3):756-770. Epub 2017 Feb 15.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of North Carolina at Greensboro , Greensboro, North Carolina 27402, United States.

Fungi are morphologically, ecologically, metabolically, and phylogenetically diverse. They are known to produce numerous bioactive molecules, which makes them very useful for natural products researchers in their pursuit of discovering new chemical diversity with agricultural, industrial, and pharmaceutical applications. Despite their importance in natural products chemistry, identification of fungi remains a daunting task for chemists, especially those who do not work with a trained mycologist. The purpose of this review is to update natural products researchers about the tools available for molecular identification of fungi. In particular, we discuss (1) problems of using morphology alone in the identification of fungi to the species level; (2) the three nuclear ribosomal genes most commonly used in fungal identification and the potential advantages and limitations of the ITS region, which is the official DNA barcoding marker for species-level identification of fungi; (3) how to use NCBI-BLAST search for DNA barcoding, with a cautionary note regarding its limitations; (4) the numerous curated molecular databases containing fungal sequences; (5) the various protein-coding genes used to augment or supplant ITS in species-level identification of certain fungal groups; and (6) methods used in the construction of phylogenetic trees from DNA sequences to facilitate fungal species identification. We recommend that, whenever possible, both morphology and molecular data be used for fungal identification. Our goal is that this review will provide a set of standardized procedures for the molecular identification of fungi that can be utilized by the natural products research community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.6b01085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5368684PMC
March 2017

Recommendations for competing sexual-asexually typified generic names in Sordariomycetes (except Diaporthales, Hypocreales, and Magnaporthales).

IMA Fungus 2016 Jun 8;7(1):131-53. Epub 2016 Jun 8.

Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand.

With the advance to one scientific name for each fungal species, the generic names in the class Sordariomycetes typified by sexual and asexual morphs are evaluated based on their type species to determine if they compete with each other for use or protection. Recommendations are made for which of the competing generic names should be used based on criteria such as priority, number of potential names changes, and frequency of use. Some recommendations for well-known genera include Arthrinium over Apiospora, Colletotrichum over Glomerella, Menispora over Zignoëlla, Microdochium over Monographella, Nigrospora over Khuskia, and Plectosphaerella over Plectosporium. All competing generic names are listed in a table of recommended names along with the required action. If priority is not accorded to sexually typified generic names after 2017, only four names would require formal protection: Chaetosphaerella over Oedemium, Diatrype over Libertella, Microdochium over Monographella, and Phaeoacremonium over Romellia and Togninia. Concerning species in the recommended genera, one replacement name (Xylaria benjaminii nom. nov.) is introduced, and the following new combinations are made: Arthrinium sinense, Chloridium caesium, C. chloroconium, C. gonytrichii, Corollospora marina, C. parvula, C. ramulosa, Juncigena fruticosae, Melanospora simplex, Seimatosporium massarina, Sporoschisma daemonoropis, S. taitense, Torpedospora mangrovei, Xylaria penicilliopsis, and X. termiticola combs. nov.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2016.07.01.08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4941682PMC
June 2016

Studies in genera similar to Torula: Bahusaganda, Bahusandhika, Pseudotorula, and Simmonsiella gen. nov.

IMA Fungus 2016 Jun 16;7(1):29-45. Epub 2016 Feb 16.

Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois, 1816 S. Oak St., Champaign, IL 61820, USA;

A generic key is presented to delimit Torula from seven hyphomycete genera whose type species were at one time included in the genus or whose conidium ontogeny and conidium development appear similar or superficially similar to that of Torula herbarum, the type of the genus. In Bahusaganda, two new species are described (B. elliseverhartii and B. simmonsii spp. nov.) and three new combinations made (B. ambrosiae, B. elaeodes, and B. heteromorpha combs. nov.). In Bahusandhika, one new species (B. hughesii sp. nov.) is introduced, and two new combinations made (B. rhombica and B. terrestris combs. nov.), along with emendations in the circumscription of B. caligans and B. intercalaris. Latorua is considered synonymous with Bahusandhika. In Pseudotorula, one new combination is made (P. sundara comb. nov.), and one emendation proposed (P. helica). The transfer of Dwayabeeja sundara, the type species of the genus, to Pseudotorula will require a new generic name to be introduced for D. aethiopica and D. cubensis. The new generic name Simmonsiella is established for Torula ndjilensis. Bahusandhika compacta is shown to be synonymous with Torula verrucospora.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2016.07.01.03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4941686PMC
June 2016

Minutisphaerales (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota): a new order of freshwater ascomycetes including a new family, Minutisphaeraceae, and two new species from North Carolina, USA.

Mycologia 2015 Jul-Aug;107(4):845-62

Las Muros, 09420 Rimont, France.

Minutisphaera is a recently established genus of freshwater Dothideomycetes characterized by small, globose to subglobose or apothecioid, erumpent to superficial, brown ascomata; fissitunicate, eight-spored, ovoid to obclavate asci; and 1-2-septate, clavate to broadly fusiform, hyaline to pale brown ascospores with or without a gelatinous sheath and filamentous appendages. The genus currently contains two species: M. fimbriatispora, the type species, and M. japonica. The higher-level phylogenetic relationship of Minutisphaera within the Dothideomycetes currently is unresolved. To establish the phylogenetic position of Minutisphaera within the Dothideomycetes and evaluate the phylogenetic affinities of newly collected Minutisphaera-like taxa, we sequenced three rDNA regions-18S, ITS1-5.8SITS2 (ITS) and 28S nuc rDNA, and a protein-coding gene, MCM7, for newly collected strains of Minutisphaera. Based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of a combined dataset (18S and 28S) composed of 167 taxa, a more refined dataset (28S and MCM7) comprising 52 taxa and a separate ITS dataset, and an examination of morphology, we describe and illustrate two new species of Minutisphaera. The Minutisphaera clade was strongly supported within the Dothideomycetes with likelihood and Bayesian statistics but did not share phylogenetic affinities with any existing taxonomic group within the Dothideomycetes. We therefore establish a new order, Minutisphaerales, and new family, Minutisphaeraceae, for this monophyletic clade of freshwater ascomycetes. Chemical analysis of the organic extract M. aspera (G427) resulted in isolation and characterization of five known secondary metabolites, of which four were dipeptides (1-4) and one an aromatic polyketide (5). Conversely, two aromatic polyketides (5, 6) were isolated and identified from the organic extract of M. parafimbriatispora (G156-4). The isolated compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity against an array of bacteria and fungi. Compound 6 showed promising activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium smegmatis with minimal inhibitory concentration values of 30 and 60 μg/mL, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/15-013DOI Listing
September 2015

Effect of Trans, Trans-Farnesol on Pseudogymnoascus destructans and Several Closely Related Species.

Mycopathologia 2015 Dec 11;180(5-6):325-32. Epub 2015 Jul 11.

Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA.

Bat white-nose syndrome, caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has dramatically reduced the populations of many hibernating North American bat species. The search for effective biological control agents targeting P. destructans is of great importance. We report that the sesquiterpene trans, trans-farnesol, which is also a Candida albicans quorum sensing compound, prevented in vitro conidial germination for at least 14 days and inhibited growth of preexisting hyphae of five P. destructans isolates in filtered potato dextrose broth at 10 °C. Depending on the inoculation concentrations, both spore and hyphal inhibition occurred upon exposure to concentrations as low as 15-20 µM trans, trans-farnesol. In contrast, most North American Pseudogymnoascus isolates were more tolerant to the exposure of trans, trans-farnesol. Our results suggest that some Candida isolates may have the potential to inhibit the growth of P. destructans and that the sesquiterpene trans, trans-farnesol has the potential to be utilized as a biological control agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-015-9921-2DOI Listing
December 2015

Phylogenetic Diversity of Sponge-Associated Fungi from the Caribbean and the Pacific of Panama and Their In Vitro Effect on Angiotensin and Endothelin Receptors.

Mar Biotechnol (NY) 2015 Oct 31;17(5):533-64. Epub 2015 May 31.

Institute of Scientific Research and High Technology Services, Bld. 219, City of Knowledge, Clayton, Panama, Republic of Panama.

Fungi occupy an important ecological niche in the marine environment, and marine fungi possess an immense biotechnological potential. This study documents the fungal diversity associated with 39 species of sponges and determines their potential to produce secondary metabolites capable of interacting with mammalian G-protein-coupled receptors involved in blood pressure regulation. Total genomic DNA was extracted from 563 representative fungal strains obtained from marine sponges collected by SCUBA from the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Panama. A total of 194 operational taxonomic units were found with 58% represented by singletons based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial large subunit (LSU) rDNA regions. Marine sponges were highly dominated by Ascomycota fungi (95.6%) and represented by two major classes, Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes. Rarefaction curves showed no saturation, indicating that further efforts are needed to reveal the entire diversity at this site. Several unique clades were found during phylogenetic analysis with the highest diversity of unique clades in the order Pleosporales. From the 65 cultures tested to determine their in vitro effect on angiotensin and endothelin receptors, the extracts of Fusarium sp. and Phoma sp. blocked the activation of these receptors by more than 50% of the control and seven others inhibited between 30 and 45%. Our results indicate that marine sponges from Panama are a "hot spot" of fungal diversity as well as a rich resource for capturing, cataloguing, and assessing the pharmacological potential of substances present in previously undiscovered fungi associated with marine sponges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10126-015-9634-zDOI Listing
October 2015

Phylogeny and morphology of dematiaceous freshwater microfungi from Perú.

IMA Fungus 2014 Dec 10;5(2):425-38. Epub 2014 Dec 10.

Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Room 265 Morrill Hall, 505 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA;

A survey of freshwater ascomycetes conducted along an elevational gradient in Perú in the Districts of Cusco, Junín, and Madre de Dios yielded specimens of Cancellidium applanatum, Cordana abramovii, Sporoschisma juvenile, S. uniseptatum, and S. saccardoi. With the exception of S. saccardoi, these are new records for Perú. Molecular data was generated for three previously unsequenced species: Cancellidium applanatum, Cordana abramovii and Sporoschisma saccardoi. These taxa are reported herein from the neotropics with an accompanying phylogeny based on partial 28S nuclear ribosomal large-subunit sequence data. The sexual morph of S. saccardoi has previously been linked to Melanochaeta hemipsila through cultural studies. Molecular data from ascospores and conidia of M. hemipsila and S. saccardoi, respectively, were used to demonstrate a genetic connection of the sexual and asexual morphs of these fungi for the first time, resulting in the new combination Sporoschisma hemipsila being made.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2014.05.02.07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4329324PMC
December 2014