Publications by authors named "Andrew Lieberman"

119 Publications

Donor-containing cortical and intraventricular glioneuronal nodules in Huntington's disease brain decades after fetal cell transplantation.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, 3510 MSRB1, 1150 W. Medical Center Dr, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109, US.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02292-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Loss of NPC1 enhances phagocytic uptake and impairs lipid trafficking in microglia.

Nat Commun 2021 02 24;12(1):1158. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) Munich, Munich, Germany.

Niemann-Pick type C disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder mainly caused by mutations in NPC1, resulting in abnormal late endosomal/lysosomal lipid storage. Although microgliosis is a prominent pathological feature, direct consequences of NPC1 loss on microglial function remain not fully characterized. We discovered pathological proteomic signatures and phenotypes in NPC1-deficient murine models and demonstrate a cell autonomous function of NPC1 in microglia. Loss of NPC1 triggers enhanced phagocytic uptake and impaired myelin turnover in microglia that precede neuronal death. Npc1 microglia feature a striking accumulation of multivesicular bodies and impaired trafficking of lipids to lysosomes while lysosomal degradation function remains preserved. Molecular and functional defects were also detected in blood-derived macrophages of NPC patients that provide a potential tool for monitoring disease. Our study underscores an essential cell autonomous role for NPC1 in immune cells and implies microglial therapeutic potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21428-5DOI Listing
February 2021

Deubiquitinase USP7 contributes to the pathogenicity of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.

J Clin Invest 2021 Jan;131(1)

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are devastating, slowly progressing neurodegenerative conditions caused by expansion of polyQ-encoding CAG repeats within the coding regions of distinct, unrelated genes. In spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), polyQ expansion within the androgen receptor (AR) causes progressive neuromuscular toxicity, the molecular basis of which is unclear. Using quantitative proteomics, we identified changes in the AR interactome caused by polyQ expansion. We found that the deubiquitinase USP7 preferentially interacts with polyQ-expanded AR and that lowering USP7 levels reduced mutant AR aggregation and cytotoxicity in cell models of SBMA. Moreover, USP7 knockdown suppressed disease phenotypes in SBMA and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) fly models, and monoallelic knockout of Usp7 ameliorated several motor deficiencies in transgenic SBMA mice. USP7 overexpression resulted in reduced AR ubiquitination, indicating the direct action of USP7 on AR. Using quantitative proteomics, we identified the ubiquitinated lysine residues on mutant AR that are regulated by USP7. Finally, we found that USP7 also differentially interacts with mutant Huntingtin (HTT) protein in striatum and frontal cortex of a knockin mouse model of Huntington's disease. Taken together, our findings reveal a critical role for USP7 in the pathophysiology of SBMA and suggest a similar role in SCA3 and Huntington's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI134565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773404PMC
January 2021

Risk of Transmissibility From Neurodegenerative Disease-Associated Proteins: Experimental Knowns and Unknowns.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2020 11;79(11):1141-1146

Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Recent studies in animal models demonstrate that certain misfolded proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases can support templated misfolding of cognate native proteins, to propagate across neural systems, and to therefore have some of the properties of classical prion diseases like Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The National Institute of Aging convened a meeting to discuss the implications of these observations for research priorities. A summary of the discussion is presented here, with a focus on limitations of current knowledge, highlighting areas that appear to require further investigation in order to guide scientific practice while minimizing potential exposure or risk in the laboratory setting. The committee concluded that, based on all currently available data, although neurodegenerative disease-associated aggregates of several different non-prion proteins can be propagated from humans to experimental animals, there is currently insufficient evidence to suggest more than a negligible risk, if any, of a direct infectious etiology for the human neurodegenerative disorders defined in part by these proteins. Given the importance of this question, the potential for noninvasive human transmission of proteopathic disorders is deserving of further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlaa109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7577514PMC
November 2020

Fbxo2 mediates clearance of damaged lysosomes and modifies neurodegeneration in the Niemann-Pick C brain.

JCI Insight 2020 Oct 15;5(20). Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Pathology.

A critical response to lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) is the clearance of damaged lysosomes through a selective form of macroautophagy known as lysophagy. Although regulators of this process are emerging, whether organ- and cell-specific components contribute to the control of lysophagy remains incompletely understood. Here, we examined LMP and lysophagy in Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol within late endosomes and lysosomes, leading to neurodegeneration and early death. We demonstrated that NPC human fibroblasts show enhanced sensitivity to lysosomal damage as a consequence of lipid storage. Moreover, we described a role for the glycan-binding F-box protein 2 (Fbxo2) in CNS lysophagy. Fbxo2 functions as a component of the S phase kinase-associated protein 1-cullin 1-F-box protein (SKP1-CUL1-SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex. Loss of Fbxo2 in mouse primary cortical cultures delayed clearance of damaged lysosomes and decreased viability after lysosomal damage. Moreover, Fbxo2 deficiency in a mouse model of NPC exacerbated deficits in motor function, enhanced neurodegeneration, and reduced survival. Collectively, our data identified a role for Fbxo2 in CNS lysophagy and establish its functional importance in NPC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.136676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7605537PMC
October 2020

MEF2 impairment underlies skeletal muscle atrophy in polyglutamine disease.

Acta Neuropathol 2020 07 18;140(1):63-80. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Polyglutamine (polyQ) tract expansion leads to proteotoxic misfolding and drives a family of nine diseases. We study spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), a progressive degenerative disorder of the neuromuscular system caused by the polyQ androgen receptor (AR). Using a knock-in mouse model of SBMA, AR113Q mice, we show that E3 ubiquitin ligases which are a hallmark of the canonical muscle atrophy machinery are not induced in AR113Q muscle. Similarly, we find no evidence to suggest dysfunction of signaling pathways that trigger muscle hypertrophy or impairment of the muscle stem cell niche. Instead, we find that skeletal muscle atrophy is characterized by diminished function of the transcriptional regulator Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 (MEF2), a regulator of myofiber homeostasis. Decreased expression of MEF2 target genes is age- and glutamine tract length-dependent, occurs due to polyQ AR proteotoxicity, and is associated with sequestration of MEF2 into intranuclear inclusions in muscle. Skeletal muscle from R6/2 mice, a model of Huntington disease which develops progressive atrophy, also sequesters MEF2 into inclusions and displays age-dependent loss of MEF2 target genes. Similarly, SBMA patient muscle shows loss of MEF2 target gene expression, and restoring MEF2 activity in AR113Q muscle rescues fiber size and MEF2-regulated gene expression. This work establishes MEF2 impairment as a novel mechanism of skeletal muscle atrophy downstream of toxic polyglutamine proteins and as a therapeutic target for muscle atrophy in these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-020-02156-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7166004PMC
July 2020

Truth and transparency in a time of crisis.

JCI Insight 2020 03 17;5(6). Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Lessons from history underline the importance of having direct lines of communication to and from public health officials, who must remain free from policital bias in times of crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.138132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205248PMC
March 2020

Changing the editorial process at JCI and JCI Insight in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Clin Invest 2020 05;130(5):2147

The editors of JCI and JCI Insight are revisiting our editorial processes in light of the strain that the COVID-19 pandemic places on the worldwide scientific community. Here, we discuss adjustments to our decision framework in light of restrictions placed on laboratory working conditions for many of our authors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI138305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7190969PMC
May 2020

Synthetic high-density lipoprotein nanoparticles for the treatment of Niemann-Pick diseases.

BMC Med 2019 11 11;17(1):200. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, 3510 MSRB1, 1150 W. Medical Center Dr., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Background: Niemann-Pick disease type C is a fatal and progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in late endosomes and lysosomes. We sought to develop new therapeutics for this disorder by harnessing the body's endogenous cholesterol scavenging particle, high-density lipoprotein (HDL).

Methods: Here we design, optimize, and define the mechanism of action of synthetic HDL (sHDL) nanoparticles.

Results: We demonstrate a dose-dependent rescue of cholesterol storage that is sensitive to sHDL lipid and peptide composition, enabling the identification of compounds with a range of therapeutic potency. Peripheral administration of sHDL to Npc1 I1061T homozygous mice mobilizes cholesterol, reduces serum bilirubin, reduces liver macrophage size, and corrects body weight deficits. Additionally, a single intraventricular injection into adult Npc1 I1061T brains significantly reduces cholesterol storage in Purkinje neurons. Since endogenous HDL is also a carrier of sphingomyelin, we tested the same sHDL formulation in the sphingomyelin storage disease Niemann-Pick type A. Utilizing stimulated Raman scattering microscopy to detect endogenous unlabeled lipids, we show significant rescue of Niemann-Pick type A lipid storage.

Conclusions: Together, our data establish that sHDL nanoparticles are a potential new therapeutic avenue for Niemann-Pick diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1423-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849328PMC
November 2019

Targeting Hsp70 facilitated protein quality control for treatment of polyglutamine diseases.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2020 Mar 24;77(6):977-996. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

The polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are a group of nine fatal, adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the misfolding and aggregation of mutant proteins containing toxic expansions of CAG/polyQ tracts. The heat shock protein 90 and 70 (Hsp90/Hsp70) chaperone machinery is a key component of cellular protein quality control, playing a role in the regulation of folding, aggregation, and degradation of polyQ proteins. The ability of Hsp70 to facilitate disaggregation and degradation of misfolded proteins makes it an attractive therapeutic target in polyQ diseases. Genetic studies have demonstrated that manipulation of Hsp70 and related co-chaperones can enhance the disaggregation and/or degradation of misfolded proteins in models of polyQ disease. Therefore, the development of small molecules that enhance Hsp70 activity is of great interest. However, it is still unclear if currently available Hsp70 modulators can selectively enhance disaggregation or degradation of misfolded proteins without perturbing other Hsp70 functions essential for cellular homeostasis. This review discusses the multifaceted role of Hsp70 in protein quality control and the opportunities and challenges Hsp70 poses as a potential therapeutic target in polyQ disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-019-03302-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7137528PMC
March 2020

Author Correction: Genetic meta-analysis of diagnosed Alzheimer's disease identifies new risk loci and implicates Aβ, tau, immunity and lipid processing.

Authors:
Brian W Kunkle Benjamin Grenier-Boley Rebecca Sims Joshua C Bis Vincent Damotte Adam C Naj Anne Boland Maria Vronskaya Sven J van der Lee Alexandre Amlie-Wolf Céline Bellenguez Aura Frizatti Vincent Chouraki Eden R Martin Kristel Sleegers Nandini Badarinarayan Johanna Jakobsdottir Kara L Hamilton-Nelson Sonia Moreno-Grau Robert Olaso Rachel Raybould Yuning Chen Amanda B Kuzma Mikko Hiltunen Taniesha Morgan Shahzad Ahmad Badri N Vardarajan Jacques Epelbaum Per Hoffmann Merce Boada Gary W Beecham Jean-Guillaume Garnier Denise Harold Annette L Fitzpatrick Otto Valladares Marie-Laure Moutet Amy Gerrish Albert V Smith Liming Qu Delphine Bacq Nicola Denning Xueqiu Jian Yi Zhao Maria Del Zompo Nick C Fox Seung-Hoan Choi Ignacio Mateo Joseph T Hughes Hieab H Adams John Malamon Florentino Sanchez-Garcia Yogen Patel Jennifer A Brody Beth A Dombroski Maria Candida Deniz Naranjo Makrina Daniilidou Gudny Eiriksdottir Shubhabrata Mukherjee David Wallon James Uphill Thor Aspelund Laura B Cantwell Fabienne Garzia Daniela Galimberti Edith Hofer Mariusz Butkiewicz Bertrand Fin Elio Scarpini Chloe Sarnowski Will S Bush Stéphane Meslage Johannes Kornhuber Charles C White Yuenjoo Song Robert C Barber Sebastiaan Engelborghs Sabrina Sordon Dina Voijnovic Perrie M Adams Rik Vandenberghe Manuel Mayhaus L Adrienne Cupples Marilyn S Albert Peter P De Deyn Wei Gu Jayanadra J Himali Duane Beekly Alessio Squassina Annette M Hartmann Adelina Orellana Deborah Blacker Eloy Rodriguez-Rodriguez Simon Lovestone Melissa E Garcia Rachelle S Doody Carmen Munoz-Fernadez Rebecca Sussams Honghuang Lin Thomas J Fairchild Yolanda A Benito Clive Holmes Hata Karamujić-Čomić Matthew P Frosch Hakan Thonberg Wolfgang Maier Gennady Roshchupkin Bernardino Ghetti Vilmantas Giedraitis Amit Kawalia Shuo Li Ryan M Huebinger Lena Kilander Susanne Moebus Isabel Hernández M Ilyas Kamboh RoseMarie Brundin James Turton Qiong Yang Mindy J Katz Letizia Concari Jenny Lord Alexa S Beiser C Dirk Keene Seppo Helisalmi Iwona Kloszewska Walter A Kukull Anne Maria Koivisto Aoibhinn Lynch Lluís Tarraga Eric B Larson Annakaisa Haapasalo Brian Lawlor Thomas H Mosley Richard B Lipton Vincenzo Solfrizzi Michael Gill W T Longstreth Thomas J Montine Vincenza Frisardi Monica Diez-Fairen Fernando Rivadeneira Ronald C Petersen Vincent Deramecourt Ignacio Alvarez Francesca Salani Antonio Ciaramella Eric Boerwinkle Eric M Reiman Nathalie Fievet Jerome I Rotter Joan S Reisch Olivier Hanon Chiara Cupidi A G Andre Uitterlinden Donald R Royall Carole Dufouil Raffaele Giovanni Maletta Itziar de Rojas Mary Sano Alexis Brice Roberta Cecchetti Peter St George-Hyslop Karen Ritchie Magda Tsolaki Debby W Tsuang Bruno Dubois David Craig Chuang-Kuo Wu Hilkka Soininen Despoina Avramidou Roger L Albin Laura Fratiglioni Antonia Germanou Liana G Apostolova Lina Keller Maria Koutroumani Steven E Arnold Francesco Panza Olymbia Gkatzima Sanjay Asthana Didier Hannequin Patrice Whitehead Craig S Atwood Paolo Caffarra Harald Hampel Inés Quintela Ángel Carracedo Lars Lannfelt David C Rubinsztein Lisa L Barnes Florence Pasquier Lutz Frölich Sandra Barral Bernadette McGuinness Thomas G Beach Janet A Johnston James T Becker Peter Passmore Eileen H Bigio Jonathan M Schott Thomas D Bird Jason D Warren Bradley F Boeve Michelle K Lupton James D Bowen Petra Proitsi Adam Boxer John F Powell James R Burke John S K Kauwe Jeffrey M Burns Michelangelo Mancuso Joseph D Buxbaum Ubaldo Bonuccelli Nigel J Cairns Andrew McQuillin Chuanhai Cao Gill Livingston Chris S Carlson Nicholas J Bass Cynthia M Carlsson John Hardy Regina M Carney Jose Bras Minerva M Carrasquillo Rita Guerreiro Mariet Allen Helena C Chui Elizabeth Fisher Carlo Masullo Elizabeth A Crocco Charles DeCarli Gina Bisceglio Malcolm Dick Li Ma Ranjan Duara Neill R Graff-Radford Denis A Evans Angela Hodges Kelley M Faber Martin Scherer Kenneth B Fallon Matthias Riemenschneider David W Fardo Reinhard Heun Martin R Farlow Heike Kölsch Steven Ferris Markus Leber Tatiana M Foroud Isabella Heuser Douglas R Galasko Ina Giegling Marla Gearing Michael Hüll Daniel H Geschwind John R Gilbert John Morris Robert C Green Kevin Mayo John H Growdon Thomas Feulner Ronald L Hamilton Lindy E Harrell Dmitriy Drichel Lawrence S Honig Thomas D Cushion Matthew J Huentelman Paul Hollingworth Christine M Hulette Bradley T Hyman Rachel Marshall Gail P Jarvik Alun Meggy Erin Abner Georgina E Menzies Lee-Way Jin Ganna Leonenko Luis M Real Gyungah R Jun Clinton T Baldwin Detelina Grozeva Anna Karydas Giancarlo Russo Jeffrey A Kaye Ronald Kim Frank Jessen Neil W Kowall Bruno Vellas Joel H Kramer Emma Vardy Frank M LaFerla Karl-Heinz Jöckel James J Lah Martin Dichgans James B Leverenz David Mann Allan I Levey Stuart Pickering-Brown Andrew P Lieberman Norman Klopp Kathryn L Lunetta H-Erich Wichmann Constantine G Lyketsos Kevin Morgan Daniel C Marson Kristelle Brown Frank Martiniuk Christopher Medway Deborah C Mash Markus M Nöthen Eliezer Masliah Nigel M Hooper Wayne C McCormick Antonio Daniele Susan M McCurry Anthony Bayer Andrew N McDavid John Gallacher Ann C McKee Hendrik van den Bussche Marsel Mesulam Carol Brayne Bruce L Miller Steffi Riedel-Heller Carol A Miller Joshua W Miller Ammar Al-Chalabi John C Morris Christopher E Shaw Amanda J Myers Jens Wiltfang Sid O'Bryant John M Olichney Victoria Alvarez Joseph E Parisi Andrew B Singleton Henry L Paulson John Collinge William R Perry Simon Mead Elaine Peskind David H Cribbs Martin Rossor Aimee Pierce Natalie S Ryan Wayne W Poon Benedetta Nacmias Huntington Potter Sandro Sorbi Joseph F Quinn Eleonora Sacchinelli Ashok Raj Gianfranco Spalletta Murray Raskind Carlo Caltagirone Paola Bossù Maria Donata Orfei Barry Reisberg Robert Clarke Christiane Reitz A David Smith John M Ringman Donald Warden Erik D Roberson Gordon Wilcock Ekaterina Rogaeva Amalia Cecilia Bruni Howard J Rosen Maura Gallo Roger N Rosenberg Yoav Ben-Shlomo Mark A Sager Patrizia Mecocci Andrew J Saykin Pau Pastor Michael L Cuccaro Jeffery M Vance Julie A Schneider Lori S Schneider Susan Slifer William W Seeley Amanda G Smith Joshua A Sonnen Salvatore Spina Robert A Stern Russell H Swerdlow Mitchell Tang Rudolph E Tanzi John Q Trojanowski Juan C Troncoso Vivianna M Van Deerlin Linda J Van Eldik Harry V Vinters Jean Paul Vonsattel Sandra Weintraub Kathleen A Welsh-Bohmer Kirk C Wilhelmsen Jennifer Williamson Thomas S Wingo Randall L Woltjer Clinton B Wright Chang-En Yu Lei Yu Yasaman Saba Alberto Pilotto Maria J Bullido Oliver Peters Paul K Crane David Bennett Paola Bosco Eliecer Coto Virginia Boccardi Phil L De Jager Alberto Lleo Nick Warner Oscar L Lopez Martin Ingelsson Panagiotis Deloukas Carlos Cruchaga Caroline Graff Rhian Gwilliam Myriam Fornage Alison M Goate Pascual Sanchez-Juan Patrick G Kehoe Najaf Amin Nilifur Ertekin-Taner Claudine Berr Stéphanie Debette Seth Love Lenore J Launer Steven G Younkin Jean-Francois Dartigues Chris Corcoran M Arfan Ikram Dennis W Dickson Gael Nicolas Dominique Campion JoAnn Tschanz Helena Schmidt Hakon Hakonarson Jordi Clarimon Ron Munger Reinhold Schmidt Lindsay A Farrer Christine Van Broeckhoven Michael C O'Donovan Anita L DeStefano Lesley Jones Jonathan L Haines Jean-Francois Deleuze Michael J Owen Vilmundur Gudnason Richard Mayeux Valentina Escott-Price Bruce M Psaty Alfredo Ramirez Li-San Wang Agustin Ruiz Cornelia M van Duijn Peter A Holmans Sudha Seshadri Julie Williams Phillippe Amouyel Gerard D Schellenberg Jean-Charles Lambert Margaret A Pericak-Vance

Nat Genet 2019 Sep;51(9):1423-1424

John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0495-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7265117PMC
September 2019

Hsp70 and Hsp40 inhibit an inter-domain interaction necessary for transcriptional activity in the androgen receptor.

Nat Commun 2019 08 8;10(1):3562. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Baldiri Reixac 10, 08028, Barcelona, Spain.

Molecular chaperones such as Hsp40 and Hsp70 hold the androgen receptor (AR) in an inactive conformation. They are released in the presence of androgens, enabling transactivation and causing the receptor to become aggregation-prone. Here we show that these molecular chaperones recognize a region of the AR N-terminal domain (NTD), including a FQNLF motif, that interacts with the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) upon activation. This suggests that competition between molecular chaperones and the LBD for the FQNLF motif regulates AR activation. We also show that, while the free NTD oligomerizes, binding to Hsp70 increases its solubility. Stabilizing the NTD-Hsp70 interaction with small molecules reduces AR aggregation and promotes its degradation in cellular and mouse models of the neuromuscular disorder spinal bulbar muscular atrophy. These results help resolve the mechanisms by which molecular chaperones regulate the balance between AR aggregation, activation and quality control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-11594-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6687723PMC
August 2019

Genetic approaches to the treatment of inherited neuromuscular diseases.

Hum Mol Genet 2019 10;28(R1):R55-R64

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Inherited neuromuscular diseases are a heterogeneous group of developmental and degenerative disorders that affect motor unit function. Major challenges toward developing therapies for these diseases include heterogeneity with respect to clinical severity, age of onset and the primary cell type that is affected (e.g. motor neurons, skeletal muscle and Schwann cells). Here, we review recent progress toward the establishment of genetic therapies to treat inherited neuromuscular disorders that affect both children and adults with a focus on spinal muscular atrophy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. We discuss clinical features, causative mutations and emerging approaches that are undergoing testing in preclinical models and in patients or that have received recent approval for clinical use. Many of these efforts employ antisense oligonucleotides to alter pre-mRNA splicing or diminish target gene expression and use viral vectors to replace expression of mutant genes. Finally, we discuss remaining challenges for optimizing the delivery and effectiveness of these approaches. In sum, therapeutic strategies for neuromuscular diseases have shown encouraging results, raising hope that recent strides will translate into significant clinical benefits for patients with these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddz131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6796996PMC
October 2019

Inkjet-printed micro-calibration standards for ultraquantitative Raman spectral cytometry.

Analyst 2019 Jun 22;144(12):3790-3799. Epub 2019 May 22.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Herein we report the development of a cytometric analysis platform for measuring the contents of individual cells in absolute (picogram) scales; this study represents the first report of Raman-based quantitation of the absolute mass - or the total amount - of multiple endogenous biomolecules within single-cells. To enable ultraquantitative calibration, we engineered single-cell-sized micro-calibration standards of known composition by inkjet-printer deposition of biomolecular components in microarrays across the surface of silicon chips. We demonstrate clinical feasibility by characterizing the compositional phenotype of human skin fibroblast and porcine alveolar macrophage cell populations in the respective contexts of Niemann-Pick disease and drug-induced phospholipidosis: two types of lipid storage disorders. We envision this microanalytical platform as the foundation for many future biomedical applications, ranging from diagnostic assays to pathological analysis to advanced pharmaco/toxicokinetic research studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9an00500eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6711383PMC
June 2019

Peri-Infarct Upregulation of the Oxytocin Receptor in Vascular Dementia.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2019 05;78(5):436-452

Department of Translational Science and Molecular Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Vascular dementia (VaD) is cognitive decline linked to reduced cerebral blood perfusion, yet there are few therapeutic options to protect cognitive function following cerebrovascular accidents. The purpose of this study was to profile gene expression changes unique to VaD to identify and characterize disease relevant changes that could offer clues for future therapeutic direction. Microarray-based profiling and validation studies of postmortem frontal cortex samples from VaD, Alzheimer disease, and age-matched control subjects revealed that the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) was strongly and differentially upregulated in VaD. Further characterization in fixed tissue from the same cases showed that OXTR upregulation occurs de novo around and within microinfarcts in peri-infarct reactive astrocytes as well as within vascular profiles, likely on microvascular endothelial cells. These results indicate that increased OXTR expression in peri-infarct regions may be a specific response to microvascular insults. Given the established OXTR signaling cascades that elicit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-angiogenic responses, the present findings suggest that de novo OXTR expression in the peri-infarct space is a tissue-protective response by astroglial and vascular cells in the wake of ischemic damage that could be exploited as a therapeutic option for the preservation of cognition following cerebrovascular insults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlz023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6467199PMC
May 2019

Disease Affects Expression in Synaptic and Extrasynaptic Regions of Skeletal Muscle of Three SBMA Mouse Models.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 15;20(6). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Neuroscience Program, 108 Giltner Hall, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1115, USA.

Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a slowly progressive, androgen-dependent neuromuscular disease in men that is characterized by both muscle and synaptic dysfunction. Because gene expression in muscle is heterogeneous, with synaptic myonuclei expressing genes that regulate synaptic function and extrasynaptic myonuclei expressing genes to regulate contractile function, we used quantitative PCR to compare gene expression in these two domains of muscle from three different mouse models of SBMA: the "97Q" model that ubiquitously expresses mutant human androgen receptor (AR), the 113Q knock-in (KI) model that expresses humanized mouse AR with an expanded glutamine tract, and the "myogenic" model that overexpresses wild-type rat AR only in skeletal muscle. We were particularly interested in neurotrophic factors because of their role in maintaining neuromuscular function via effects on both muscle and synaptic function, and their implicated role in SBMA. We confirmed previous reports of the enriched expression of select genes (e.g., the acetylcholine receptor) in the synaptic region of muscle, and are the first to report the synaptic enrichment of others (e.g., glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor). Interestingly, all three models displayed comparably dysregulated expression of most genes examined in both the synaptic and extrasynaptic domains of muscle, with only modest differences between regions and models. These findings of comprehensive gene dysregulation in muscle support the emerging view that skeletal muscle may be a prime therapeutic target for restoring function of both muscles and motoneurons in SBMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6470984PMC
March 2019

Pathogenic alpha-synuclein aggregates preferentially bind to mitochondria and affect cellular respiration.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2019 03 14;7(1):41. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Center for Neurodegenerative Science, Van Andel Research Institute, 333 Bostwick Avenue N.E, Grand Rapids, MI, 49503, USA.

Misfolded alpha-synuclein (αSyn) is a major constituent of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, which are pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). The contribution of αSyn to PD is well established, but the detailed mechanism remains obscure. Using a model in which αSyn aggregation in primary neurons was seeded by exogenously added, preformed αSyn amyloid fibrils (PFF), we found that a majority of pathogenic αSyn (indicated by serine 129 phosphorylated αSyn, ps-αSyn) was membrane-bound and associated with mitochondria. In contrast, only a minuscule amount of physiological αSyn was mitochondrial bound. In vitro, αSyn PFF displayed a stronger binding to purified mitochondria than did αSyn monomer, revealing a preferential mitochondria binding by aggregated αSyn. This selective mitochondrial ps-αSyn accumulation was confirmed in other neuronal and animal αSyn aggregation models that do not require exogenously added PFF and, more importantly, in postmortem brain tissues of patients suffering from PD and other neurodegenerative diseases with αSyn aggregation (α-synucleinopathies). We also showed that the mitochondrial ps-αSyn accumulation was accompanied by defects in cellular respiration in primary neurons, suggesting a link to mitochondrial dysfunction. Together, our results show that, contrary to physiological αSyn, pathogenic αSyn aggregates preferentially bind to mitochondria, indicating mitochondrial dysfunction as the common downstream mechanism for α-synucleinopathies. Our findings suggest a plausible model explaining the formation and the peculiar morphology of Lewy body and reveal that disrupting the interaction between ps-αSyn and the mitochondria is a therapeutic target for α-synucleinopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-019-0696-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419482PMC
March 2019

Genetic meta-analysis of diagnosed Alzheimer's disease identifies new risk loci and implicates Aβ, tau, immunity and lipid processing.

Authors:
Brian W Kunkle Benjamin Grenier-Boley Rebecca Sims Joshua C Bis Vincent Damotte Adam C Naj Anne Boland Maria Vronskaya Sven J van der Lee Alexandre Amlie-Wolf Céline Bellenguez Aura Frizatti Vincent Chouraki Eden R Martin Kristel Sleegers Nandini Badarinarayan Johanna Jakobsdottir Kara L Hamilton-Nelson Sonia Moreno-Grau Robert Olaso Rachel Raybould Yuning Chen Amanda B Kuzma Mikko Hiltunen Taniesha Morgan Shahzad Ahmad Badri N Vardarajan Jacques Epelbaum Per Hoffmann Merce Boada Gary W Beecham Jean-Guillaume Garnier Denise Harold Annette L Fitzpatrick Otto Valladares Marie-Laure Moutet Amy Gerrish Albert V Smith Liming Qu Delphine Bacq Nicola Denning Xueqiu Jian Yi Zhao Maria Del Zompo Nick C Fox Seung-Hoan Choi Ignacio Mateo Joseph T Hughes Hieab H Adams John Malamon Florentino Sanchez-Garcia Yogen Patel Jennifer A Brody Beth A Dombroski Maria Candida Deniz Naranjo Makrina Daniilidou Gudny Eiriksdottir Shubhabrata Mukherjee David Wallon James Uphill Thor Aspelund Laura B Cantwell Fabienne Garzia Daniela Galimberti Edith Hofer Mariusz Butkiewicz Bertrand Fin Elio Scarpini Chloe Sarnowski Will S Bush Stéphane Meslage Johannes Kornhuber Charles C White Yuenjoo Song Robert C Barber Sebastiaan Engelborghs Sabrina Sordon Dina Voijnovic Perrie M Adams Rik Vandenberghe Manuel Mayhaus L Adrienne Cupples Marilyn S Albert Peter P De Deyn Wei Gu Jayanadra J Himali Duane Beekly Alessio Squassina Annette M Hartmann Adelina Orellana Deborah Blacker Eloy Rodriguez-Rodriguez Simon Lovestone Melissa E Garcia Rachelle S Doody Carmen Munoz-Fernadez Rebecca Sussams Honghuang Lin Thomas J Fairchild Yolanda A Benito Clive Holmes Hata Karamujić-Čomić Matthew P Frosch Hakan Thonberg Wolfgang Maier Gennady Roshchupkin Bernardino Ghetti Vilmantas Giedraitis Amit Kawalia Shuo Li Ryan M Huebinger Lena Kilander Susanne Moebus Isabel Hernández M Ilyas Kamboh RoseMarie Brundin James Turton Qiong Yang Mindy J Katz Letizia Concari Jenny Lord Alexa S Beiser C Dirk Keene Seppo Helisalmi Iwona Kloszewska Walter A Kukull Anne Maria Koivisto Aoibhinn Lynch Lluís Tarraga Eric B Larson Annakaisa Haapasalo Brian Lawlor Thomas H Mosley Richard B Lipton Vincenzo Solfrizzi Michael Gill W T Longstreth Thomas J Montine Vincenza Frisardi Monica Diez-Fairen Fernando Rivadeneira Ronald C Petersen Vincent Deramecourt Ignacio Alvarez Francesca Salani Antonio Ciaramella Eric Boerwinkle Eric M Reiman Nathalie Fievet Jerome I Rotter Joan S Reisch Olivier Hanon Chiara Cupidi A G Andre Uitterlinden Donald R Royall Carole Dufouil Raffaele Giovanni Maletta Itziar de Rojas Mary Sano Alexis Brice Roberta Cecchetti Peter St George-Hyslop Karen Ritchie Magda Tsolaki Debby W Tsuang Bruno Dubois David Craig Chuang-Kuo Wu Hilkka Soininen Despoina Avramidou Roger L Albin Laura Fratiglioni Antonia Germanou Liana G Apostolova Lina Keller Maria Koutroumani Steven E Arnold Francesco Panza Olymbia Gkatzima Sanjay Asthana Didier Hannequin Patrice Whitehead Craig S Atwood Paolo Caffarra Harald Hampel Inés Quintela Ángel Carracedo Lars Lannfelt David C Rubinsztein Lisa L Barnes Florence Pasquier Lutz Frölich Sandra Barral Bernadette McGuinness Thomas G Beach Janet A Johnston James T Becker Peter Passmore Eileen H Bigio Jonathan M Schott Thomas D Bird Jason D Warren Bradley F Boeve Michelle K Lupton James D Bowen Petra Proitsi Adam Boxer John F Powell James R Burke John S K Kauwe Jeffrey M Burns Michelangelo Mancuso Joseph D Buxbaum Ubaldo Bonuccelli Nigel J Cairns Andrew McQuillin Chuanhai Cao Gill Livingston Chris S Carlson Nicholas J Bass Cynthia M Carlsson John Hardy Regina M Carney Jose Bras Minerva M Carrasquillo Rita Guerreiro Mariet Allen Helena C Chui Elizabeth Fisher Carlo Masullo Elizabeth A Crocco Charles DeCarli Gina Bisceglio Malcolm Dick Li Ma Ranjan Duara Neill R Graff-Radford Denis A Evans Angela Hodges Kelley M Faber Martin Scherer Kenneth B Fallon Matthias Riemenschneider David W Fardo Reinhard Heun Martin R Farlow Heike Kölsch Steven Ferris Markus Leber Tatiana M Foroud Isabella Heuser Douglas R Galasko Ina Giegling Marla Gearing Michael Hüll Daniel H Geschwind John R Gilbert John Morris Robert C Green Kevin Mayo John H Growdon Thomas Feulner Ronald L Hamilton Lindy E Harrell Dmitriy Drichel Lawrence S Honig Thomas D Cushion Matthew J Huentelman Paul Hollingworth Christine M Hulette Bradley T Hyman Rachel Marshall Gail P Jarvik Alun Meggy Erin Abner Georgina E Menzies Lee-Way Jin Ganna Leonenko Luis M Real Gyungah R Jun Clinton T Baldwin Detelina Grozeva Anna Karydas Giancarlo Russo Jeffrey A Kaye Ronald Kim Frank Jessen Neil W Kowall Bruno Vellas Joel H Kramer Emma Vardy Frank M LaFerla Karl-Heinz Jöckel James J Lah Martin Dichgans James B Leverenz David Mann Allan I Levey Stuart Pickering-Brown Andrew P Lieberman Norman Klopp Kathryn L Lunetta H-Erich Wichmann Constantine G Lyketsos Kevin Morgan Daniel C Marson Kristelle Brown Frank Martiniuk Christopher Medway Deborah C Mash Markus M Nöthen Eliezer Masliah Nigel M Hooper Wayne C McCormick Antonio Daniele Susan M McCurry Anthony Bayer Andrew N McDavid John Gallacher Ann C McKee Hendrik van den Bussche Marsel Mesulam Carol Brayne Bruce L Miller Steffi Riedel-Heller Carol A Miller Joshua W Miller Ammar Al-Chalabi John C Morris Christopher E Shaw Amanda J Myers Jens Wiltfang Sid O'Bryant John M Olichney Victoria Alvarez Joseph E Parisi Andrew B Singleton Henry L Paulson John Collinge William R Perry Simon Mead Elaine Peskind David H Cribbs Martin Rossor Aimee Pierce Natalie S Ryan Wayne W Poon Benedetta Nacmias Huntington Potter Sandro Sorbi Joseph F Quinn Eleonora Sacchinelli Ashok Raj Gianfranco Spalletta Murray Raskind Carlo Caltagirone Paola Bossù Maria Donata Orfei Barry Reisberg Robert Clarke Christiane Reitz A David Smith John M Ringman Donald Warden Erik D Roberson Gordon Wilcock Ekaterina Rogaeva Amalia Cecilia Bruni Howard J Rosen Maura Gallo Roger N Rosenberg Yoav Ben-Shlomo Mark A Sager Patrizia Mecocci Andrew J Saykin Pau Pastor Michael L Cuccaro Jeffery M Vance Julie A Schneider Lori S Schneider Susan Slifer William W Seeley Amanda G Smith Joshua A Sonnen Salvatore Spina Robert A Stern Russell H Swerdlow Mitchell Tang Rudolph E Tanzi John Q Trojanowski Juan C Troncoso Vivianna M Van Deerlin Linda J Van Eldik Harry V Vinters Jean Paul Vonsattel Sandra Weintraub Kathleen A Welsh-Bohmer Kirk C Wilhelmsen Jennifer Williamson Thomas S Wingo Randall L Woltjer Clinton B Wright Chang-En Yu Lei Yu Yasaman Saba Alberto Pilotto Maria J Bullido Oliver Peters Paul K Crane David Bennett Paola Bosco Eliecer Coto Virginia Boccardi Phil L De Jager Alberto Lleo Nick Warner Oscar L Lopez Martin Ingelsson Panagiotis Deloukas Carlos Cruchaga Caroline Graff Rhian Gwilliam Myriam Fornage Alison M Goate Pascual Sanchez-Juan Patrick G Kehoe Najaf Amin Nilifur Ertekin-Taner Claudine Berr Stéphanie Debette Seth Love Lenore J Launer Steven G Younkin Jean-Francois Dartigues Chris Corcoran M Arfan Ikram Dennis W Dickson Gael Nicolas Dominique Campion JoAnn Tschanz Helena Schmidt Hakon Hakonarson Jordi Clarimon Ron Munger Reinhold Schmidt Lindsay A Farrer Christine Van Broeckhoven Michael C O'Donovan Anita L DeStefano Lesley Jones Jonathan L Haines Jean-Francois Deleuze Michael J Owen Vilmundur Gudnason Richard Mayeux Valentina Escott-Price Bruce M Psaty Alfredo Ramirez Li-San Wang Agustin Ruiz Cornelia M van Duijn Peter A Holmans Sudha Seshadri Julie Williams Phillippe Amouyel Gerard D Schellenberg Jean-Charles Lambert Margaret A Pericak-Vance

Nat Genet 2019 03 28;51(3):414-430. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), the most prevalent dementia, is partially driven by genetics. To identify LOAD risk loci, we performed a large genome-wide association meta-analysis of clinically diagnosed LOAD (94,437 individuals). We confirm 20 previous LOAD risk loci and identify five new genome-wide loci (IQCK, ACE, ADAM10, ADAMTS1, and WWOX), two of which (ADAM10, ACE) were identified in a recent genome-wide association (GWAS)-by-familial-proxy of Alzheimer's or dementia. Fine-mapping of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region confirms the neurological and immune-mediated disease haplotype HLA-DR15 as a risk factor for LOAD. Pathway analysis implicates immunity, lipid metabolism, tau binding proteins, and amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism, showing that genetic variants affecting APP and Aβ processing are associated not only with early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease but also with LOAD. Analyses of risk genes and pathways show enrichment for rare variants (P = 1.32 × 10), indicating that additional rare variants remain to be identified. We also identify important genetic correlations between LOAD and traits such as family history of dementia and education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0358-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6463297PMC
March 2019

Coordinate regulation of mutant NPC1 degradation by selective ER autophagy and MARCH6-dependent ERAD.

Nat Commun 2018 09 10;9(1):3671. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Niemann-Pick type C disease is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in NPC1, a multipass transmembrane glycoprotein essential for intracellular lipid trafficking. We sought to define the cellular machinery controlling degradation of the most common disease-causing mutant, I1061T NPC1. We show that this mutant is degraded, in part, by the proteasome following MARCH6-dependent ERAD. Unexpectedly, we demonstrate that I1061T NPC1 is also degraded by a recently described autophagic pathway called selective ER autophagy (ER-phagy). We establish the importance of ER-phagy both in vitro and in vivo, and identify I1061T as a misfolded endogenous substrate for this FAM134B-dependent process. Subcellular fractionation of I1061T Npc1 mouse tissues and analysis of human samples show alterations of key components of ER-phagy, including FAM134B. Our data establish that I1061T NPC1 is recognized in the ER and degraded by two different pathways that function in a complementary fashion to regulate protein turnover.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06115-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6131187PMC
September 2018

The human brainome: network analysis identifies HSPA2 as a novel Alzheimer’s disease target.

Brain 2018 09;141(9):2721-2739

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Our hypothesis is that changes in gene and protein expression are crucial to the development of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Previously we examined how DNA alleles control downstream expression of RNA transcripts and how those relationships are changed in late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. We have now examined how proteins are incorporated into networks in two separate series and evaluated our outputs in two different cell lines. Our pipeline included the following steps: (i) predicting expression quantitative trait loci; (ii) determining differential expression; (iii) analysing networks of transcript and peptide relationships; and (iv) validating effects in two separate cell lines. We performed all our analysis in two separate brain series to validate effects. Our two series included 345 samples in the first set (177 controls, 168 cases; age range 65–105; 58% female; KRONOSII cohort) and 409 samples in the replicate set (153 controls, 141 cases, 115 mild cognitive impairment; age range 66–107; 63% female; RUSH cohort). Our top target is heat shock protein family A member 2 (HSPA2), which was identified as a key driver in our two datasets. HSPA2 was validated in two cell lines, with overexpression driving further elevation of amyloid-β40 and amyloid-β42 levels in APP mutant cells, as well as significant elevation of microtubule associated protein tau and phosphorylated-tau in a modified neuroglioma line. This work further demonstrates that studying changes in gene and protein expression is crucial to understanding late onset disease and further nominates HSPA2 as a specific key regulator of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease processes.10.1093/brain/awy215_video1awy215media15824729224001.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awy215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6136080PMC
September 2018

Polyglutamine Repeats in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Annu Rev Pathol 2019 01 8;14:1-27. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Department of Neurology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA; email: ,

Among the age-dependent protein aggregation disorders, nine neurodegenerative diseases are caused by expansions of CAG repeats encoding polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts. We review the clinical, pathological, and biological features of these inherited disorders. We discuss insights into pathogenesis gleaned from studies of model systems and patients, highlighting work that informs efforts to develop effective therapies. An important conclusion from these analyses is that expanded CAG/polyQ domains are the primary drivers of neurodegeneration, with the biology of carrier proteins influencing disease-specific manifestations. Additionally, it has become apparent that CAG/polyQ repeat expansions produce neurodegeneration via multiple downstream mechanisms, involving both gain- and loss-of-function effects. This conclusion indicates that the likelihood of developing effective therapies targeting single nodes is reduced. The evaluation of treatments for premanifest disease will likely require new investigational approaches. We highlight the opportunities and challenges underlying ongoing work and provide recommendations related to the development of symptomatic and disease-modifying therapies and biomarkers that could inform future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pathmechdis-012418-012857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6387631PMC
January 2019

Analysis of shared heritability in common disorders of the brain.

Authors:
Verneri Anttila Brendan Bulik-Sullivan Hilary K Finucane Raymond K Walters Jose Bras Laramie Duncan Valentina Escott-Price Guido J Falcone Padhraig Gormley Rainer Malik Nikolaos A Patsopoulos Stephan Ripke Zhi Wei Dongmei Yu Phil H Lee Patrick Turley Benjamin Grenier-Boley Vincent Chouraki Yoichiro Kamatani Claudine Berr Luc Letenneur Didier Hannequin Philippe Amouyel Anne Boland Jean-François Deleuze Emmanuelle Duron Badri N Vardarajan Christiane Reitz Alison M Goate Matthew J Huentelman M Ilyas Kamboh Eric B Larson Ekaterina Rogaeva Peter St George-Hyslop Hakon Hakonarson Walter A Kukull Lindsay A Farrer Lisa L Barnes Thomas G Beach F Yesim Demirci Elizabeth Head Christine M Hulette Gregory A Jicha John S K Kauwe Jeffrey A Kaye James B Leverenz Allan I Levey Andrew P Lieberman Vernon S Pankratz Wayne W Poon Joseph F Quinn Andrew J Saykin Lon S Schneider Amanda G Smith Joshua A Sonnen Robert A Stern Vivianna M Van Deerlin Linda J Van Eldik Denise Harold Giancarlo Russo David C Rubinsztein Anthony Bayer Magda Tsolaki Petra Proitsi Nick C Fox Harald Hampel Michael J Owen Simon Mead Peter Passmore Kevin Morgan Markus M Nöthen Martin Rossor Michelle K Lupton Per Hoffmann Johannes Kornhuber Brian Lawlor Andrew McQuillin Ammar Al-Chalabi Joshua C Bis Agustin Ruiz Mercè Boada Sudha Seshadri Alexa Beiser Kenneth Rice Sven J van der Lee Philip L De Jager Daniel H Geschwind Matthias Riemenschneider Steffi Riedel-Heller Jerome I Rotter Gerhard Ransmayr Bradley T Hyman Carlos Cruchaga Montserrat Alegret Bendik Winsvold Priit Palta Kai-How Farh Ester Cuenca-Leon Nicholas Furlotte Tobias Kurth Lannie Ligthart Gisela M Terwindt Tobias Freilinger Caroline Ran Scott D Gordon Guntram Borck Hieab H H Adams Terho Lehtimäki Juho Wedenoja Julie E Buring Markus Schürks Maria Hrafnsdottir Jouke-Jan Hottenga Brenda Penninx Ville Artto Mari Kaunisto Salli Vepsäläinen Nicholas G Martin Grant W Montgomery Mitja I Kurki Eija Hämäläinen Hailiang Huang Jie Huang Cynthia Sandor Caleb Webber Bertram Muller-Myhsok Stefan Schreiber Veikko Salomaa Elizabeth Loehrer Hartmut Göbel Alfons Macaya Patricia Pozo-Rosich Thomas Hansen Thomas Werge Jaakko Kaprio Andres Metspalu Christian Kubisch Michel D Ferrari Andrea C Belin Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg John-Anker Zwart Dorret Boomsma Nicholas Eriksson Jes Olesen Daniel I Chasman Dale R Nyholt Andreja Avbersek Larry Baum Samuel Berkovic Jonathan Bradfield Russell J Buono Claudia B Catarino Patrick Cossette Peter De Jonghe Chantal Depondt Dennis Dlugos Thomas N Ferraro Jacqueline French Helle Hjalgrim Jennifer Jamnadas-Khoda Reetta Kälviäinen Wolfram S Kunz Holger Lerche Costin Leu Dick Lindhout Warren Lo Daniel Lowenstein Mark McCormack Rikke S Møller Anne Molloy Ping-Wing Ng Karen Oliver Michael Privitera Rodney Radtke Ann-Kathrin Ruppert Thomas Sander Steven Schachter Christoph Schankin Ingrid Scheffer Susanne Schoch Sanjay M Sisodiya Philip Smith Michael Sperling Pasquale Striano Rainer Surges G Neil Thomas Frank Visscher Christopher D Whelan Federico Zara Erin L Heinzen Anthony Marson Felicitas Becker Hans Stroink Fritz Zimprich Thomas Gasser Raphael Gibbs Peter Heutink Maria Martinez Huw R Morris Manu Sharma Mina Ryten Kin Y Mok Sara Pulit Steve Bevan Elizabeth Holliday John Attia Thomas Battey Giorgio Boncoraglio Vincent Thijs Wei-Min Chen Braxton Mitchell Peter Rothwell Pankaj Sharma Cathie Sudlow Astrid Vicente Hugh Markus Christina Kourkoulis Joana Pera Miriam Raffeld Scott Silliman Vesna Boraska Perica Laura M Thornton Laura M Huckins N William Rayner Cathryn M Lewis Monica Gratacos Filip Rybakowski Anna Keski-Rahkonen Anu Raevuori James I Hudson Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud Palmiero Monteleone Andreas Karwautz Katrin Mannik Jessica H Baker Julie K O'Toole Sara E Trace Oliver S P Davis Sietske G Helder Stefan Ehrlich Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann Unna N Danner Annemarie A van Elburg Maurizio Clementi Monica Forzan Elisa Docampo Jolanta Lissowska Joanna Hauser Alfonso Tortorella Mario Maj Fragiskos Gonidakis Konstantinos Tziouvas Hana Papezova Zeynep Yilmaz Gudrun Wagner Sarah Cohen-Woods Stefan Herms Antonio Julià Raquel Rabionet Danielle M Dick Samuli Ripatti Ole A Andreassen Thomas Espeseth Astri J Lundervold Vidar M Steen Dalila Pinto Stephen W Scherer Harald Aschauer Alexandra Schosser Lars Alfredsson Leonid Padyukov Katherine A Halmi James Mitchell Michael Strober Andrew W Bergen Walter Kaye Jin Peng Szatkiewicz Bru Cormand Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga Cristina Sánchez-Mora Marta Ribasés Miguel Casas Amaia Hervas Maria Jesús Arranz Jan Haavik Tetyana Zayats Stefan Johansson Nigel Williams Astrid Dempfle Aribert Rothenberger Jonna Kuntsi Robert D Oades Tobias Banaschewski Barbara Franke Jan K Buitelaar Alejandro Arias Vasquez Alysa E Doyle Andreas Reif Klaus-Peter Lesch Christine Freitag Olga Rivero Haukur Palmason Marcel Romanos Kate Langley Marcella Rietschel Stephanie H Witt Soeren Dalsgaard Anders D Børglum Irwin Waldman Beth Wilmot Nikolas Molly Claiton H D Bau Jennifer Crosbie Russell Schachar Sandra K Loo James J McGough Eugenio H Grevet Sarah E Medland Elise Robinson Lauren A Weiss Elena Bacchelli Anthony Bailey Vanessa Bal Agatino Battaglia Catalina Betancur Patrick Bolton Rita Cantor Patrícia Celestino-Soper Geraldine Dawson Silvia De Rubeis Frederico Duque Andrew Green Sabine M Klauck Marion Leboyer Pat Levitt Elena Maestrini Shrikant Mane Daniel Moreno- De-Luca Jeremy Parr Regina Regan Abraham Reichenberg Sven Sandin Jacob Vorstman Thomas Wassink Ellen Wijsman Edwin Cook Susan Santangelo Richard Delorme Bernadette Rogé Tiago Magalhaes Dan Arking Thomas G Schulze Robert C Thompson Jana Strohmaier Keith Matthews Ingrid Melle Derek Morris Douglas Blackwood Andrew McIntosh Sarah E Bergen Martin Schalling Stéphane Jamain Anna Maaser Sascha B Fischer Céline S Reinbold Janice M Fullerton José Guzman-Parra Fermin Mayoral Peter R Schofield Sven Cichon Thomas W Mühleisen Franziska Degenhardt Johannes Schumacher Michael Bauer Philip B Mitchell Elliot S Gershon John Rice James B Potash Peter P Zandi Nick Craddock I Nicol Ferrier Martin Alda Guy A Rouleau Gustavo Turecki Roel Ophoff Carlos Pato Adebayo Anjorin Eli Stahl Markus Leber Piotr M Czerski Cristiana Cruceanu Ian R Jones Danielle Posthuma Till F M Andlauer Andreas J Forstner Fabian Streit Bernhard T Baune Tracy Air Grant Sinnamon Naomi R Wray Donald J MacIntyre David Porteous Georg Homuth Margarita Rivera Jakob Grove Christel M Middeldorp Ian Hickie Michele Pergadia Divya Mehta Johannes H Smit Rick Jansen Eco de Geus Erin Dunn Qingqin S Li Matthias Nauck Robert A Schoevers Aartjan Tf Beekman James A Knowles Alexander Viktorin Paul Arnold Cathy L Barr Gabriel Bedoya-Berrio O Joseph Bienvenu Helena Brentani Christie Burton Beatriz Camarena Carolina Cappi Danielle Cath Maria Cavallini Daniele Cusi Sabrina Darrow Damiaan Denys Eske M Derks Andrea Dietrich Thomas Fernandez Martijn Figee Nelson Freimer Gloria Gerber Marco Grados Erica Greenberg Gregory L Hanna Andreas Hartmann Matthew E Hirschtritt Pieter J Hoekstra Alden Huang Chaim Huyser Cornelia Illmann Michael Jenike Samuel Kuperman Bennett Leventhal Christine Lochner Gholson J Lyon Fabio Macciardi Marcos Madruga-Garrido Irene A Malaty Athanasios Maras Lauren McGrath Eurípedes C Miguel Pablo Mir Gerald Nestadt Humberto Nicolini Michael S Okun Andrew Pakstis Peristera Paschou John Piacentini Christopher Pittenger Kerstin Plessen Vasily Ramensky Eliana M Ramos Victor Reus Margaret A Richter Mark A Riddle Mary M Robertson Veit Roessner Maria Rosário Jack F Samuels Paul Sandor Dan J Stein Fotis Tsetsos Filip Van Nieuwerburgh Sarah Weatherall Jens R Wendland Tomasz Wolanczyk Yulia Worbe Gwyneth Zai Fernando S Goes Nicole McLaughlin Paul S Nestadt Hans-Jorgen Grabe Christel Depienne Anuar Konkashbaev Nuria Lanzagorta Ana Valencia-Duarte Elvira Bramon Nancy Buccola Wiepke Cahn Murray Cairns Siow A Chong David Cohen Benedicto Crespo-Facorro James Crowley Michael Davidson Lynn DeLisi Timothy Dinan Gary Donohoe Elodie Drapeau Jubao Duan Lieuwe Haan David Hougaard Sena Karachanak-Yankova Andrey Khrunin Janis Klovins Vaidutis Kučinskas Jimmy Lee Chee Keong Svetlana Limborska Carmel Loughland Jouko Lönnqvist Brion Maher Manuel Mattheisen Colm McDonald Kieran C Murphy Igor Nenadic Jim van Os Christos Pantelis Michele Pato Tracey Petryshen Digby Quested Panos Roussos Alan R Sanders Ulrich Schall Sibylle G Schwab Kang Sim Hon-Cheong So Elisabeth Stögmann Mythily Subramaniam Draga Toncheva John Waddington James Walters Mark Weiser Wei Cheng Robert Cloninger David Curtis Pablo V Gejman Frans Henskens Morten Mattingsdal Sang-Yun Oh Rodney Scott Bradley Webb Gerome Breen Claire Churchhouse Cynthia M Bulik Mark Daly Martin Dichgans Stephen V Faraone Rita Guerreiro Peter Holmans Kenneth S Kendler Bobby Koeleman Carol A Mathews Alkes Price Jeremiah Scharf Pamela Sklar Julie Williams Nicholas W Wood Chris Cotsapas Aarno Palotie Jordan W Smoller Patrick Sullivan Jonathan Rosand Aiden Corvin Benjamin M Neale Jonathan M Schott Richard Anney Josephine Elia Maria Grigoroiu-Serbanescu Howard J Edenberg Robin Murray

Science 2018 06;360(6395)

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Disorders of the brain can exhibit considerable epidemiological comorbidity and often share symptoms, provoking debate about their etiologic overlap. We quantified the genetic sharing of 25 brain disorders from genome-wide association studies of 265,218 patients and 784,643 control participants and assessed their relationship to 17 phenotypes from 1,191,588 individuals. Psychiatric disorders share common variant risk, whereas neurological disorders appear more distinct from one another and from the psychiatric disorders. We also identified significant sharing between disorders and a number of brain phenotypes, including cognitive measures. Further, we conducted simulations to explore how statistical power, diagnostic misclassification, and phenotypic heterogeneity affect genetic correlations. These results highlight the importance of common genetic variation as a risk factor for brain disorders and the value of heritability-based methods in understanding their etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aap8757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6097237PMC
June 2018

Androgen receptor polyglutamine expansion drives age-dependent quality control defects and muscle dysfunction.

J Clin Invest 2018 08 23;128(8):3630-3641. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Department of Pathology.

Skeletal muscle has emerged as a critical, disease-relevant target tissue in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, a degenerative disorder of the neuromuscular system caused by a CAG/polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Here, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify pathways that are disrupted in diseased muscle using AR113Q knockin mice. This analysis unexpectedly identified substantially diminished expression of numerous ubiquitin/proteasome pathway genes in AR113Q muscle, encoding approximately 30% of proteasome subunits and 20% of E2 ubiquitin conjugases. These changes were age, hormone, and glutamine length dependent and arose due to a toxic gain of function conferred by the mutation. Moreover, altered gene expression was associated with decreased levels of the proteasome transcription factor NRF1 and its activator DDI2 and resulted in diminished proteasome activity. Ubiquitinated ADRM1 was detected in AR113Q muscle, indicating the occurrence of stalled proteasomes in mutant mice. Finally, diminished expression of Drosophila orthologues of NRF1 or ADRM1 promoted the accumulation of polyQ AR protein and increased toxicity. Collectively, these data indicate that AR113Q muscle develops progressive proteasome dysfunction that leads to the impairment of quality control and the accumulation of polyQ AR protein, key features that contribute to the age-dependent onset and progression of this disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI99042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6063498PMC
August 2018

The intersection of lysosomal and endoplasmic reticulum calcium with autophagy defects in lysosomal diseases.

Neurosci Lett 2019 04 25;697:10-16. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States. Electronic address:

The lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) encompass a group of more than 50 inherited diseases characterized by the accumulation of lysosomal substrates. Two-thirds of patients experience significant neurological symptoms, but the mechanisms of neurodegeneration are not well understood. Interestingly, a wide range of LSDs show defects in both autophagy and Ca homeostasis, which is notable as Ca is a key regulator of autophagy. The crosstalk between these pathways in the context of LSD pathogenesis is not well characterized, but further understanding of this relationship could open up promising therapeutic targets. This review discusses the role of endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomal Ca in autophagy regulation and highlights what is known about defects in autophagy and Ca homeostasis in two LSDs, Niemann-Pick type C disease and Gaucher disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2018.04.049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202281PMC
April 2019

High Cholesterol at the Heart of Phagolysosomal Damage.

Cell Metab 2018 03;27(3):487-488

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Phagolysosome membrane rupture can trigger a maladaptive immune response that promotes tissue damage. In Science, Cantuti-Castelvetri et al. (2018) report that cholesterol-rich myelin debris overwhelms reverse cholesterol transport in aged phagocytes, leading to cholesterol crystal formation, damaged phagolysosomes, and limited tissue repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2018.02.015DOI Listing
March 2018

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.

Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;148:625-632

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States. Electronic address:

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an adult-onset degenerative disorder of the neuromuscular system resulting in slowly progressive weakness and atrophy of the proximal limb and bulbar muscles. The disease is caused by the expansion of a CAG/glutamine tract in the amino-terminus of the androgen receptor. That SBMA exclusively affects males reflects the fact that critical pathogenic events are hormone-dependent. These include translocation of the polyglutamine androgen receptor from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and unfolding of the mutant protein. Studies of the pathology of SBMA subjects have revealed nuclear aggregates of the mutant androgen receptor, loss of lower motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord, and both neurogenic and myopathic changes in skeletal muscle. Mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis include toxicity in both lower motor neurons and skeletal muscle, where effects on transcription, intracellular transport, and mitochondrial function have been documented. Therapies to treat SBMA patients remain largely supportive, although experimental approaches targeting androgen action or promoting degradation of the mutant androgen receptor protein or the encoding RNA are under active study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-64076-5.00040-5DOI Listing
August 2018

LC3 Immunostaining in the Inferior Olivary Nuclei of Cats With Niemann-Pick Disease Type C1 Is Associated With Patterned Purkinje Cell Loss.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2018 03;77(3):229-245

Department of Clinical Sciences and Advanced Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The feline model of Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) recapitulates the clinical, neuropathological, and biochemical abnormalities present in children with NPC1. The hallmarks of disease are the lysosomal storage of unesterified cholesterol and multiple sphingolipids in neurons, and the spatial and temporal distribution of Purkinje cell death. In feline NPC1 brain, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) accumulations, indicating autophagosomes, were found within axons and presynaptic terminals. High densities of accumulated LC3 were seen in subdivisions of the inferior olive, which project to cerebellar regions that show the most Purkinje cell loss, suggesting that autophagic abnormalities in specific climbing fibers may contribute to the spatial pattern of Purkinje cell loss seen. Biweekly intrathecal administration of 2-hydroxypropyl-beta cyclodextrin (HPβCD) ameliorated neurological dysfunction, reduced cholesterol and sphingolipid accumulation, and increased lifespan in NPC1 cats. LC3 pathology was reduced in treated animals suggesting that HPβCD administration also ameliorates autophagic abnormalities. This study is the first to (i) identify specific brain regions exhibiting autophagic abnormalities in any species with NPC1, (ii) provide evidence of differential vulnerability among discrete brain nuclei and pathways, and (iii) show the amelioration of these abnormalities in NPC1 cats treated with HPβCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlx119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5989620PMC
March 2018

Clinically Integrated Sequencing Alters Therapy in Children and Young Adults With High-Risk Glial Brain Tumors.

JCO Precis Oncol 2018 4;2. Epub 2018 May 4.

University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI.

Purpose: Brain tumors have become the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in young patients. Novel effective therapies on the basis of the unique biology of each tumor are urgently needed. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, utility, and clinical impact of integrative clinical sequencing and genetic counseling in children and young adults with high-risk brain tumors.

Patients And Methods: Fifty-two children and young adults with brain tumors designated by the treating neuro-oncologist to be high risk (> 25% chance for treatment failure; mean age, 10.2 years; range, 0 to 39 years) were enrolled in a prospective, observational, consecutive case series, in which participants underwent integrative clinical exome (tumor and germline DNA) and transcriptome (tumor RNA) sequencing and genetic counseling. Results were discussed in a multi-institutional brain tumor precision medicine teleconference.

Results: Sequencing revealed a potentially actionable germline or tumor alteration in 25 (63%) of 40 tumors with adequate tissue, of which 21 (53%) resulted in an impact on treatment or change of diagnosis. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor or fibroblast growth factor receptor pathway alterations were seen in nine of 20 (45%) glial tumors. Eight (20%) sequenced tumors harbored an oncogenic fusion isolated on RNA sequencing. Seventeen of 20 patients (85%) with glial tumors were found to have a potentially actionable result, which resulted in change of therapy in 14 (70%) patients. Patients with recurrent brain tumors receiving targeted therapy had a median progression-free survival (from time on therapy) of 4 months.

Conclusion: Selection of personalized agents for children and young adults with highrisk brain tumors on the basis of integrative clinical sequencing is feasible and resulted in a change in therapy in more than two thirds of children and young adults with high-risk glial tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/po.17.00133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7434092PMC
May 2018

Rapid Intraoperative Diagnosis of Pediatric Brain Tumors Using Stimulated Raman Histology.

Cancer Res 2018 01 1;78(1):278-289. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Accurate histopathologic diagnosis is essential for providing optimal surgical management of pediatric brain tumors. Current methods for intraoperative histology are time- and labor-intensive and often introduce artifact that limit interpretation. Stimulated Raman histology (SRH) is a novel label-free imaging technique that provides intraoperative histologic images of fresh, unprocessed surgical specimens. Here we evaluate the capacity of SRH for use in the intraoperative diagnosis of pediatric type brain tumors. SRH revealed key diagnostic features in fresh tissue specimens collected from 33 prospectively enrolled pediatric type brain tumor patients, preserving tumor cytology and histoarchitecture in all specimens. We simulated an intraoperative consultation for 25 patients with specimens imaged using both SRH and standard hematoxylin and eosin histology. SRH-based diagnoses achieved near-perfect diagnostic concordance (Cohen's kappa, > 0.90) and an accuracy of 92% to 96%. We then developed a quantitative histologic method using SRH images based on rapid image feature extraction. Nuclear density, tumor-associated macrophage infiltration, and nuclear morphology parameters from 3337 SRH fields of view were used to develop and validate a decision-tree machine-learning model. Using SRH image features, our model correctly classified 25 fresh pediatric type surgical specimens into normal versus lesional tissue and low-grade versus high-grade tumors with 100% accuracy. Our results provide insight into how SRH can deliver rapid diagnostic histologic data that could inform the surgical management of pediatric brain tumors. A new imaging method simplifies diagnosis and informs decision making during pediatric brain tumor surgery. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-17-1974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5844703PMC
January 2018