Publications by authors named "Andrew J S Coats"

264 Publications

Ferric carboxymaltose for the treatment of iron deficiency in heart failure: a multinational cost-effectiveness analysis utilising AFFIRM-AHF.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Heart Diseases, Wrocław Medical University, Wrocław, Poland.

Aims: Iron deficiency is common in patients with heart failure (HF). In AFFIRM-AHF, ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) reduced the risk of hospitalisations for HF (HHF) and improved quality of life vs. placebo in iron-deficient patients with a recent episode of acute HF. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of FCM compared with placebo in iron-deficient patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <50%, stabilised after an episode of acute HF, using data from the AFFIRM-AHF trial from Italian, UK, US and Swiss payer perspectives.

Methods And Results: A lifetime Markov model was built to characterise outcomes in patients according to the AFFIRM-AHF trial. Health states were defined using the 12-item Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ-12). Subsequent HHF were incorporated using a negative binomial regression model with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality incorporated via parametric survival analysis. Direct healthcare costs (2020 GBP/USD/EUR/CHF) and utility values were sourced from published literature and AFFIRM-AHF. Modelled outcomes indicated that treatment with FCM was dominant (cost saving with additional health gains) in the UK, USA and Switzerland, and highly cost-effective in Italy [incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) EUR 1269 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY)]. Results were driven by reduced costs for HHF events combined with QALY gains of 0.43-0.44, attributable to increased time in higher KCCQ states (representing better functional outcomes). Sensitivity and subgroup analyses demonstrated data robustness, with the ICER remaining dominant or highly cost-effective under a wide range of scenarios, including increasing treatment costs and various patient subgroups, despite a moderate increase in costs for de novo HF and smaller QALY gains for ischaemic aetiology.

Conclusion: Ferric carboxymaltose is estimated to be a highly cost-effective treatment across countries (Italy, UK, USA and Switzerland) representing different healthcare systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2270DOI Listing
June 2021

Heart failure drug titration, discontinuation, mortality and heart failure hospitalization risk: a multinational observational study (US, UK and Sweden).

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Aims: Use and dosing of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) in patients with heart failure (HF) have been shown to be suboptimal. Among new users of GDMT in HF, we followed the real-life patterns of dose titration and discontinuation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), beta-blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) and angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI).

Methods And Results: New users were identified in health care databases in Sweden, UK and US between 2016-2019. Inclusion criterion was a recent HF hospitalization (HHF) triggering the initiation of GDMT. Patients were grouped by GDMT, i.e. ACEi, ARB, beta-blocker, MRA and ARNI, and stratified by initial dose. Follow-up was 12 months, until death or study end. Outcomes were dose titration within each drug class, discontinuation and first HHF or death. Dose/discontinuation follow-up was assessed daily based on the coverage length of a filled prescription and reported on day 365. New users of ACEi (n = 8426), ARB (n = 2303), beta-blockers (n = 10 476), MRA (n = 17 421), and ARNI (n = 29 546) were identified. Over 12 months, target dose achievement was 15%, 10%, 12%, 30%, and discontinuation was 55%, 33%, 24% and 27% for ACEi, ARB, beta-blockers and ARNI, respectively. MRA was rarely titrated and discontinuation rates were high (40%). Event rates for HHF or death ranged from 40.0-86.9 per 100 patient-years across the treatment groups.

Conclusion: Despite high risk of clinical events following HHF, new initiation of GDMT was followed by consistent patterns of low up-titration and early GDMT discontinuation in three countries with different health care and economies. Our data highlight the urgent need for moving away from long sequential approach when initiating HF treatment and for improving just-in-time decision support for patients and health care providers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2271DOI Listing
June 2021

Spontaneous Non-Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia and Premature Ventricular Contractions and Their Prognostic Relevance in Patients with Cancer in Routine Care.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 12;13(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

Berlin Institute of Health Center for Regenerative Therapies (BCRT), 13353 Berlin, Germany.

It is largely unknown whether cancer patients seen in routine care show ventricular arrhythmias in 24 h electrocardiograms (ECGs), and whether when they are detected they carry prognostic relevance. We included 261 consecutive cancer patients that were referred to the department of cardiology for 24 h ECG examination and 35 healthy controls of similar age and sex in the analysis. To reduce selection bias, cancer patients with known left ventricular ejection fraction <45% were not included in the analysis. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) episodes of either ≥3 and ≥4 beats duration were more frequent in cancer patients than controls (17% vs. 0%, = 0.0008; 10% vs. 0%, = 0.016). Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)/24 h were not more frequent in cancer patients compared to controls (median (IQR), 26 (2-360) vs. 9 (1-43), = 0.06; ≥20 PVCs 53% vs. 37%, = 0.07). During follow-up, (up to 7.2 years, median 15 months) of the cancer patients, 158 (61%) died (1-/3-/5-year mortality rates: 45% [95%CI 39-51%], 66% [95%CI 59-73%], 73% [95%CI 64-82%]). Both non-sustained ventricular tachycardia of ≥4 beats and ≥20 PVCs/24 h independently predicted mortality in univariate and multivariate survival analyses, adjusted for all other univariate predictors of mortality as well as relevant clinical factors, including cancer stage and type, performance status (ECOG), prior potentially cardiotoxic anti-cancer drug therapy, coronary artery disease, potassium concentration, and haemoglobin (multivariate adjusted hazard ratios: NSVT ≥4 beats [HR 1.76, = 0.022], ≥20 PVCs/24 h [HR 1.63, < 0.0064]). NSVT ≥4 beats and ≥20 PVCs/day seen in routine 24 h ECGs of patients with cancer carry prognostic relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151948PMC
May 2021

Heart Failure Association, Heart Failure Society of America, and Japanese Heart Failure Society Position Statement on Endomyocardial Biopsy.

J Card Fail 2021 Jul 19;27(7):727-743. Epub 2021 May 19.

Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland Ohio.

Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is an invasive procedure, globally most often used for the monitoring of heart transplant rejection. In addition, EMB can have an important complementary role to the clinical assessment in establishing the diagnosis of diverse cardiac disorders, including myocarditis, cardiomyopathies, drug-related cardiotoxicity, amyloidosis, other infiltrative and storage disorders, and cardiac tumors. Improvements in EMB equipment and the development of new techniques for the analysis of EMB samples has significantly improved the diagnostic precision of EMB. The present document is the result of the Trilateral Cooperation Project between the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, and the Japanese Heart Failure Society. It represents an expert consensus aiming to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date perspective on EMB, with a focus on the following main issues: (1) an overview of the practical approach to EMB, (2) an update on indications for EMB, (3) a revised plan for heart transplant rejection surveillance, (4) the impact of multimodality imaging on EMB, and (5) the current clinical practice in the worldwide use of EMB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2021.04.010DOI Listing
July 2021

Heart Failure Association of the ESC, Heart Failure Society of America and Japanese Heart Failure Society Position statement on endomyocardial biopsy.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Jun 19;23(6):854-871. Epub 2021 May 19.

Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is an invasive procedure, globally most often used for the monitoring of heart transplant (HTx) rejection. In addition, EMB can have an important complementary role to the clinical assessment in establishing the diagnosis of diverse cardiac disorders, including myocarditis, cardiomyopathies, drug-related cardiotoxicity, amyloidosis, other infiltrative and storage disorders, and cardiac tumours. Improvements in EMB equipment and the development of new techniques for the analysis of EMB samples have significantly improved diagnostic precision of EMB. The present document is the result of the Trilateral Cooperation Project between the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, the Heart Failure Society of America, and the Japanese Heart Failure Society. It represents an expert consensus aiming to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date perspective on EMB, with a focus on the following main issues: (i) an overview of the practical approach to EMB, (ii) an update on indications for EMB, (iii) a revised plan for HTx rejection surveillance, (iv) the impact of multimodality imaging on EMB, and (v) the current clinical practice in the worldwide use of EMB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2190DOI Listing
June 2021

Exercise for Frail, Elderly Patients with Acute Heart Failure - A Strong Step Forward.

N Engl J Med 2021 07 16;385(3):276-277. Epub 2021 May 16.

From the Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology on Campus Virchow-Klinikum, the Berlin Institute of Health Center for Regenerative Therapies, and the German Center for Cardiovascular Research partner site Berlin, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin (S.D.A.); and the Faculty of Medicine, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom (A.J.S.C.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMe2106140DOI Listing
July 2021

Percutaneous Mitral Valve Annuloplasty in Patients With Secondary Mitral Regurgitation and Severe Left Ventricular Enlargement.

JACC Heart Fail 2021 Jun 12;9(6):453-462. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi School of Medicine, Jackson, Mississippi, USA.

Objectives: This study sought to determine the effect of percutaneous mitral valve annuloplasty with the Carillon device versus guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) alone in patients with secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) and severe left ventricular (LV) enlargement.

Background: The clinical impact of the Carillon device in patients with severe LV dilation is not well established.

Methods: This is a pooled analysis involving 3 prospective trials (TITAN [Transcatheter Implantation of Carillon Mitral Annuloplasty Device], TITAN II, and REDUCE FMR [CARILLON Mitral Contour System for Reducing Functional Mitral Regurgitation] trials) in which patients with functional MR and severe LV enlargement (LV end-diastolic diameter >65 mm) were treated with GDMT and the Carillon device versus GDMT alone. Key outcomes of this analysis were changes over 1 year of follow-up in mitral valve and LV echocardiographic parameters, functional outcome, quality of life, mortality, and heart failure hospitalization (HFH).

Results: A total of 95 patients (67 in the Carillon group, 28 in the GDMT group) with severe LV enlargement were included. In the Carillon group, all mitral valve and LV morphology parameters were significantly improved at 1 year. Regurgitant volume decreased by 12 ml (p < 0.001), MR grade decreased by 0.6 U (p < 0.001), LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 25 cm (p = 0.005), and LV end-systolic volume decreased by 21 cm (p = 0.01). Significant functional improvement differences were also noted between the Carillon group and the GDMT group including an improvement of Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score (15 ± 4 vs. 6 ± 6; p = 0.03). The incidence of HFH was 29.9% versus 50.0% and the cumulative rate of HFH was 0.43 versus 0.75 (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: In patients with functional MR and severe LV enlargement, the Carillon device improved mitral valve function, LV morphology, and functional outcome compared with patients receiving GDMT only. Preoperative LV dimension should not be a limiting factor when evaluating patient eligibility or anticipated response to therapy with the Carillon device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2021.03.002DOI Listing
June 2021

Patient profiling in heart failure for tailoring medical therapy. A consensus document of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Jun 20;23(6):872-881. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Despite guideline recommendations and available evidence, implementation of treatment in heart failure (HF) is poor. The majority of patients are not prescribed drugs at target doses that have been proven to positively impact morbidity and mortality. Among others, tolerability issues related to low blood pressure, heart rate, impaired renal function or hyperkalaemia are responsible. Chronic kidney disease plays an important role as it affects up to 50% of patients with HF. Also, dynamic changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate may occur during the course of HF, resulting in inappropriate dose reduction or even discontinuation of decongestive or neurohormonal modulating therapy in clinical practice. As patients with HF are rarely naïve to pharmacologic therapies, the challenge is to adequately prioritize or select the most appropriate up-titration schedule according to patient profile. In this consensus document, we identified nine patient profiles that may be relevant for treatment implementation in HF patients with a reduced ejection fraction. These profiles take into account heart rate (<60 bpm or >70 bpm), the presence of atrial fibrillation, symptomatic low blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (<30 or >30 mL/min/1.73 m ) or hyperkalaemia. The pre-discharge patient, frequently still congestive, is also addressed. A personalized approach, adjusting guideline-directed medical therapy to patient profile, may allow to achieve a better and more comprehensive therapy for each individual patient than the more traditional, forced titration of each drug class before initiating treatment with the next.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2206DOI Listing
June 2021

Serum uric acid and outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure through the whole spectrum of ejection fraction phenotypes: Analysis of the ESC-EORP Heart Failure Long-Term (HF LT) Registry.

Eur J Intern Med 2021 07 23;89:65-75. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

EURObservational Research Programme, European Society of Cardiology, Biot, France; Maria Cecilia Hospital, GVM Care&Research, Cotignola, Italy.

Background: Retrospective analyses of clinical trials indicate that elevated serum uric acid (sUA) predicts poor outcome in heart failure (HF). Uric acid can contribute to inflammation and microvascular dysfunction, which may differently affect different left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) phenotypes. However, role of sUA across LVEF phenotypes is unknown.

Objectives: We investigated sUA association with outcome in a prospective cohort of HF patients stratified according to LVEF.

Methods: Through the Heart Failure Long-Term Registry of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC-EORP-HF-LT), 4,438 outpatients were identified and classified into: reduced (<40% HFrEF), mid-range (40-49% HFmrEF), and preserved (≥50% HFpEF) LVEF. Endpoints were the composite of cardiovascular death/HF hospitalization, and individual components.

Results: Median sUA was 6.72 (IQ:5.48-8.20) mg/dl in HFrEF, 6.41 (5.02-7.77) in HFmrEF, and 6.30 (5.20-7.70) in HFpEF. At a median 372-day follow-up, the composite endpoint occurred in 648 (13.1%) patients, with 176 (3.6%) deaths and 538 (10.9%) HF hospitalizations. Compared with lowest sUA quartile (Q), Q-III and Q-IV were significantly associated with the composite endpoint (adjusted HR 1.68: 95% CI 1.11-2.54; 2.46: 95% CI 1.66-3.64, respectively). By univariable analyses, HFrEF and HFmrEF patients in Q-III and Q-IV, and HFpEF patients in Q-IV, showed increased risk for the composite endpoint (P<0.05 for all); after model-adjustment, significant association of sUA with outcome persisted among HFrEF in Q-IV, and HFpEF in Q-III-IV.

Conclusions: In a large, contemporary-treated cohort of HF outpatients, sUA is an independent prognosticator of adverse outcome, which can be appreciated in HErEF and HFpEF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2021.04.001DOI Listing
July 2021

Why we love heart failure: an introduction to the universal definition of heart failure.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 03;23(3):350-351

University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2168DOI Listing
March 2021

National Heart Failure Societies Summit 2020.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 04 30;23(4):507-510. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2157DOI Listing
April 2021

Advanced cancer is also a heart failure syndrome: a hypothesis.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Jun 18;12(3):533-537. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Cardiology & Berlin Institute of Health Center for Regenerative Therapies (BCRT), German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Partner Site Berlin, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Campus CVK), Berlin, Germany.

We present the hypothesis that advanced stage cancer is also a heart failure syndrome. It can develop independently of or in addition to cardiotoxic effects of anti-cancer therapies. This includes an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias. We suggest the pathophysiologic link for these developments includes generalized muscle wasting (i.e. sarcopenia) due to tissue homeostasis changes leading to cardiac wasting associated cardiomyopathy. Cardiac wasting with thinning of the ventricular wall increases ventricular wall stress, even in the absence of ventricular dilatation. In addition, arrhythmias may be facilitated by cellular wasting processes affecting structure and function of electrical cells and conduction pathways. We submit that in some patients with advanced cancer (but not terminal cancer), heart failure therapy or defibrillators may be relevant treatment options. The key points in selecting patients for such therapies may be the predicted life expectancy, quality of life at intervention time, symptomatic burden, and consequences for further anti-cancer therapies. The cause of death in advanced cancer is difficult to ascertain and consensus on event definitions in cancer is not established yet. Clinical investigations on this are called for. Broader ethical considerations must be taken into account when aiming to target cardiovascular problems in cancer patients. We suggest that focused attention to evaluating cardiac wasting and arrhythmias in cancer will herald a further evolution in the rapidly expanding field of cardio-oncology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200419PMC
June 2021

The management of secondary mitral regurgitation in patients with heart failure: a joint position statement from the Heart Failure Association (HFA), European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI), European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), and European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) of the ESC.

Eur Heart J 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Cardiology, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Secondary (or functional) mitral regurgitation (SMR) occurs frequently in chronic heart failure (HF) with reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, resulting from LV remodelling that prevents coaptation of the valve leaflets. Secondary mitral regurgitation contributes to progression of the symptoms and signs of HF and confers worse prognosis. The management of HF patients with SMR is complex and requires timely referral to a multidisciplinary Heart Team. Optimization of pharmacological and device therapy according to guideline recommendations is crucial. Further management requires careful clinical and imaging assessment, addressing the anatomical and functional features of the mitral valve and left ventricle, overall HF status, and relevant comorbidities. Evidence concerning surgical correction of SMR is sparse and it is doubtful whether this approach improves prognosis. Transcatheter repair has emerged as a promising alternative, but the conflicting results of current randomized trials require careful interpretation. This collaborative position statement, developed by four key associations of the European Society of Cardiology-the Heart Failure Association (HFA), European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI), European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI), and European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA)-presents an updated practical approach to the evaluation and management of patients with HF and SMR based upon a Heart Team approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014526PMC
March 2021

Treatments delayed lead to lives lost.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 04 15;23(4):511. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Cardiovascular Clinical Academic Group, St George's Hospitals NHS Trust University of London, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2147DOI Listing
April 2021

The Heart Failure Association Atlas: Heart Failure Epidemiology and Management Statistics 2019.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Centre of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome, Italy.

Aims: The Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) developed the HFA Atlas to provide a contemporary description of heart failure (HF) epidemiology, resources, reimbursement of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) and activities of the National Heart Failure Societies (NHFS) in ESC member countries.

Methods And Results: The HFA Atlas survey was conducted in 2018-2019 in 42 ESC countries. The quality and completeness of source data varied across countries. The median incidence of HF was 3.20 [interquartile range (IQR) 2.66-4.17] cases per 1000 person-years, ranging from ≤2 in Italy and Denmark to >6 in Germany. The median HF prevalence was 17.20 (IQR 14.30-21) cases per 1000 people, ranging from ≤12 in Greece and Spain to >30 in Lithuania and Germany. The median number of HF hospitalizations was 2671 (IQR 1771-4317) per million people annually, ranging from <1000 in Latvia and North Macedonia to >6000 in Romania, Germany and Norway. The median length of hospital stay for an admission with HF was 8.50 (IQR 7.38-10) days. Diagnostic and management resources for HF varied, with high-income ESC member countries having substantially more resources compared with middle-income countries. The median number of hospitals with dedicated HF centres was 1.16 (IQR 0.51-2.97) per million people, ranging from <0.10 in Russian Federation and Ukraine to >7 in Norway and Italy. Nearly all countries reported full or partial reimbursement of standard GDMT, except ivabradine and sacubitril/valsartan. Almost all countries reported having NHFS or working groups and nearly half had HF patient organizations.

Conclusions: The first report from the HFA Atlas has shown considerable heterogeneity in HF disease burden, the resources available for its management and data quality across ESC member countries. The findings emphasize the need for a systematic approach to the capture of HF statistics so that inequalities and improvements in care may be quantified and addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2143DOI Listing
February 2021

Combined aerobic/resistance/inspiratory muscle training as the 'optimum' exercise programme for patients with chronic heart failure: ARISTOS-HF randomized clinical trial.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020 Dec 2. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Heart Failure and Transplant Unit, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, 356 Sygrou Boulevard, 176 74 Athens, Greece.

Aims: An 'optimum' universally agreed exercise programme for heart failure (HF) patients has not been found. ARISTOS-HF randomized clinical trial evaluates whether combined aerobic training (AT)/resistance training (RT)/inspiratory muscle training (IMT) (ARIS) is superior to AT/RT, AT/IMT or AT in improving aerobic capacity, left ventricular dimensions, and secondary functional outcomes.

Methods And Results: Eighty-eight patients of New York Heart Association II-III, left ventricular ejection fraction  ≤ 35% were randomized to an ARIS, AT/RT, AT/IMT, or AT group, exercising 3 times/week, 180 min/week for 12 weeks. Pre- and post-training, peakVO2 was evaluated with cardiopulmonary exercise testing, left ventricular dimensions using echocardiography, walking distance with the 6-min walk test (6MWT), quality of life by the Minnesota Living with HF Questionnaire (MLwHFQ), while a programme preference survey (PPS) was used. Seventy-four patients of [mean 95% (confidence interval, CI)] age 66.1 (64.3-67.9) years and peakVO2 17.3 (16.4-18.2) mL/kg/min were finally analysed. Between-group analysis showed a trend for increased peakVO2 (mL/kg/min) [mean contrasts (95% CI)] in the ARIS group [ARIS vs. AT/RT 1.71 (0.163-3.25)(.), vs. AT/IMT 1.50 (0.0152-2.99)(.), vs. AT 1.38 (-0.142 to 2.9)(.)], additional benefits in circulatory power (mL/kg/min⋅mmHg) [ARIS vs. AT/RT 376 (60.7-690)*, vs. AT/IMT 423 (121-725)*, vs. AT 345 (35.4-656)*], left ventricular end-systolic diameter (mm) [ARIS vs. AT/RT -2.11 (-3.65 to (-0.561))*, vs. AT -2.47 (-4.01 to (-0.929))**], 6MWT (m) [ARIS vs. AT/IMT 45.6 (18.3-72.9)**, vs. AT 55.2 (27.6-82.7)****], MLwHFQ [ARIS vs. AT/RT -7.79 (-11 to (-4.62))****, vs. AT -8.96 (-12.1 to (-5.84))****], and in PPS score [mean (95% CI)] [ARIS, 4.8 (4.7-5) vs. AT, 4.4 (4.2-4.7)*] [(.) P ≤ 0.1; *P ≤ 0.05; **P ≤ 0.01; ***P ≤ 0.001; ****P ≤ 0.0001].

Conclusion: ARISTOS-HF trial recommends exercise training for 180 min/week and supports the prescription of the ARIS training regime for HF patients (Clinical Trial Registration: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. ARISTOS-HF Clinical Trial number, NCT03013270).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwaa091DOI Listing
December 2020

Cardiac events associated with immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy: the devil is in the detail.

Eur Heart J 2021 04;42(16):1637

Berlin Institute of Health Center for Regenerative Therapies (BCRT), Berlin, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab063DOI Listing
April 2021

The Altmetric Attention Score: how science tries to meet social media.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 05 8;23(5):693-697. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2136DOI Listing
May 2021

Risk stratification and management of women with cardiomyopathy/heart failure planning pregnancy or presenting during/after pregnancy: a position statement from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology Study Group on Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 04 17;23(4):527-540. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

This position paper focusses on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of women diagnosed with a cardiomyopathy, or at risk of heart failure (HF), who are planning to conceive or present with (de novo or previously unknown) HF during or after pregnancy. This includes the heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases such as hypertrophic, dilated, arrhythmogenic right ventricular and non-classified cardiomyopathies, left ventricular non-compaction, peripartum cardiomyopathy, Takotsubo syndrome, adult congenital heart disease with HF, and patients with right HF. Also, patients with a history of chemo-/radiotherapy for cancer or haematological malignancies need specific pre-, during and post-pregnancy assessment and counselling. We summarize the current knowledge about pathophysiological mechanisms, including gene mutations, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and medical and device management, as well as risk stratification. Women with a known diagnosis of a cardiomyopathy will often require continuation of drug therapy, which has the potential to exert negative effects on the foetus. This position paper assists in balancing benefits and detrimental effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2133DOI Listing
April 2021

Universal definition and classification of heart failure: a report of the Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, Japanese Heart Failure Society and Writing Committee of the Universal Definition of Heart Failure: Endorsed by the Canadian Heart Failure Society, Heart Failure Association of India, Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand, and Chinese Heart Failure Association.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 03 3;23(3):352-380. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

In this document, we propose a universal definition of heart failure (HF) as a clinical syndrome with symptoms and/or signs caused by a structural and/or functional cardiac abnormality and corroborated by elevated natriuretic peptide levels and/or objective evidence of pulmonary or systemic congestion. We also propose revised stages of HF as: At risk for HF (Stage A), Pre-HF (Stage B), Symptomatic HF (Stage C) and Advanced HF (Stage D). Finally, we propose a new and revised classification of HF according to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). This includes HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF): symptomatic HF with LVEF ≤40%; HF with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF): symptomatic HF with LVEF 41-49%; HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF): symptomatic HF with LVEF ≥50%; and HF with improved ejection fraction (HFimpEF): symptomatic HF with a baseline LVEF ≤40%, a ≥10 point increase from baseline LVEF, and a second measurement of LVEF > 40%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2115DOI Listing
March 2021

Pathophysiological Basis for Nutraceutical Supplementation in Heart Failure: A Comprehensive Review.

Nutrients 2021 Jan 17;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Department of Cardiology, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, 00166 Rome, Italy.

There is evidence demonstrating that heart failure (HF) occurs in 1-2% of the global population and is often accompanied by comorbidities which contribute to increasing the prevalence of the disease, the rate of hospitalization and the mortality. Although recent advances in both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches have led to a significant improvement in clinical outcomes in patients affected by HF, residual unmet needs remain, mostly related to the occurrence of poorly defined strategies in the early stages of myocardial dysfunction. Nutritional support in patients developing HF and nutraceutical supplementation have recently been shown to possibly contribute to protection of the failing myocardium, although their place in the treatment of HF requires further assessment, in order to find better therapeutic solutions. In this context, the Optimal Nutraceutical Supplementation in Heart Failure (ONUS-HF) working group aimed to assess the optimal nutraceutical approach to HF in the early phases of the disease, in order to counteract selected pathways that are imbalanced in the failing myocardium. In particular, we reviewed several of the most relevant pathophysiological and molecular changes occurring during the early stages of myocardial dysfunction. These include mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic reticulum stress, insufficient nitric oxide (NO) release, impaired cardiac stem cell mobilization and an imbalanced regulation of metalloproteinases. Moreover, we reviewed the potential of the nutraceutical supplementation of several natural products, such as coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a grape seed extract, L.-related antioxidants, a sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT2) inhibitor-rich apple extract and a bergamot polyphenolic fraction, in addition to their support in cardiomyocyte protection, in HF. Such an approach should contribute to optimising the use of nutraceuticals in HF, and the effect needs to be confirmed by means of more targeted clinical trials exploring the efficacy and safety of these compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13010257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7829856PMC
January 2021

Weight loss, malnutrition, and cachexia in COVID-19: facts and numbers.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 02 31;12(1):9-13. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Berlin Institute of Health Center for Regenerative Therapies (BCRT), Berlin, Germany.

Patients with COVID-19 disease are prone to develop significant weight loss and clinical cachexia. Three reports with altogether 589 patients that reported on weight loss and cachexia in COVID-19 were identified. Disease severity of patients and the timing of the assessment during the disease course in these patients were variable-65 patients (11%) were intensive care treated at the time of assessment, and 183 (31%) were cared for in sub-intensive or intermediate care structures. The frequency of weight loss ≥5% (that defines cachexia) was 37% (range 29-52%). Correlates of weight loss occurrence were reported to be raised C-reactive protein levels, impaired renal function status, and longer duration of COVID-19 disease. Underweight status by WHO criteria (BMI < 18.5 kg/m ) was only observed in 4% of patients analysing data from seven studies with 6661 patients. Cachexia assessment in COVID-19 needs assessment of weight loss. COVID-19 associated cachexia is understood to affect muscle and fat tissue as is also seen in many other chronic illness-associated forms of cachexia. There are many factors that can contribute to body wasting in COVID-19, and they include loss of appetite and taste, fever and inflammation, immobilization, as well as general malnutrition, catabolic-anabolic imbalance, endocrine dysfunction, and organ-specific complications of COVID-19 disease such as cardiac and renal dysfunction. Treatment of COVID-19 patients should include a focus on nutritional support and rehabilitative exercise whenever possible. Specific anti-cachectic therapies for COVID-19 do not exist, but constitute a high medical need to prevent long-term disability due to acute COVID-19 disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890265PMC
February 2021

Nutrition in the spotlight in cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle: avoiding the wildfire.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 02 31;12(1):3-8. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Cardiology and Pneumology, University Medicine Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890147PMC
February 2021

Heart failure in the last year: progress and perspective.

ESC Heart Fail 2020 Dec 5. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences, and Public Health, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Research about heart failure (HF) has made major progress in the last years. We give here an update on the most recent findings. Landmark trials have established new treatments for HF with reduced ejection fraction. Sacubitril/valsartan was superior to enalapril in PARADIGM-HF trial, and its initiation during hospitalization for acute HF or early after discharge can now be considered. More recently, new therapeutic pathways have been developed. In the DAPA-HF and EMPEROR-Reduced trials, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin reduced the risk of the primary composite endpoint, compared with placebo [hazard ratio (HR) 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.85; P < 0.001 and HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.65-0.86; P < 0.001, respectively]. Second, vericiguat, an oral soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, reduced the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization vs. placebo (HR 0.90; 95% CI 0.82-0.98; P = 0.02). On the other hand, both the diagnosis and treatment of HF with preserved ejection fraction, as well as management of advanced HF and acute HF, remain challenging. A better phenotyping of patients with HF would be helpful for prognostic stratification and treatment selection. Further aspects, such as the use of devices, treatment of arrhythmias, and percutaneous treatment of valvular heart disease in patients with HF, are also discussed and reviewed in this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754751PMC
December 2020

Advanced cancer is also a heart failure syndrome: a hypothesis.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 01;23(1):140-144

Department of Cardiology & Berlin Institute of Health Center for Regenerative Therapies (BCRT), German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Partner Site Berlin, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Campus CVK), Berlin, Germany.

We present the hypothesis that advanced stage cancer is also a heart failure syndrome. It can develop independently of or in addition to cardiotoxic effects of anti-cancer therapies. This includes an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias. We suggest the pathophysiologic link for these developments includes generalized muscle wasting (i.e. sarcopenia) due to tissue homeostasis changes leading to cardiac wasting associated cardiomyopathy. Cardiac wasting with thinning of the ventricular wall increases ventricular wall stress, even in the absence of ventricular dilatation. In addition, arrhythmias may be facilitated by cellular wasting processes affecting structure and function of electrical cells and conduction pathways. We submit that in some patients with advanced cancer (but not terminal cancer), heart failure therapy or defibrillators may be relevant treatment options. The key points in selecting patients for such therapies may be the predicted life expectancy, quality of life at intervention time, symptomatic burden, and consequences for further anti-cancer therapies. The cause of death in advanced cancer is difficult to ascertain and consensus on event definitions in cancer is not established yet. Clinical investigations on this are called for. Broader ethical considerations must be taken into account when aiming to target cardiovascular problems in cancer patients. We suggest that focused attention to evaluating cardiac wasting and arrhythmias in cancer will herald a further evolution in the rapidly expanding field of cardio-oncology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2071DOI Listing
January 2021

Ventricular tachycardia, premature ventricular contractions, and mortality in unselected patients with lung, colon, or pancreatic cancer: a prospective study.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 01;23(1):145-153

Division of Cardiology and Metabolism, Department of Cardiology (CVK), Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Aims: Many cancer patients die due to cardiovascular disease and sudden death, but data on ventricular arrhythmia prevalence and prognostic importance are not known.

Methods And Results: Between 2005 and 2010, we prospectively enrolled 120 unselected patients with lung, colon, or pancreatic cancer due to one of three diagnoses: colorectal (n = 33), pancreatic (n = 54), or non-small cell lung cancer (n = 33). All were free of manifest cardiovascular disease. They were compared to 43 healthy controls similar in age and sex distribution. Each participant underwent 24 h electrocardiogram recording and cancer patients were followed for up to 12.5 years for survival (median 21 months). Ninety-six cancer patients (80%) died during follow-up [5-year survival: 27% (95% confidence interval 19-35%)]. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) was more frequent in cancer patients vs. controls (8% vs. 0%, P = 0.021). The number of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) over 24 h was not increased in cancer patients vs. controls (median 4 vs. 9, P = 0.2). In multivariable analysis, NSVT [hazard ratio (HR) 2.44, P = 0.047] and PVCs (per 100, HR 1.021, P = 0.047) were both significant predictors of mortality, independent of other univariable mortality predictors including tumour stage, cancer type, potassium concentration, prior surgery, prior cardiotoxic chemotherapy, and haemoglobin. In patients with colorectal and pancreatic cancer, ≥50 PVCs/24 h predicted mortality (HR 2.30, P = 0.0024), and was identified in 18% and 26% of patients, respectively.

Conclusions: Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia is more frequent in unselected patients with colorectal, pancreatic, and non-small cell lung cancer and together with PVCs predict long-term mortality. This raises the prospect of cardiovascular mortality being a target for future treatment interventions in selected cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2059DOI Listing
January 2021

Six-minute walk test: prognostic value and effects of nebivolol versus placebo in elderly patients with heart failure from the SENIORS trial.

Clin Res Cardiol 2020 Nov 2. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

University of East Anglia and Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, UK.

Background: There is limited information about the 6-min walk test (6MWT) in elderly patients with heart failure. We evaluated 6MWT and the effect of nebivolol on 6MWT from the SENIORS trial.

Methods And Results: The SENIORS trial evaluated nebivolol versus placebo on death and hospitalisation in patients aged ≥ 70 years with heart failure. A total of 1982 patients undertook a 6MWT at baseline and 1716 patients at 6 months. Patients were divided into tertiles (≤ 200 m, 201 to ≤ 300 m and > 300 m) and to change in distance walked between baseline and 6 months (< 0 m, 0 to < 30 m and ≥ 30 m). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and cardiovascular hospital admission. Secondary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Baseline walk distance of ≤ 200 m incurred a greater risk of the primary and secondary outcomes (HR 1.41, CI 95% 1.17-1.69, p < 0.001) and (HR 1.37, CI 95% 1.05-1.78, p = 0.019). A decline in walk distance over 6 months was associated with increased risk of clinical events. Nebivolol had no influence on change in walk distance over 6 months.

Conclusions: The 6MWT has prognostic utility in elderly patients. Those who walked less than 200 m were at highest risk. Nebivolol had no effect on 6MWT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-020-01768-wDOI Listing
November 2020

Measuring physical activity with activity monitors in patients with heart failure: from literature to practice. A position paper from the Committee on Exercise Physiology and Training of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 01 25;23(1):83-91. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden.

The aims of this paper were to provide an overview of available activity monitors used in research in patients with heart failure and to identify the key criteria in the selection of the most appropriate activity monitor for collecting, reporting, and analysing physical activity in heart failure research. This study was conducted in three parts. First, the literature was systematically reviewed to identify physical activity concepts and activity monitors used in heart failure research. Second, an additional scoping literature search for validation of these activity monitors was conducted. Third, the most appropriate criteria in the selection of activity monitors were identified. Nine activity monitors were evaluated in terms of size, weight, placement, costs, data storage, water resistance, outcomes and validation, and cut-off points for physical activity intensity levels were discussed. The choice of a monitor should depend on the research aims, study population and design regarding physical activity. If the aim is to motivate patients to be active or set goals, a less rigorously tested tool can be considered. On the other hand, if the aim is to measure physical activity and its changes over time or following treatment adjustment, it is important to choose a valid activity monitor with a storage and battery longevity of at least one week. The device should provide raw data and valid cut-off points should be chosen for analysing physical activity intensity levels. Other considerations in choosing an activity monitor should include data storage location and ownership and the upfront costs of the device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8048426PMC
January 2021

Common mechanistic pathways in cancer and heart failure. A scientific roadmap on behalf of the Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).

Eur J Heart Fail 2020 12 12;22(12):2272-2289. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Medical University of Graz, University Heart Center - Division of Cardiology, Graz, Austria.

The co-occurrence of cancer and heart failure (HF) represents a significant clinical drawback as each disease interferes with the treatment of the other. In addition to shared risk factors, a growing body of experimental and clinical evidence reveals numerous commonalities in the biology underlying both pathologies. Inflammation emerges as a common hallmark for both diseases as it contributes to the initiation and progression of both HF and cancer. Under stress, malignant and cardiac cells change their metabolic preferences to survive, which makes these metabolic derangements a great basis to develop intersection strategies and therapies to combat both diseases. Furthermore, genetic predisposition and clonal haematopoiesis are common drivers for both conditions and they hold great clinical relevance in the context of personalized medicine. Additionally, altered angiogenesis is a common hallmark for failing hearts and tumours and represents a promising substrate to target in both diseases. Cardiac cells and malignant cells interact with their surrounding environment called stroma. This interaction mediates the progression of the two pathologies and understanding the structure and function of each stromal component may pave the way for innovative therapeutic strategies and improved outcomes in patients. The interdisciplinary collaboration between cardiologists and oncologists is essential to establish unified guidelines. To this aim, pre-clinical models that mimic the human situation, where both pathologies coexist, are needed to understand all the aspects of the bidirectional relationship between cancer and HF. Finally, adequately powered clinical studies, including patients from all ages, and men and women, with proper adjudication of both cancer and cardiovascular endpoints, are essential to accurately study these two pathologies at the same time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894564PMC
December 2020

Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology update on sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in heart failure.

Eur J Heart Fail 2020 11 27;22(11):1984-1986. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Centre for Heart Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, Wrocław Medical University, Wrocław, Poland.

The Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has recently issued a position paper on the role of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in heart failure (HF). The present document provides an update of the position paper, based of new clinical trial evidence. Accordingly, the following recommendations are given: • Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin empagliflozin, or ertugliflozin are recommended for the prevention of HF hospitalization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease or at high cardiovascular risk. • Dapagliflozin or empagliflozin are recommended to reduce the combined risk of HF hospitalization and cardiovascular death in symptomatic patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction already receiving guideline-directed medical therapy regardless of the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2026DOI Listing
November 2020