Publications by authors named "Andrew M Tonkin"

106 Publications

Health-related quality of life and incident cardiovascular disease events in community-dwelling older people: A prospective cohort study.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Sep 7;339:170-178. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia; Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Centre, 3015 GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been shown to predict a higher risk of hospital readmission and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Few studies have explored the associations between HRQoL and incident CVD. We explored the associations between baseline HRQoL and incident and fatal CVD in community-dwelling older people in Australia and the United States.

Methods: Longitudinal study using ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial data. This includes 19,106 individuals aged 65-98 years, initially free of CVD, dementia, or disability, and followed between March 2010 and June 2017. The physical (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS) of HRQoL were assessed using the SF-12 questionnaire. Incident major adverse CVD events included fatal CVD (death due to atherothrombotic CVD), hospitalizations for heart failure, myocardial infarction or stroke. Analyses were performed using Cox proportional-hazard regression.

Results: Over a median 4.7 follow-up years, there were 922 incident CVD events, 203 fatal CVD events, 171 hospitalizations for heart failure, 355 fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction and 403 fatal or nonfatal strokes. After adjustment for sociodemographic, health-related behaviours and clinical measures, a 10-unit higher PCS, but not MCS, was associated with a 14% lower risk of incident CVD, 28% lower risk of hospitalization for heart failure and 15% lower risk of myocardial infarction. Neither PCS nor MCS was associated with fatal CVD events or stroke.

Conclusion: Physical HRQoL can be used in combination with clinical data to identify the incident CVD risk among older individuals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.07.004DOI Listing
September 2021

Long-Term Blood Pressure Variability and Risk of Cognitive Decline and Dementia Among Older Adults.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Jul 26;10(13):e019613. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Berman Center for Outcomes and Clinical Research Hennepin-Health Research InstituteHennepin Healthcare Minneapolis MN.

Background Blood pressure variability (BPV) in midlife increases risk of late-life dementia, but the impact of BPV on the cognition of adults who have already reached older ages free of major cognitive deficits is unknown. We examined the risk of incident dementia and cognitive decline associated with long-term, visit-to-visit BPV in a post hoc analysis of the ASPREE (Aspirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly) trial. Methods and Results ASPREE participants (N=19 114) were free of dementia and significant cognitive impairment at enrollment. Measurement of BP and administration of a standardized cognitive battery evaluating global cognition, delayed episodic memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed and attention occurred at baseline and follow-up visits. Time-to-event analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% CI for incident dementia and cognitive decline, according to tertile of SD of systolic BPV. Individuals in the highest BPV tertile compared with the lowest had an increased risk of incident dementia and cognitive decline, independent of average BP and use of antihypertensive drugs. There was evidence that sex modified the association with incident dementia (interaction =0.02), with increased risk in men (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.19-2.39) but not women (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.72-1.42). For cognitive decline, similar increased risks were observed for men and women (interaction =0.15; men: HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.16-1.59; women: HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.98-1.32). Conclusions High BPV in older adults without major cognitive impairment, particularly men, is associated with increased risks of dementia and cognitive decline. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01038583; isrctn.com. Identifier: ISRCTN83772183.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403315PMC
July 2021

Effect of Statin Therapy on Cognitive Decline and Incident Dementia in Older Adults.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jun;77(25):3145-3156

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.

Background: The neurocognitive effect of statins in older adults remain uncertain.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of statin use with cognitive decline and incident dementia among older adults.

Methods: This analysis included 18,846 participants ≥65 years of age in a randomized trial of aspirin, who had no prior cardiovascular events, major physical disability, or dementia initially and were followed for 4.7 years. Outcome measures included incident dementia and its subclassifications (probable Alzheimer's disease, mixed presentations); mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and its subclassifications (MCI consistent with Alzheimer's disease, other MCI); and changes in domain-specific cognition, including global cognition, memory, language and executive function, psychomotor speed, and the composite of these domains. Associations of baseline statin use versus nonuse with dementia and MCI outcomes were examined using Cox proportional hazards models and with cognitive change using linear mixed-effects models, adjusting for potential confounders. The impact of statin lipophilicity on these associations was further examined, and effect modifiers were identified.

Results: Statin use versus nonuse was not associated with dementia, MCI, or their subclassifications or with changes in cognitive function scores over time (p > 0.05 for all). No differences were found in any outcomes between hydrophilic and lipophilic statin users. Baseline neurocognitive ability was an effect modifier for the associations of statins with dementia (p for interaction < 0.001) and memory change (p for interaction = 0.02).

Conclusions: In adults ≥65 years of age, statin therapy was not associated with incident dementia, MCI, or declines in individual cognition domains. These findings await confirmation from ongoing randomized trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.04.075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091356PMC
June 2021

Genetic variants associated with inherited cardiovascular disorders among 13,131 asymptomatic older adults of European descent.

NPJ Genom Med 2021 Jun 16;6(1):51. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Genetic testing is used to optimise the management of inherited cardiovascular disorders that can cause sudden cardiac death. Yet more genotype-phenotype correlation studies from populations not ascertained on clinical symptoms or family history of disease are required to improve understanding of gene penetrance. We performed targeted sequencing of 25 genes used routinely in clinical genetic testing for inherited cardiovascular disorders in a population of 13,131 asymptomatic older individuals (mean age 75 years) enrolled in the ASPREE trial. Participants had no prior history of cardiovascular disease events, dementia or physical disability at enrolment. Variants were classified following ACMG/AMP standards. Sudden and rapid cardiac deaths were clinically adjudicated as ASPREE trial endpoints, and assessed during mean 4.7 years of follow-up. In total, 119 participants had pathogenic/deleterious variants in one of the 25 genes analysed (carrier rate of 1 in 110 or 0.9%). Participants carried variants associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (N = 24), dilated cardiomyopathy (N = 29), arrhythmogenic right-ventricular cardiomyopathy (N = 22), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (N = 4), aortopathies (N = 1), and long-QT syndrome (N = 39). Among 119 carriers, two died from presumed sudden/rapid cardiac deaths during follow-up (1.7%); both with pathogenic variants in long-QT syndrome genes (KCNQ1, SCN5A). Among non-carriers, the rate of sudden/rapid cardiac deaths was significantly lower (0.08%, 11/12936, p < 0.001). Variants associated with inherited cardiovascular disorders are found in asymptomatic individuals aged 70 years and older without a history of cardiovascular disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41525-021-00211-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209162PMC
June 2021

Predictive Performance of a Polygenic Risk Score for Incident Ischemic Stroke in a Healthy Older Population.

Stroke 2021 Aug 27;52(9):2882-2891. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine (J.T.N., M.R., A. Bakshi, G.P., L.T.P.T., M.R.N., R.L.W., C.M.R., A.M.T., J.J.M., P.L.), Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

[Figure: see text].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8384668PMC
August 2021

Assessing and modifying cardiovascular risk in people who present to a chest pain clinic with non-cardiac causes.

Med J Aust 2021 04 8;214(6):263-264. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50984DOI Listing
April 2021

Role of Cardiac Biomarkers in Epidemiology and Risk Outcomes.

Clin Chem 2021 01;67(1):96-106

Department of Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: The use of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is established for diagnostic purposes. Cardiac troponins, as specific markers of myocardial injury, and natriuretic peptides, reflecting myocardial dilation, are routinely used for diagnosis in clinical practice. In addition, a substantial body of research has shed light on the ability of biomarkers to reflect the risk of future major cardiovascular events. Among biomarkers, troponin and members of the natriuretic peptide family have been investigated extensively in the general population, in those at higher risk, and in patients with known CVD. Both biomarkers have been shown to contribute substantially to statistical models describing cardiovascular risk, in addition to and independently of important clinical characteristics. The more precise identification of individuals at risk by appropriate use of biomarkers might lead to an earlier initiation of preventive therapies and potentially avoid significant events.

Content: We summarize the current evidence concerning risk prediction using cardiac biomarkers at different stages in the development of CVD and provide examples of observational studies and large-scale clinical trials testing such application. Beyond the focus on troponin and natriuretic peptides, we also discuss other important and emerging biomarkers in the field with potential for such application, including growth differentiation factor-15, soluble ST2 (alias for IL1RL1 [interleukin 1 receptor like 1), and galectin-3.

Summary: Incorporating biomarkers in risk prediction models might allow more precise identification of individuals at risk. Among the various biomarkers, cardiac troponin appears to be the most promising for prediction of future cardiovascular events in a wide variety of patient populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/clinchem/hvaa228DOI Listing
January 2021

Long-Term Blood Pressure Variability and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Events Among Community-Dwelling Elderly.

Hypertension 2020 12 2;76(6):1945-1952. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia (E.K.C., R.W., A.M.T., J.R., R.L.W., J.J.M., C.M.R.).

High office blood pressure variability (OBPV) in midlife increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the impact of OBPV in older adults without previous CVD is unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of ASPREE trial (Aspirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly) participants aged 70-years and older (65 for US minorities) without history of CVD events at baseline, to examine risk of incident CVD associated with long-term, visit-to-visit OBPV. CVD was a prespecified, adjudicated secondary end point in ASPREE. We estimated OBPV using within-individual SD of mean systolic BP from baseline and first 2 annual visits. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CI for associations with CVD events. In 16 475 participants who survived to year 2 without events, those in the highest tertile of OBPV had increased risk of CVD events after adjustment for multiple covariates, when compared with participants in the lowest tertile (HR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.08-1.70]; =0.01). Similar increased risk was observed for ischemic stroke (HR, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.04-2.33]; =0.03), heart failure hospitalization, or death (HR, 1.73 [95% CI, 1.07-2.79]; =0.02), and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.04-1.54]; =0.02). Findings were consistent when stratifying participants by use of antihypertensive drugs, while sensitivity analyses suggested the increased risk was especially for individuals whose BP was uncontrolled during the OBPV estimation period. Our findings support increased OBPV as a risk factor for CVD events in healthy older adults with, or without hypertension, who have not had such events previously. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifiers: NCT01038583; URL: https://www.isrctn.com; Unique identifiers: ISRCTN83772183.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.16209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666049PMC
December 2020

Rivaroxaban for Prevention of Covert Brain Infarcts and Cognitive Decline: The COMPASS MRI Substudy.

Stroke 2020 10 21;51(10):2901-2909. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

ANMCO Research Center, Florence, Italy (A.P.M.).

Background And Purpose: Covert brain infarcts are associated with cognitive decline. It is not known whether therapies that prevent symptomatic stroke prevent covert infarcts. COMPASS compared rivaroxaban with and without aspirin with aspirin for the prevention of stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death in participants with stable vascular disease and was terminated early because of benefits of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin over aspirin. We obtained serial magnetic resonance imagings and cognitive tests in a consenting subgroup of COMPASS patients to examine treatment effects on infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities.

Methods: Baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imagings were completed in 1445 participants with a mean (SD) interval of 2.0 (0.7) years. Whole-brain T1, T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, T2* sequences were centrally interpreted by blinded, trained readers. Participants had serial measurements of cognition and function. The primary end point was the proportion of participants with incident covert infarcts. Secondary end points were the composite of clinical stroke and covert brain infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities.

Results: At baseline, 493 (34.1%) participants had infarcts. Incident covert infarcts occurred in 55 (3.8%) participants. In the overall trial rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced ischemic stroke by 49% (0.7% versus 1.4%; hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.51 [0.38-0.68]). In the magnetic resonance imaging substudy the effects of rivaroxaban+aspirin versus aspirin were: covert infarcts: 2.7% versus 3.5% (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.77 [0.37-1.60]); Covert infarcts or ischemic stroke: 2.9% versus 5.3% (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.53 [0.27-1.03]). Incident microbleeds occurred in 6.6% of participants and 65.7% of participants had an increase in white matter hyperintensities volume with no effect of treatment for either end point. There was no effect on cognitive tests.

Conclusions: Covert infarcts were not significantly reduced by treatment with rivaroxaban and aspirin but estimates for the combination of ischemic stroke and covert infarcts were consistent with the effect on ischemic stroke in the overall trial. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01776424.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.029762DOI Listing
October 2020

Subgroup analysis of the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly randomized clinical trial suggests aspirin did not improve outcomes in older adults with chronic kidney disease.

Kidney Int 2021 02 10;99(2):466-474. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Nephrology, Monash Medical Centre, Monash Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

The role of aspirin for primary prevention in older adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. Therefore, post hoc analysis of the randomized controlled trial ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) was undertaken comparing 100 mg of enteric-coated aspirin daily against matching placebo. Participants were community dwelling adults aged 70 years and older in Australia, 65 years and older in the United States, all free of a history of dementia or cardiovascular disease and of any disease expected to lead to death within five years. CKD was defined as present at baseline if either eGFR under 60mL/min/1.73m or urine albumin to creatinine ratio 3 mg/mmol or more. In 4758 participants with and 13004 without CKD, the rates of a composite endpoint (dementia, persistent physical disability or death), major adverse cardiovascular events and clinically significant bleeding in the CKD participants were almost double those without CKD. Aspirin's effects as estimated by hazard ratios were generally similar between CKD and non-CKD groups for dementia, persistent physical disability or death, major adverse cardiovascular events and clinically significant bleeding. Thus, in our analysis aspirin did not improve outcomes in older people while increasing the risk of bleeding, with mostly consistent effects in participants with and without CKD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.08.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957958PMC
February 2021

Association of Statin Use With Disability-Free Survival and Cardiovascular Disease Among Healthy Older Adults.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 07;76(1):17-27

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

Background: There is clinical uncertainty regarding the benefits and harms of prescribing statins in healthy subjects ≥70 years of age.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the association among statins, dementia-free and disability-free survival, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) among healthy older adults using data from the ASPREE (Aspirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly) trial.

Methods: ASPREE was a randomized trial of 19,114 community-dwelling persons in Australia and the United States ≥65 years of age and free of documented CVD, dementia, and disability. Data were collected for those ≥70 years of age, and participants who took statins at baseline were compared with those who did not using Cox proportional hazards regression with inverse probability weighting. The primary outcome, referred to as "disability-free survival," was a composite of all-cause mortality, dementia, or persistent physical disability. Other outcomes included the individual components of the composite outcome, major adverse cardiovascular events, fatal CVD, myocardial infarction, and stroke.

Results: Of the 18,096 included participants (median age 74.2 years, 56.0% women), 5,629 took statins at baseline. Over a median follow-up period of 4.7 years, baseline statin use was not associated with disability-free survival or with the risk for all-cause mortality or dementia. However, it was associated with lower risks for physical disability and all cardiovascular outcomes.

Conclusions: Among healthy community-dwelling adults ≥70 years of age, statin use may be beneficial for preventing physical disability and CVD but not beneficial for prolonging disability-free survival or avoiding death or dementia. Future clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.05.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7967891PMC
July 2020

Medically actionable pathogenic variants in a population of 13,131 healthy elderly individuals.

Genet Med 2020 11 1;22(11):1883-1886. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn Institute for Data Science and Genomic Technology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: To measure the prevalence of medically actionable pathogenic variants (PVs) among a population of healthy elderly individuals.

Methods: We used targeted sequencing to detect pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in 55 genes associated with autosomal dominant medically actionable conditions, among a population of 13,131 individuals aged 70 or older (mean age 75 years) enrolled in the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial. Participants had no previous diagnosis or current symptoms of cardiovascular disease, physical disability or dementia, and no current diagnosis of life-threatening cancer. Variant curation followed American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) standards.

Results: One in 75 (1.3%) healthy elderly individuals carried a PV. This was lower than rates reported from population-based studies, which have ranged from 1.8% to 3.4%. We detected 20 PV carriers for Lynch syndrome (MSH6/MLH1/MSH2/PMS2) and 13 for familial hypercholesterolemia (LDLR/APOB/PCSK9). Among 7056 female participants, we detected 15 BRCA1/BRCA2 PV carriers (1 in 470 females). We detected 86 carriers of PVs in lower-penetrance genes associated with inherited cardiac disorders.

Conclusion: Medically actionable PVs are carried in a healthy elderly population. Our findings raise questions about the actionability of lower-penetrance genes, especially when PVs are detected in the absence of symptoms and/or family history of disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0881-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7606791PMC
November 2020

Genetic Variation in PEAR1, Cardiovascular Outcomes and Effects of Aspirin in a Healthy Elderly Population.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2020 12 20;108(6):1289-1298. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

The platelet endothelial aggregation receptor-1 (PEAR1) rs12041331 variant has been identified as a genetic determinant of platelet aggregation in response to antiplatelet therapies, including aspirin. However, association with atherothrombotic cardiovascular events is less clear, with limited evidence from large trials. Here, we tested association of rs12041331 with cardiovascular events and aspirin use in a randomized trial population of healthy older individuals. We undertook post hoc analysis of 13,547 participants of the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial, median age 74 years. Participants had no previous diagnosis of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease at enrollment, and were randomized to either 100 mg daily low-dose aspirin or placebo for median 4.7 years follow-up. We used Cox proportional hazard regression to model the relationship between rs12041331 and the ASPREE primary cardiovascular disease (CVD) end point, and composites of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and ischemic stroke (STROKE); and bleeding events; major hemorrhage (MHEM) and intracranial bleeding (ICB). We performed whole-population analysis using additive and dominant inheritance models, then stratified by treatment group. Interaction effects between genotypes and treatment group were examined. We observed no statistically significant association (P < 0.05) in the population, or by treatment group, between rs12041331 and cardiovascular or bleeding events in either model. We also found no significant interaction effects between rs12041331-A and treatment group, for CVD (P = 0.65), MACE (P = 0.32), STROKE (P = 0.56), MHEM (P = 0.59), or ICB (P = 0.56). The genetic variant PEAR1 rs12041331 is not associated with cardiovascular events in response to low-dose aspirin in a healthy elderly population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959328PMC
December 2020

Familial Hypercholesterolemia in a Healthy Elderly Population.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2020 08 10;13(4):e002938. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia (P.L., M.R., J.T., A.B., R.L.W., A.M.T., C.M.R., J.J.M.).

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.120.002938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7442644PMC
August 2020

Factors Associated With Treatment and Control of Hypertension in a Healthy Elderly Population Free of Cardiovascular Disease: A Cross-sectional Study.

Am J Hypertens 2020 04;33(4):350-361

Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: Despite readily available treatments, control of blood pressure (BP) with population aging remains suboptimal. Further, there are gaps in the understanding of the management of high BP in the aged. We explored antihypertensive treatment and control among elderly hypertensive participants free from overt cardiovascular disease (CVD), and identified factors related to both "untreated" and "treated but uncontrolled" high BP.

Methods: We analyzed baseline data from 19,114 individuals aged ≥65 years enrolled from Australia and United States (US) in the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly study. Hypertension was defined as an average systolic/diastolic BP ≥140/90 mm Hg and/or the use of any BP lowering medication. "Controlled hypertension" was defined if participants were receiving antihypertensive medication and BP <140 and 90 mm Hg. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize hypertension control rates; logistic regression was used to investigate relationships with treatment and BP control.

Results: Overall, 74% (14,213/19,114) of participants were hypertensive; and of these 29% (4,151/14,213) were untreated. Among those treated participants, 53% (5,330/10,062) had BP ≥140/90 mm Hg. Participants who were untreated were more likely to be men, have higher educational status, and be in good physical health, and less likely to have significant comorbidities. The factors related to "treated but uncontrolled" BP included older age, male, Black race (vs. White), using antihypertensive monotherapy (vs. multiple) and residing in Australia (vs. US).

Conclusions: High levels of "untreated" and "treated but uncontrolled" BP occur in healthy elderly people without CVD, suggesting there are opportunities for better BP control in the primary prevention of CVD in this population.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01038583.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpz192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7109352PMC
April 2020

Changes in plasma lipids predict pravastatin efficacy in secondary prevention.

JCI Insight 2019 07 11;4(13). Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

BACKGROUNDStatins have pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism. The relationship between these effects and future cardiovascular events is unknown. We characterized the changes in lipids upon pravastatin treatment and defined the relationship with risk reduction for future cardiovascular events.METHODSPlasma lipids (n = 342) were measured in baseline and 1-year follow-up samples from a Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) study subcohort (n = 4991). The associations of changes in lipids with treatment and cardiovascular outcomes were investigated using linear and Cox regression. The effect of treatment on future cardiovascular outcomes was examined by the relative risk reduction (RRR).RESULTSPravastatin treatment was associated with changes in 206 lipids. Species containing arachidonic acid were positively associated while phosphatidylinositol species were negatively associated with pravastatin treatment. The RRR from pravastatin treatment for cardiovascular events decreased from 23.5% to 16.6% after adjustment for clinical risk factors and change in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and to 3.0% after further adjustment for the change in the lipid ratio PI(36:2)/PC(38:4). Change in PI(36:2)/PC(38:4) mediated 58% of the treatment effect. Stratification of patients into quartiles of change in PI(36:2)/PC(38:4) indicated no benefit of pravastatin in the fourth quartile.CONCLUSIONThe change in PI(36:2)/PC(38:4) predicted benefit from pravastatin, independent of change in LDL-C, demonstrating its potential as a biomarker for monitoring the clinical benefit of statin treatment in secondary prevention.TRIAL REGISTRATIONAustralian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry identifier ACTRN12616000535471.FUNDINGBristol-Myers Squibb; NHMRC grants 211086, 358395, and 1029754; NHMRC program grant 1149987; NHMRC fellowship 108026; and the Operational Infrastructure Support Program of the Victorian government of Australia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.128438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6629250PMC
July 2019

Development and validation of a ceramide- and phospholipid-based cardiovascular risk estimation score for coronary artery disease patients.

Eur Heart J 2020 01;41(3):371-380

Zora Biosciences Oy, Tietotie 2C, 02150 Espoo, Finland.

Aims: Distinct ceramide lipids have been shown to predict the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, especially cardiovascular death. As phospholipids have also been linked with CVD risk, we investigated whether the combination of ceramides with phosphatidylcholines (PCs) would be synergistic in the prediction of CVD events in patients with atherosclerotic coronary heart disease in three independent cohort studies.

Methods And Results: Ceramides and PCs were analysed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in three studies: WECAC (The Western Norway Coronary Angiography Cohort) (N = 3789), LIPID (Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease) trial (N = 5991), and KAROLA (Langzeiterfolge der KARdiOLogischen Anschlussheilbehandlung) (N = 1023). A simple risk score, based on the ceramides and PCs showing the best prognostic features, was developed in the WECAC study and validated in the two other cohorts. This score was highly significant in predicting CVD mortality [multiadjusted hazard ratios (HRs; 95% confidence interval) per standard deviation were 1.44 (1.28-1.63) in WECAC, 1.47 (1.34-1.61) in the LIPID trial, and 1.69 (1.31-2.17) in KAROLA]. In addition, a combination of the risk score with high-sensitivity troponin T increased the HRs to 1.63 (1.44-1.85) and 2.04 (1.57-2.64) in WECAC and KAROLA cohorts, respectively. The C-statistics in WECAC for the risk score combined with sex and age was 0.76 for CVD death. The ceramide-phospholipid risk score showed comparable and synergistic predictive performance with previously published CVD risk models for secondary prevention.

Conclusion: A simple ceramide- and phospholipid-based risk score can efficiently predict residual CVD event risk in patients with coronary artery disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz387DOI Listing
January 2020

Vascular Pathology and Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review.

J Rheumatol 2020 05 1;47(5):748-760. Epub 2019 Jun 1.

From the School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne; Australian National University (ANU) College of Health and Medicine, Canberra; The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Objective: Vascular pathology (changes in blood vessels) and osteoarthritis (OA) are both common chronic conditions associated with aging and obesity, but whether vascular pathology is a risk factor for OA is unclear. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence for an association between vascular pathology and risk of joint-specific OA.

Methods: Scopus, Ovid Medline, and EMBASE were searched from inception to February 2019. MeSH terms and keywords were used to identify studies examining the association between vascular pathology and OA. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality. Qualitative evidence synthesis was performed.

Results: Fifteen studies with high (n = 3), fair (n = 3), or low (n = 9) quality were included. Features of vascular pathology included atherosclerosis, vascular stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction in different vascular beds. There was evidence for an association between vascular pathology and risk of hand OA in women but not men, and between vascular pathology and risk of knee OA in both men and women. Only 2 studies examined hip OA showing no association between vascular pathology and risk of hip OA.

Conclusion: There is evidence suggesting an association between vascular pathology and risk of hand and knee OA, with a potential causal relationship for knee OA. Based on the limited evidence, it is hard to conclude an association for hip OA. Further stronger evidence is needed to determine whether there is a causal relationship.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.181236DOI Listing
May 2020

Safety of Proton Pump Inhibitors Based on a Large, Multi-Year, Randomized Trial of Patients Receiving Rivaroxaban or Aspirin.

Gastroenterology 2019 09 29;157(3):682-691.e2. Epub 2019 May 29.

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Background & Aims: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial.

Methods: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up.

Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01776424.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.05.056DOI Listing
September 2019

Pantoprazole to Prevent Gastroduodenal Events in Patients Receiving Rivaroxaban and/or Aspirin in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Gastroenterology 2019 08 2;157(2):403-412.e5. Epub 2019 May 2.

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Background & Aims: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk.

Methods: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation.

Results: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528).

Conclusions: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01776424.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.04.041DOI Listing
August 2019

Evaluating recruitment strategies for AUSPICE, a large Australian community-based randomised controlled trial.

Med J Aust 2019 05 25;210(9):409-415. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW.

Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of different strategies for recruiting participants for a large Australian randomised controlled trial (RCT), the Australian Study for the Prevention through Immunisation of Cardiovascular Events (AUSPICE).

Design, Setting, Participants: Men and women aged 55-60 years with at least two cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, overweight/obesity) were recruited for a multicentre placebo-controlled RCT assessing the effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) for preventing cardiovascular events.

Methods: Invitations were mailed by the Australian Department of Human Services to people in the Medicare database aged 55-60 years; reminders were sent 2 weeks later. Invitees could respond in hard copy or electronically. Direct recruitment was supplemented by asking invitees to extend the invitation to friends and family (snowball sampling) and by Facebook advertising.

Main Outcome: Proportions of invitees completing screening questionnaire and recruited for participation in the RCT.

Results: 21 526 of 154 992 invited people (14%) responded by completing the screening questionnaire, of whom 4725 people were eligible and recruited for the study. Despite the minimal study burden (one questionnaire, one clinic visit), the overall participation rate was 3%, or an estimated 10% of eligible persons. Only 16% of eventual participants had responded within 2 weeks of the initial invitation letter (early responders); early and late responders did not differ in their demographic or medical characteristics. Socio-economic disadvantage did not markedly influence response rates. Facebook advertising and snowball sampling did not increase recruitment.

Conclusions: Trial participation rates are low, and multiple concurrent methods are needed to maximise recruitment. Social media strategies may not be successful in older age groups.

Trial Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12615000536561.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50117DOI Listing
May 2019

Baseline and on-statin treatment lipoprotein(a) levels for prediction of cardiovascular events: individual patient-data meta-analysis of statin outcome trials.

Lancet 2018 10 4;392(10155):1311-1320. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Vascular Medicine Program, Sulpizio Cardiovascular Center, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Elevated lipoprotein(a) is a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease in general population studies. However, its contribution to risk for cardiovascular events in patients with established cardiovascular disease or on statin therapy is uncertain.

Methods: Patient-level data from seven randomised, placebo-controlled, statin outcomes trials were collated and harmonised to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular events, defined as fatal or non-fatal coronary heart disease, stroke, or revascularisation procedures. HRs for cardiovascular events were estimated within each trial across predefined lipoprotein(a) groups (15 to <30 mg/dL, 30 to <50 mg/dL, and ≥50 mg/dL, vs <15 mg/dL), before pooling estimates using multivariate random-effects meta-analysis.

Findings: Analyses included data for 29 069 patients with repeat lipoprotein(a) measurements (mean age 62 years [SD 8]; 8064 [28%] women; 5751 events during 95 576 person-years at risk). Initiation of statin therapy reduced LDL cholesterol (mean change -39% [95% CI -43 to -35]) without a significant change in lipoprotein(a). Associations of baseline and on-statin treatment lipoprotein(a) with cardiovascular disease risk were approximately linear, with increased risk at lipoprotein(a) values of 30 mg/dL or greater for baseline lipoprotein(a) and 50 mg/dL or greater for on-statin lipoprotein(a). For baseline lipoprotein(a), HRs adjusted for age and sex (vs <15 mg/dL) were 1·04 (95% CI 0·91-1·18) for 15 mg/dL to less than 30 mg/dL, 1·11 (1·00-1·22) for 30 mg/dL to less than 50 mg/dL, and 1·31 (1·08-1·58) for 50 mg/dL or higher; respective HRs for on-statin lipoprotein(a) were 0·94 (0·81-1·10), 1·06 (0·94-1·21), and 1·43 (1·15-1·76). HRs were almost identical after further adjustment for previous cardiovascular disease, diabetes, smoking, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. The association of on-statin lipoprotein(a) with cardiovascular disease risk was stronger than for on-placebo lipoprotein(a) (interaction p=0·010) and was more pronounced at younger ages (interaction p=0·008) without effect-modification by any other patient-level or study-level characteristics.

Interpretation: In this individual-patient data meta-analysis of statin-treated patients, elevated baseline and on-statin lipoprotein(a) showed an independent approximately linear relation with cardiovascular disease risk. This study provides a rationale for testing the lipoprotein(a) lowering hypothesis in cardiovascular disease outcomes trials.

Funding: Novartis Pharma AG.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31652-0DOI Listing
October 2018

Effect of Aspirin on Cardiovascular Events and Bleeding in the Healthy Elderly.

N Engl J Med 2018 10 16;379(16):1509-1518. Epub 2018 Sep 16.

From the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University (J.J.M., R.W., R.L.W., A.M.T., M.R.N., C.M.R., J.E.L., E.S., S.M.F., S.G.O., R.E.T., C.I.J., J.R., E.M.W., S.E.M.), Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute (C.I.J.), the Department of Cardiology, St. Vincent's Hospital (M.J.), and the Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Central Clinical School, Monash University and Alfred Hospital (G.C.), Melbourne, and Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville (G.A.D.), VIC, Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart (M.R.N.), the School of Public Health, Curtin University (C.M.R.), and the School of Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia (L.J.B.), Perth, the College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (W.P.A.), and the Discipline of General Practice, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (N.S.) - all in Australia; the Berman Center for Outcomes and Clinical Research, Hennepin Healthcare Research Institute, Hennepin Healthcare (B.K., R.G., A.M.M.), HealthPartners Institute (K.L.M.), and the Division of Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, Hennepin Healthcare and the University of Minnesota (A.M.M.), Minneapolis, and the School of Nursing, Minnesota State University, Mankato (D.B.) - all in Minnesota; the Department of Family Medicine and Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago (R.C.S.); Sticht Center on Aging and Alzheimer's Prevention, Section on Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (J.D.W.); the Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, College of Pharmacy and Department of Family Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City (M.E.E.); the Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, MD (B.R.); the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vascular Medicine Section, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland (M.M.); the Center for Primary Care and Prevention, Brown University, Providence, RI (C.B.E.); and the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis (S.S.).

Background: Aspirin is a well-established therapy for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. However, its role in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is unclear, especially in older persons, who have an increased risk.

Methods: From 2010 through 2014, we enrolled community-dwelling men and women in Australia and the United States who were 70 years of age or older (or ≥65 years of age among blacks and Hispanics in the United States) and did not have cardiovascular disease, dementia, or disability. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 100 mg of enteric-coated aspirin or placebo. The primary end point was a composite of death, dementia, or persistent physical disability; results for this end point are reported in another article in the Journal. Secondary end points included major hemorrhage and cardiovascular disease (defined as fatal coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal or nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure).

Results: Of the 19,114 persons who were enrolled in the trial, 9525 were assigned to receive aspirin and 9589 to receive placebo. After a median of 4.7 years of follow-up, the rate of cardiovascular disease was 10.7 events per 1000 person-years in the aspirin group and 11.3 events per 1000 person-years in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.08). The rate of major hemorrhage was 8.6 events per 1000 person-years and 6.2 events per 1000 person-years, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.62; P<0.001).

Conclusions: The use of low-dose aspirin as a primary prevention strategy in older adults resulted in a significantly higher risk of major hemorrhage and did not result in a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular disease than placebo. (Funded by the National Institute on Aging and others; ASPREE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01038583 .).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1805819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6289056PMC
October 2018

Effect of Aspirin on Disability-free Survival in the Healthy Elderly.

N Engl J Med 2018 10 16;379(16):1499-1508. Epub 2018 Sep 16.

From the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University (J.J.M., R.L.W., M.R.N., C.M.R., R.W., E.S., J.E.L., A.M.T., S.M.F., S.G.O., R.E.T., C.I.J., J.R.), the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research (P.G.), and the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute (C.I.J.), Melbourne, and the Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville (G.A.D.), VIC, Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart (M.R.N.), the School of Public Health, Curtin University (C.M.R.), and the School of Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia (L.J.B.), Perth, the College of Medicine, Biology, and Environment, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (W.P.A.), and Discipline of General Practice, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (N.S.) - all in Australia; Berman Center for Outcomes and Clinical Research, Hennepin Healthcare Research Institute, Hennepin Healthcare (B.K., R.G., A.M.M.), HealthPartners Institute (K.L.M.), and the Division of Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota (A.M.M.) - all in Minneapolis; the Department of Family Medicine and Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago (R.C.S.); the Center for Aging and Population Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh (A.B.N.); Sticht Center on Aging and Alzheimer's Prevention, Section on Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (J.D.W.); the Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, College of Pharmacy, and the Department of Family Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City (M.E.E.); and the Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, MD (B.R.).

Background: Information on the use of aspirin to increase healthy independent life span in older persons is limited. Whether 5 years of daily low-dose aspirin therapy would extend disability-free life in healthy seniors is unclear.

Methods: From 2010 through 2014, we enrolled community-dwelling persons in Australia and the United States who were 70 years of age or older (or ≥65 years of age among blacks and Hispanics in the United States) and did not have cardiovascular disease, dementia, or physical disability. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 100 mg per day of enteric-coated aspirin or placebo orally. The primary end point was a composite of death, dementia, or persistent physical disability. Secondary end points reported in this article included the individual components of the primary end point and major hemorrhage.

Results: A total of 19,114 persons with a median age of 74 years were enrolled, of whom 9525 were randomly assigned to receive aspirin and 9589 to receive placebo. A total of 56.4% of the participants were women, 8.7% were nonwhite, and 11.0% reported previous regular aspirin use. The trial was terminated at a median of 4.7 years of follow-up after a determination was made that there would be no benefit with continued aspirin use with regard to the primary end point. The rate of the composite of death, dementia, or persistent physical disability was 21.5 events per 1000 person-years in the aspirin group and 21.2 per 1000 person-years in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.11; P=0.79). The rate of adherence to the assigned intervention was 62.1% in the aspirin group and 64.1% in the placebo group in the final year of trial participation. Differences between the aspirin group and the placebo group were not substantial with regard to the secondary individual end points of death from any cause (12.7 events per 1000 person-years in the aspirin group and 11.1 events per 1000 person-years in the placebo group), dementia, or persistent physical disability. The rate of major hemorrhage was higher in the aspirin group than in the placebo group (3.8% vs. 2.8%; hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.62; P<0.001).

Conclusions: Aspirin use in healthy elderly persons did not prolong disability-free survival over a period of 5 years but led to a higher rate of major hemorrhage than placebo. (Funded by the National Institute on Aging and others; ASPREE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01038583 .).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1800722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6426126PMC
October 2018

Effect of Aspirin on All-Cause Mortality in the Healthy Elderly.

N Engl J Med 2018 10 16;379(16):1519-1528. Epub 2018 Sep 16.

From the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University (J.J.M., M.R.N., R.L.W., J.E.L., R.W., C.M.R., E.S., J.R., A.M.T., S.M.F., S.G.O., R.E.T., C.I.J.), Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research (P.G.), and Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute (C.I.J.), Melbourne, and Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville (G.A.D.), VIC, Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart (M.R.N.), the School of Public Health, Curtin University (C.M.R.), and the School of Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia (L.J.B.), Perth, College of Medicine, Biology, and Environment, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (W.P.A.), and Discipline of General Practice, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (N.S.) - all in Australia; Berman Center for Outcomes and Clinical Research, Hennepin Healthcare Research Institute (B.K., R.G., A.M.M.), and the Division of Geriatrics, Department of Medicine (A.M.M.), Hennepin Healthcare, HealthPartners Institute (K.L.M.), and the University of Minnesota (A.M.M.) - all in Minneapolis; the Department of Family Medicine and Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago (R.C.S.); the Center for Aging and Population Health, Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh (D.G.I., A.B.N.); Sticht Center on Aging and Alzheimer's Prevention, Section on Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (J.D.W.); the Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, College of Pharmacy and Department of Family Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City (M.E.E.); and the Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, MD (B.R.).

Background: In the primary analysis of the Aspirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial, now published in the Journal, we report that the daily use of aspirin did not provide a benefit with regard to the primary end point of disability-free survival among older adults. A numerically higher rate of the secondary end point of death from any cause was observed with aspirin than with placebo.

Methods: From 2010 through 2014, we enrolled community-dwelling persons in Australia and the United States who were 70 years of age or older (or ≥65 years of age among blacks and Hispanics in the United States) and did not have cardiovascular disease, dementia, or disability. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 100 mg of enteric-coated aspirin or placebo. Deaths were classified according to the underlying cause by adjudicators who were unaware of trial-group assignments. Hazard ratios were calculated to compare mortality between the aspirin group and the placebo group, and post hoc exploratory analyses of specific causes of death were performed.

Results: Of the 19,114 persons who were enrolled, 9525 were assigned to receive aspirin and 9589 to receive placebo. A total of 1052 deaths occurred during a median of 4.7 years of follow-up. The risk of death from any cause was 12.7 events per 1000 person-years in the aspirin group and 11.1 events per 1000 person-years in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.29). Cancer was the major contributor to the higher mortality in the aspirin group, accounting for 1.6 excess deaths per 1000 person-years. Cancer-related death occurred in 3.1% of the participants in the aspirin group and in 2.3% of those in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.56).

Conclusions: Higher all-cause mortality was observed among apparently healthy older adults who received daily aspirin than among those who received placebo and was attributed primarily to cancer-related death. In the context of previous studies, this result was unexpected and should be interpreted with caution. (Funded by the National Institute on Aging and others; ASPREE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01038583 .).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1803955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433466PMC
October 2018

Large-scale plasma lipidomic profiling identifies lipids that predict cardiovascular events in secondary prevention.

JCI Insight 2018 09 6;3(17). Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Plasma lipidomic measures may enable improved prediction of cardiovascular outcomes in secondary prevention. The aim of this study is to determine the association of plasma lipidomic measurements with cardiovascular events and assess their potential to predict such events.

Methods: Plasma lipids (n = 342) were measured in a retrospective subcohort (n = 5,991) of the LIPID study. Proportional hazards regression was used to identify lipids associated with future cardiovascular events (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or cardiovascular death) and cardiovascular death. Multivariable models adding lipid species to traditional risk factors were created using lipid ranking established from the Akaike information criterion within a 5-fold cross-validation framework. The results were tested on a diabetic case cohort from the ADVANCE study (n = 3,779).

Results: Specific ceramide species, sphingolipids, phospholipids, and neutral lipids containing omega-6 fatty acids or odd-chain fatty acids were associated with future cardiovascular events (106 species) and cardiovascular death (139 species). The addition of 7 lipid species to a base model (11 conventional risk factors) resulted in an increase in the C-statistics from 0.629 (95% CI, 0.628-0.630) to 0.654 (95% CI, 0.653-0.656) for prediction of cardiovascular events and from 0.673 (95% CI, 0.671-0.675) to 0.727 (95% CI, 0.725-0.728) for prediction of cardiovascular death. Categorical net reclassification improvements for cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death were 0.083 (95% CI, 0.081-0.086) and 0.166 (95% CI, 0.162-0.170), respectively. Evaluation on the ADVANCE case cohort demonstrated significant improvement on the base models.

Conclusions: The improvement in the prediction of cardiovascular outcomes, above conventional risk factors, demonstrates the potential of plasma lipidomic profiles as biomarkers for cardiovascular risk stratification in secondary prevention.

Funding: Bristol-Myers Squibb, the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (grants 211086, 358395, and 1029754), and the Operational Infrastructure Support Program of the Victorian government of Australia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.121326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6171797PMC
September 2018

Rationale, design, and baseline participant characteristics in the MRI and cognitive substudy of the cardiovascular outcomes for people using anticoagulation strategies trial.

Int J Stroke 2019 04 30;14(3):270-281. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

19 National Research Centre for Preventative Medicine (Moscow), Moscow, Russia.

Background: Covert vascular disease of the brain manifests as infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, and microbleeds on MRI. Their cumulative effect is often a decline in cognition, motor impairment, and psychiatric disorders. Preventive therapies for covert brain ischemia have not been established but represent a huge unmet clinical need.

Aims: The MRI substudy examines the effects of the antithrombotic regimens in COMPASS on incident covert brain infarcts (the primary outcome), white matter hyperintensities, and cognitive and functional status in a sample of consenting COMPASS participants without contraindications to MRI.

Methods: COMPASS is a randomized superiority trial testing rivaroxaban 2.5 mg bid plus acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg and rivaroxaban 5 mg bid against acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg per day for the combined endpoint of MI, stroke, and cardiovascular death in individuals with stable coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T2*-weighted, and FLAIR images were obtained close to randomization and near the termination of assigned antithrombotic therapy; biomarker and genetic samples at randomization and one month, and cognitive and functional assessment at randomization, after two years and at the end of study.

Results: Between March 2013 and May 2016, 1905 participants were recruited from 86 centers in 16 countries. Of these participants, 1760 underwent baseline MRI scans that were deemed technically adequate for interpretation. The mean age at entry of participants with interpretable MRI was 71 years and 23.5% were women. Coronary artery disease was present in 90.4% and 28.1% had peripheral artery disease. Brain infarcts were present in 34.8%, 29.3% had cerebral microbleeds, and 93.0% had white matter hyperintensities. The median Montreal Cognitive Assessment score was 26 (interquartile range 23-28).

Conclusions: The COMPASS MRI substudy will examine the effect of the antithrombotic interventions on MRI-determined covert brain infarcts and cognition. Demonstration of a therapeutic effect of the antithrombotic regimens on brain infarcts would have implications for prevention of cognitive decline and provide insight into the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive decline.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493018784478DOI Listing
April 2019

D-Dimer Predicts Long-Term Cause-Specific Mortality, Cardiovascular Events, and Cancer in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease: LIPID Study.

Circulation 2018 08;138(7):712-723

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia (A.M.T.).

Background: D-dimer, a degradation product of cross-linked fibrin, is a marker for hypercoagulability and thrombotic events. Moderately elevated levels of D-dimer are associated with the risk of venous and arterial events in patients with vascular disease. We assessed the role of D-dimer levels in predicting long-term vascular outcomes, cause-specific mortality, and new cancers in the LIPID trial (Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease) in the context of other risk factors.

Methods: LIPID randomized patients to placebo or pravastatin 40 mg/d 5 to 38 months after myocardial infarction or unstable angina. D-dimer levels were measured at baseline and at 1 year. Median follow-up was 6.0 years during the trial and 16 years in total.

Results: Baseline D-dimer levels for 7863 patients were grouped by quartile (≤112, 112-173, 173-273, >273 ng/mL). Higher levels were associated with older age, female sex, history of hypertension, poor renal function, and elevated levels of B-natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and sensitive troponin I (each P<0.001). During the first 6 years, after adjustment for up to 30 additional risk factors, higher D-dimer was associated with a significantly increased risk of a major coronary event (quartile 4 versus 1: hazard ratio [HR], 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.74), major cardiovascular disease (CVD) event (HR, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.71) and venous thromboembolism (HR, 4.03; 95% confidence interval, 2.31-7.03; each P<0.001). During the 16 years overall, higher D-dimer was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.59), CVD mortality (HR, 1.61), cancer mortality (HR, 1.54), and non-CVD noncancer mortality (HR, 1.57; each P<0.001), remaining significant for deaths resulting from each cause occurring beyond 10 years of follow-up (each P≤0.01). Higher D-dimer also independently predicted an increase in cancer incidence (HR, 1.16; P=0.02).The D-dimer level increased the net reclassification index for all-cause mortality by 4.0 and venous thromboembolism by 13.6.

Conclusions: D-dimer levels predict long-term risk of arterial and venous events, CVD mortality, and non-CVD noncancer mortality independent of other risk factors. D-dimer is also a significant predictor of cancer incidence and mortality. These results support an association of D-dimer with fatal events across multiple diseases and demonstrate that this link extends beyond 10 years' follow-up.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.029901DOI Listing
August 2018

Carvedilol and Cardiac Biomarkers in Dialysis Patients: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2017 4;42(6):1033-1044. Epub 2017 Dec 4.

St Vincent's Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background/aims: Cardiac biomarkers are associated with cardiac abnormalities and adverse outcomes in dialysis patients. Our aim was to report the effect of the beta-blocker carvedilol on cardiac biomarkers in adult dialysis patients.

Methods: The Beta-Blocker to Lower Cardiovascular Dialysis Events Feasibility Study was a randomized controlled trial comparing carvedilol to placebo. Serum and plasma were collected before the run-in, then 6 and 12 months post-randomization to measure B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP), N-terminal BNP (NT-ProBNP), high-sensitivity cardiac troponins I (hs-TnI) and T (hs-TnT), and galectin-3. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) was measured by echocardiography at baseline.

Results: Seventy-two participants were recruited of whom 49 completed the run-in and were randomized to carvedilol (n=26) or placebo (n=23). Baseline echocardiography demonstrated median (inter-quartile range) GLS of -14.27% (-16.63 to -11.93). NTproBNP and hs-TnT correlated with GLS (Spearman's rho=0.34 [p=0.018] and rho=0.28 [p=0.049], respectively). Median change scores from baseline to 12 months did not differ significantly between participants with complete biomarker data randomized to carvedilol (n=15) or placebo (n=16) for any biomarkers.

Conclusions: NT-proBNP and hs-TnT were associated with GLS. However, changes in levels of the biomarkers from baseline to 12 months were not different between groups randomized to carvedilol and placebo.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000485589DOI Listing
August 2018
-->