Publications by authors named "Andrew M Faramand"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluation of First-line Radiosurgery vs Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for Small Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases: The FIRE-SCLC Cohort Study.

JAMA Oncol 2020 07;6(7):1028-1037

University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Aurora.

Importance: Although stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is preferred for limited brain metastases from most histologies, whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has remained the standard of care for patients with small cell lung cancer. Data on SRS are limited.

Objective: To characterize and compare first-line SRS outcomes (without prior WBRT or prophylactic cranial irradiation) with those of first-line WBRT.

Design, Setting, And Participants: FIRE-SCLC (First-line Radiosurgery for Small-Cell Lung Cancer) was a multicenter cohort study that analyzed SRS outcomes from 28 centers and a single-arm trial and compared these data with outcomes from a first-line WBRT cohort. Data were collected from October 26, 2017, to August 15, 2019, and analyzed from August 16, 2019, to November 6, 2019.

Interventions: SRS and WBRT for small cell lung cancer brain metastases.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Overall survival, time to central nervous system progression (TTCP), and central nervous system (CNS) progression-free survival (PFS) after SRS were evaluated and compared with WBRT outcomes, with adjustment for performance status, number of brain metastases, synchronicity, age, sex, and treatment year in multivariable and propensity score-matched analyses.

Results: In total, 710 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 68.5 [62-74] years; 531 men [74.8%]) who received SRS between 1994 and 2018 were analyzed. The median overall survival was 8.5 months, the median TTCP was 8.1 months, and the median CNS PFS was 5.0 months. When stratified by the number of brain metastases treated, the median overall survival was 11.0 months (95% CI, 8.9-13.4) for 1 lesion, 8.7 months (95% CI, 7.7-10.4) for 2 to 4 lesions, 8.0 months (95% CI, 6.4-9.6) for 5 to 10 lesions, and 5.5 months (95% CI, 4.3-7.6) for 11 or more lesions. Competing risk estimates were 7.0% (95% CI, 4.9%-9.2%) for local failures at 12 months and 41.6% (95% CI, 37.6%-45.7%) for distant CNS failures at 12 months. Leptomeningeal progression (46 of 425 patients [10.8%] with available data) and neurological mortality (80 of 647 patients [12.4%] with available data) were uncommon. On propensity score-matched analyses comparing SRS with WBRT, WBRT was associated with improved TTCP (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.26-0.55; P < .001), without an improvement in overall survival (median, 6.5 months [95% CI, 5.5-8.0] for SRS vs 5.2 months [95% CI, 4.4-6.7] for WBRT; P = .003) or CNS PFS (median, 4.0 months for SRS vs 3.8 months for WBRT; P = .79). Multivariable analyses comparing SRS and WBRT, including subset analyses controlling for extracranial metastases and extracranial disease control status, demonstrated similar results.

Conclusions And Relevance: Results of this study suggest that the primary trade-offs associated with SRS without WBRT, including a shorter TTCP without a decrease in overall survival, are similar to those observed in settings in which SRS is already established.
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July 2020

Macrophages as Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery: Novel Therapeutics for Central Nervous System Diseases.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2018 01;18(1):471-485

Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 37 Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China.

Many central nervous system (CNS) diseases were thought to be untreatable due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The chemokine gradients secreted from CNS parenchyma can induce macrophage migration to the brain, induce firm adherence to the endothelium of BBB, and eventually to enter the brain parenchyma. Macrophages migrating into CNS can promote neuron regeneration, induce inflammation and angiogenesis. These properties can potentially allow macrophages to act as carriers for drug/nano formulations across the BBB, and reach the potential target sites. Many nanomaterials cannot be used for the management of CNS diseases because of their low carrying efficiency. Macrophage which transports nanomaterials to pathological sites is rendered as an attractive tool for the transportation of drugs to previously inaccessible regions within the brain parenchyma. Nanomaterials engulfed by macrophages can be released at target sites, and be used for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes. In this review, we focus on macrophages as the cell-carrier to deliver nano-drugs into CNS, describe the biological behavior of macrophages during pathological conditions and discuss the application of cell drug delivery system in recent years.
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January 2018

Seizure and cognitive outcomes after resection of glioneuronal tumors in children.

Epilepsia 2018 01 26;59(1):170-178. Epub 2017 Nov 26.

Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Objective: Glioneuronal tumors (GNTs) are well-recognized causes of chronic drug-resistant focal epilepsy in children. Our practice involves an initial period of radiological surveillance and antiepileptic medications, with surgery being reserved for those with radiological progression or refractory seizures. We planned to analyze the group of patients with low-grade GNTs, aiming to identify factors affecting seizure and cognitive outcomes.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 150 children presenting to Great Ormond Street Hospital with seizures secondary to GNTs. Analysis of clinical, neuroimaging, neuropsychological, and surgical factors was performed to determine predictors of outcome. Seizure outcome at final follow-up was classified as either seizure-free (group A) or not seizure-free (group B) for patients with at least 12-months follow-up postsurgery. Full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) was used as a measure of cognitive outcome.

Results: Eighty-six males and 64 females were identified. Median presurgical FSIQ was 81. One hundred twenty-one patients (80.5%) underwent surgery. Median follow-up after surgery was 2 years, with 92 patients (76%) having at least 12 months of follow-up after surgery. Seventy-four patients (80%) were seizure-free, and 18 (20%) continued to have seizures. Radiologically demonstrated complete tumor resection was associated with higher rates of seizure freedom (P = .026). Higher presurgical FSIQ was related to shorter epilepsy duration until surgery (P = .012) and to older age at seizure onset (P = .043).

Significance: A high proportion of children who present with epilepsy and GNTs go on to have surgical tumor resection with excellent postoperative seizure control. Complete resection is associated with a higher chance of seizure freedom. Higher presurgical cognitive functioning is associated with shorter duration of epilepsy prior to surgery and with older age at seizure onset. Given the high rate of eventual surgery, early surgical intervention should be considered in children with continuing seizures associated with GNTs.
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January 2018

Extravasation of contrast (Spot Sign) predicts in-hospital mortality in ruptured arteriovenous malformation.

Br J Neurosurg 2019 Apr 9;33(2):149-155. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

a Department of Neurosurgery, Sichuan University West China Medical Center , Chengdu , China.

Background And Purpose: The spot sign is a highly specific and sensitive predictor of hematoma expansion in following primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Rare cases of the spot sign have been documented in patients with intracranial hemorrhage secondary to arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The purpose of this retrospective study is to assess the accuracy of spot sign in predicting clinical outcomes in patients with ruptured AVM.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database was performed for patients who presented to West China Hospital with ICH secondary to AVM in the period between January 2009 and September 2016. Two radiologists blinded to the clinical data independently assessed the imaging data, including the presence of spot sign. Statistical analysis using univariate testing, multivariate logistic regression testing, and receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was performed.

Results: A total of 116 patients were included. Overall, 18.9% (22/116) of subjects had at least 1 spot sign detected by CT angiography, 7% (8/116) died in hospital, and 27% (31/116) of the patients had a poor outcome after 90 days. The spot sign had a sensitivity of 62.5% and specificity of 84.3% for predicting in-hospital mortality (p = .02, AUC 0.734). No correlation detected between the spot sign and 90-day outcomes under multiple logistic regression (p = .19).

Conclusions: The spot sign is an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality. The presence of spot sign did not correlate with the 90 day outcomes in this patient cohort. The results of this report suggest that patients with ruptured AVM with demonstrated the spot sign on imaging must receive aggressive treatment early on due to the high risk of mortality.
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April 2019