Publications by authors named "Andrew J McAinch"

65 Publications

Maternal diet high in linoleic acid alters offspring fatty acids and cardiovascular function in a rat model.

Br J Nutr 2021 Apr 16:1-14. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Linoleic acid (LA), an essential n-6 fatty acid (FA), is critical for fetal development. We investigated the effects of maternal high LA (HLA) diet on offspring cardiac development and its relationship to circulating FA and cardiovascular function in adolescent offspring, and the ability of the postnatal diet to reverse any adverse effects. Female Wistar Kyoto rats were fed low LA (LLA; 1·44 % energy from LA) or high LA (HLA; 6·21 % energy from LA) diets for 10 weeks before pregnancy and during gestation/lactation. Offspring, weaned at postnatal day 25, were fed LLA or HLA diets and euthanised at postnatal day 40 (n 6-8). Maternal HLA diet decreased circulating total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in females and decreased total plasma n-3 FA in males, while maternal and postnatal HLA diets decreased total plasma n-3 FA in females. α-Linolenic acid (ALA) and EPA were decreased by postnatal but not maternal HLA diets in both sexes. Maternal and postnatal HLA diets increased total plasma n-6 and LA, and a maternal HLA diet increased circulating leptin, in both male and female offspring. Maternal HLA decreased slopes of systolic and diastolic pressure-volume relationship (PVR), and increased cardiac Col1a1, Col3a1, Atp2a1 and Notch1 in males. Maternal and postnatal HLA diets left-shifted the diastolic PVR in female offspring. Coronary reactivity was altered in females, with differential effects on flow repayment after occlusion. Thus, maternal HLA diets impact lipids, FA and cardiac function in offspring, with postnatal diet modifying FA and cardiac function in the female offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521001276DOI Listing
April 2021

Maternal and Postnatal High Linoleic Acid Diet Impacts Lipid Metabolism in Adult Rat Offspring in a Sex-Specific Manner.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 14;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001, Australia.

Linoleic acid (LA), an n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is essential for fetal growth and development. We aimed to investigate the effect of maternal and postnatal high LA (HLA) diet on plasma FA composition, plasma and hepatic lipids and genes involved in lipid metabolism in the liver of adult offspring. Female rats were fed with low LA (LLA; 1.44% LA) or HLA (6.21% LA) diets for 10 weeks before pregnancy, and during gestation/lactation. Offspring were weaned at postnatal day 25 (PN25), fed either LLA or HLA diets and sacrificed at PN180. Postnatal HLA diet decreased circulating total n-3 PUFA and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), while increased total n-6 PUFA, LA and arachidonic acid (AA) in both male and female offspring. Maternal HLA diet increased circulating leptin in female offspring, but not in males. Maternal HLA diet decreased circulating adiponectin in males. Postnatal HLA diet significantly decreased aspartate transaminase (AST) in females and downregulated total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in the plasma of males. Maternal HLA diet downregulated the hepatic mRNA expression of in both male and female offspring and decreased the hepatic mRNA expression of and in females. Both maternal and postnatal HLA diet decreased hepatic mRNA expression of in females. Postnatal diet significantly altered circulating fatty acid concentrations, with sex-specific differences in genes that control lipid metabolism in the adult offspring following exposure to high LA diet in utero.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999727PMC
March 2021

The Role of Atypical Cannabinoid Ligands O-1602 and O-1918 on Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis with a Focus on Obesity.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Aug 18;21(16). Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001, Australia.

O-1602 and O-1918 are atypical cannabinoid ligands for GPR55 and GPR18, which may be novel pharmaceuticals for the treatment of obesity by targeting energy homeostasis regulation in skeletal muscle. This study aimed to determine the effect of O-1602 or O-1918 on markers of oxidative capacity and fatty acid metabolism in the skeletal muscle. Diet-induced obese (DIO) male Sprague Dawley rats were administered a daily intraperitoneal injection of O-1602, O-1918 or vehicle for 6 weeks. CC myotubes were treated with O-1602 or O-1918 and human primary myotubes were treated with O-1918. GPR18 mRNA was expressed in the skeletal muscle of DIO rats and was up-regulated in red gastrocnemius when compared with white gastrocnemius. O-1602 had no effect on mRNA expression on selected markers for oxidative capacity, fatty acid metabolism or adiponectin signalling in gastrocnemius from DIO rats or in CC myotubes, while APPL2 mRNA was up-regulated in white gastrocnemius in DIO rats treated with O-1918. In CC myotubes treated with O-1918, PGC1α, NFATc1 and PDK4 mRNA were up-regulated. There were no effects of O-1918 on mRNA expression in human primary myotubes derived from obese and obese T2DM individuals. In conclusion, O-1602 does not alter mRNA expression of key pathways important for skeletal muscle energy homeostasis in obesity. In contrast, O-1918 appears to alter markers of oxidative capacity and fatty acid metabolism in CC myotubes only. GPR18 is expressed in DIO rat skeletal muscle and future work could focus on selectively modulating GPR18 in a tissue-specific manner, which may be beneficial for obesity-targeted therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7460607PMC
August 2020

Maternal High Linoleic Acid Alters Placental Fatty Acid Composition.

Nutrients 2020 Jul 23;12(8). Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.

Fetal development is modulated by maternal nutrition during pregnancy. The dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA), an essential dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), has increased. We previously published that increased LA consumption during pregnancy does not alter offspring or placental weight but fetal plasma fatty acid composition; the developing fetus obtains their required PUFA from the maternal circulation. However, it is unknown if increased maternal linoleic acid alters placental fatty acid storage, metabolism, transport, and general placental function. Female Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed either a low LA diet (LLA; 1.44% of energy from LA) or high LA diet (HLA; 6.21% of energy from LA) for 10 weeks before pregnancy and during gestation. Rats were sacrificed at embryonic day 20 (E20, term = 22 days) and placentae collected. The labyrinth of placentae from one male and one female fetus from each litter were analyzed. High maternal LA consumption increased placental total n-6 and LA concentrations, and decreased total n-3 PUFA, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Fatty acid desaturase 1 (), angiopoietin-like 4 (), and diacylglycerol lipase beta () mRNA were downregulated in placentae from offspring from HLA dams. Maternal high LA downregulated the fatty acid transport protein 4 () and glucose transporter 1 () mRNA in placentae. IL-7 and IL-10 protein were decreased in placentae from offspring from HLA dams. In conclusion, a high maternal LA diet alters the placental fatty acid composition, inflammatory proteins, and expressions of nutrient transporters, which may program deleterious outcomes in offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12082183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468786PMC
July 2020

Human adenovirus 36 improves insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles and increases inflammatory markers in Wistar rats.

J Investig Med 2020 06 16;68(5):980-984. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

Human adenovirus 36 (Ad-36) causes obesity with increased adiposity, in contrast, Ad-36 infection reduces glucose and lipid metabolism; the results, however, are not consistent. In the current study, the effects of Ad-36 infection on glucose and lipid profile and inflammatory markers in Wistar rats were investigated. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into infected and control groups. Ad-36 virus suspension was injected in the experimental group rats. Blood samples were collected in the beginning and after 12 weeks in both groups. After 12 weeks, a significant improvement was observed in fasting blood glucose, fasting serum insulin, insulin sensitivity, serum triglycerides and total cholesterol in the infected group compared with the non-infected groups. There were no significant differences in inflammatory biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels between infected and control groups. This study showed that Ad-36 had favorable effects on glycemic and lipid control in infected rats, but inflammatory biomarker levels were similar for 2 groups. Ad-36 infections could potentially be a new way to develop novel antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic therapeutic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jim-2019-001165DOI Listing
June 2020

Exercise-Induced Improvements in Insulin Sensitivity Are Not Attenuated by a Family History of Type 2 Diabetes.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 13;11:120. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Metabolic, Nutrition and Exercise Research (MiNER) Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, United States.

A family history of type 2 diabetes (FH+) is a major risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unknown whether exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility are impacted by a FH+. Therefore, we investigated whether improvements in insulin sensitivity, metabolic flexibility, body composition, aerobic fitness and muscle strength are limited by a FH+ following eight weeks of combined exercise training compared to individuals without a family history of type 2 diabetes (FH-). Twenty ( = 10 FH-, = 10 FH+) young, healthy, sedentary, normoglycemic, Mexican-American males (age: FH- 22.50 ± 0.81, FH+ 23.41 ± 0.86 years; BMI: FH- 27.91 ± 1.55, FH+ 26.64 ± 1.02 kg/m) underwent eight weeks of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training three times/week (35 min aerobic followed by six full-body resistance exercises). Insulin sensitivity was assessed via hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps. Metabolic flexibility was assessed by the change in respiratory quotient from fasted to insulin-stimulated states. Body composition was determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Aerobic fitness was determined by a graded exercise test, and upper- and lower-body strength were assessed via one-repetition maximum bench press and leg strength dynamometer, respectively. Insulin sensitivity, metabolic flexibility, aerobic fitness and strength were not different between groups ( > 0.05). Eight weeks of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training improved insulin sensitivity (FH- = 0.02, FH+ = 0.002), increased fat free mass (FH- = 0.006, FH+ = 0.001), aerobic fitness (FH- = 0.03, FH+ = 0.002), and upper- (FH- = 0.0001, FH+ = 0.0001) and lower-body strength (FH- = 0.0009, FH+ = 0.0003), but did not change metabolic flexibility ( > 0.05) in both groups. Exercise-induced improvements in metabolic outcomes were similar between groups. Insulin sensitivity, metabolic flexibility, aerobic fitness and strength were not compromised by a FH+. Additionally, a FH+ is not a limiting factor for exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity, aerobic fitness, body composition, and strength in normoglycemic young Mexican-American men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.00120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7088124PMC
February 2021

Identification of Urinary Biomarkers for Exercise-Induced Immunosuppression by iTRAQ Proteomics.

Biomed Res Int 2020 23;2020:3030793. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Sports and Health, Guangzhou Sport University, Guangzhou 510500, China.

Purpose: To identify noninvasive immune biomarkers of exercise-induced immunosuppression using the iTRAQ proteomics technique.

Methods: Fifteen healthy males were recruited and subjected to a four-week incremental treadmill running training program. After each week of training, WBC counts and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes were measured to monitor the immune function status. iTRAQ proteomics technology was used to identify differential proteins and their characteristics in urine.

Results: Our data showed that the WBC counts, CD4 lymphocytes, and CD4/CD8 ratio decreased by more than 10% after four weeks of training, suggesting exercise-induced immunosuppression. A total of 1854 proteins were identified in urine during the incremental running using the iTRAQ technology. Compared with the urine before training, there were 89, 52, 77, and 148 proteins significantly upregulated and 66, 27, 68, and 114 proteins significantly downregulated after each week, respectively. Among them, four upregulated proteins, SEMG-1, PIP, PDGFRL, and NDPK, increased their abundance with the increased exercise intensity. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that these proteins are involved in stress response and immune function.

Conclusion: Four weeks of incremental treadmill running induced immunosuppression in healthy males. By using iTRAQ proteomics, four proteins in the urine, SEMG-1, PIP, PDGFRL, and NDPK, were found to increase incrementally with the increased exercise intensity, which have the potential to be used as noninvasive immune biomarkers of exercise-induced immunosuppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3030793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7003279PMC
November 2020

Seasonal Change in Body Composition and Physique of Team Sport Athletes.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Jan 16. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.

Walker, EJ, Aughey, RJ, McLaughlin, P, and McAinch, AJ. Seasonal change in body composition and physique of team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Body composition of team sport athletes was measured at 3 points across the preseason and competitive season. This repeated-measures study was conducted in 46 professional Australian football (AF) (age 23.8 ± 3.8 years), 26 soccer (age 22.7 ± 4.7 years), and 33 rugby union players (age 28.1 ± 4.2 years). A mixed-design analysis of variance was used to determine change across the season, and Pearson's correlation was used to determine the relationship between different measures. Anthropometry, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and 3-dimensional (3D) scan technology were used in AF and soccer, whereas only DXA was used in rugby. Body mass remained unchanged for both AF and soccer with gains in lean mass (p < 0.01), from preseason to early in the competitive season. Skinfold measures declined in AF (p < 0.001) and soccer (p < 0.05) across the season, whereas DXA-measured fat mass only declined in soccer (p < 0.01). Rugby backs (p < 0.01) and forwards (p < 0.001) reduced body fat and gained lean mass from preseason to in-season with forwards having greater relative and absolute changes as measured by DXA. 3D technology did not show change across the season. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry body fat percent and the sum of skinfold correlation were large (r = 0.74 [p < 0.001, CI 0.67-0.81]). The greatest change in body composition occurs from the beginning of preseason to the start of competition, with changes returning to baseline levels toward the end of season. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and skinfold measures were moderately correlated, providing a good alternative to track change in subcutaneous fat in AF and soccer athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003474DOI Listing
January 2020

Role of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in fetal programming.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2020 05 28;47(5):907-915. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.

Maternal nutrition plays a critical role in fetal development and can influence adult onset of disease. Linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) are major omega-6 (n-6) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), respectively, that are essential in our diet. LA and ALA are critical for the development of the fetal neurological and immune systems. However, in recent years, the consumption of n-6 PUFA has increased gradually worldwide, and elevated n-6 PUFA consumption may be harmful to human health. Consumption of diets with high levels of n-6 PUFA before or during pregnancy may have detrimental effects on fetal development and may influence overall health of offspring in adulthood. This review discusses the role of n-6 PUFA in fetal programming, the importance of a balance between n-6 and n-3 PUFAs in the maternal diet, and the need of further animal models and human studies that critically evaluate both n-6 and n-3 PUFA contents in diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1440-1681.13244DOI Listing
May 2020

Pregnancy and diet-related changes in the maternal gut microbiota following exposure to an elevated linoleic acid diet.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 02 17;318(2):E276-E285. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Dietary intakes of linoleic acid (LA) have increased, including in women of reproductive age. Changes in maternal gut microbiome have been implicated in the metabolic adaptions that occur during pregnancy. We aimed to investigate whether consumption of a diet with elevated LA altered fecal microbiome diversity before and during pregnancy. Female Wistar-Kyoto rats consumed a high-LA diet (HLA: 6.21% of energy) or a low-LA diet (LLA: 1.44% of energy) for 10 wk before mating and during pregnancy. DNA was isolated from fecal samples before pregnancy [embryonic day 0 (E0)], or during pregnancy at E10 and E20. The microbiome composition was assessed with 16S rRNA sequencing. At E0, the beta-diversity of LLA and HLA groups differed with HLA rats having significantly lower abundance of the genera , and but higher abundance of and . Over gestation, in LLA but not HLA rats, there was a reduction in alpha-diversity and an increase in beta-diversity. In the LLA group, the abundance of , and decreased over gestation, whereas increased. In the HLA group; only the abundance of decreased. At E20, there were no differences in alpha- and beta-diversity, and the abundance of was significantly increased in the HLA group. In conclusion, consumption of a HLA diet alters gut microbiota composition, as does pregnancy in rats consuming a LLA diet. In pregnancy, consumption of a HLA diet does not alter gut microbiota composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00265.2019DOI Listing
February 2020

The effect of high maternal linoleic acid on endocannabinoid signalling in rodent hearts.

J Dev Orig Health Dis 2020 12 9;11(6):617-622. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.

The endocannabinoid system (ECS), modulated by metabolites of linoleic acid (LA), is important in regulating cardiovascular function. In pregnancy, LA is vital for foetal development. We investigated the effects of elevated LA in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts in vitro and of a high linoleic acid (HLA, 6.21%) or low linoleic acid (LLA, 1.44%) diet during pregnancy in maternal and offspring hearts. H9c2 cell viability was reduced following LA exposure at concentrations between 300 and 1000 µM. HLA diet decreased cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) mRNA expression in foetal hearts from both sexes. However, HLA diet increased CB2 expression in maternal hearts. The mRNA expression of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in foetal hearts was higher in females than in males irrespective of diet and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) mRNA expression showed an interaction between diet and sex. Data indicate that a high LA diet alters cell viability and CB2 expression, potentially influencing cardiac function during pregnancy and development of the offspring's heart.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S2040174419000813DOI Listing
December 2020

Editorial: Peripheral Regulators of Obesity.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019 4;10:357. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Department of Kinesiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6557997PMC
June 2019

Elevated maternal linoleic acid reduces circulating leptin concentrations, cholesterol levels and male fetal survival in a rat model.

J Physiol 2019 07 2;597(13):3349-3361. Epub 2019 Jun 2.

School of Environment and Science, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, Australia.

Key Points: Linoleic acid consumption is increasing in Western populations. We investigated whether elevated linoleic acid in pregnancy was deleterious to mothers or offspring. Maternal and fetal body and organ weights were not affected by elevated linoleic acid consumption. Maternal lipids and leptin were altered following elevated linoleic acid consumption. Male offspring numbers were reduced following elevated linoleic acid consumption.

Abstract: Dietary intakes of linoleic acid (LA) have increased dramatically in Western populations, including in women of reproductive age. Pro-inflammatory effects of LA may have detrimental effects on maternal and offspring outcomes. We aimed to investigate whether consumption of a maternal diet with elevated LA altered maternal inflammatory or metabolic markers during pregnancy, fetal growth and/or the sex ratio of the offspring. Female Wistar Kyoto rats consumed a diet high in LA (HLA) (6.21% of energy) or a diet low in LA (LLA) (1.44% of energy) for 10 weeks prior to mating and during pregnancy. Pregnant rats were killed at embryonic day 20 (E20). There were no differences in maternal or fetal body weights or organ weights in the HLA group compared to the LLA group. There was no difference in maternal circulating cytokine concentrations between dietary groups. In the maternal liver, IL-1α concentrations were significantly lower, and TNF-α and IL-7 significantly higher in the HLA group. Total plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and the total:HDL cholesterol ratio were lower in dams fed the HLA diet. mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF-1) and leptin in maternal adipose tissue was lower in the HLA group, as were circulating leptin concentrations. The proportion of male fetuses was lower and circulating prostaglandin E metabolite concentrations were increased in the HLA group. In conclusion, consumption of a maternal diet high in linoleic acid alters cholesterol metabolism and prostaglandin E metabolite concentrations, which may contribute to the reduced proportion of male offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP277583DOI Listing
July 2019

Linoleic Acid Increases Prostaglandin E2 Release and Reduces Mitochondrial Respiration and Cell Viability in Human Trophoblast-Like Cells.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2019 18;52(1):94-108. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background/aims: The omega 6 fatty acid (FA) linoleic acid (LA) is required for embryonic development; however, omega 6 FAs can alter cellular metabolism via inflammation or modulation of mitochondrial function. Fetal LA is obtained from the maternal diet, and FAs are transported to the fetus via placental FA transporters (FATPs) and binding proteins (FABPs), but specific proteins responsible for LA transport in placental trophoblasts are unknown. Dietary LA consumption is increasing, but the effect of elevated LA on trophoblast function is not clear.

Methods: Swan71 trophoblasts were exposed to physiological and supraphysiological concentrations of LA for 24 hours. Quantification of mRNA was determined using real time PCR, and protein concentration was determined by Western blot analysis. Cell viability, citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial respiration were determined.

Results: Exposure to 300 and 500 μM LA increased FATP1 and FATP4 mRNA expression. 500 μM LA increased FATP1 and FATP4 protein expression. Exposure to 500 μM increased FABP5 mRNA expression, while exposure to 100 to 500 μM LA decreased FABP3 mRNA expression. 300 and 500 μM LA decreased FABP3 protein expression. Cell viability was decreased by exposure to LA (100 to 1000 μM). Citrate synthase activity and routine mitochondrial respiration were significantly decreased by exposure to 300 and 500 μM LA, and maximal respiration and spare respiratory capacity were decreased by exposure to 100 to 500 μM LA. 300 and 500 μM LA increased reactive oxygen species generation in human trophoblasts. Moreover, exposure to 300 and 500 μM LA decreased IL-6 secretion. Exposure to 500 μM LA increased IL-8, NF-κB and PPAR-γ mRNA expression, but decreased NF-κB protein expression. 300 μM LA decreased IL-8 protein expression. Further, exposure to 100 to 500 μM LA increased prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B₄ release.

Conclusion: Exposure to LA decreases cell viability, alters mRNA expression of FA transport related proteins, mitochondrial respiration and function, and inflammatory responses in trophoblasts. These findings may have implications on placental function when women consume high levels of LA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33594/000000007DOI Listing
March 2019

Atypical cannabinoid ligands O-1602 and O-1918 administered chronically in diet-induced obesity.

Endocr Connect 2019 Mar;8(3):203-216

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, St Albans campus, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Atypical cannabinoid compounds O-1602 and O-1918 are ligands for the putative cannabinoid receptors G protein-coupled receptor 55 and G protein-coupled receptor 18. The role of O-1602 and O-1918 in attenuating obesity and obesity-related pathologies is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to determine the role that either compound had on body weight and body composition, renal and hepatic function in diet-induced obesity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (40% digestible energy from lipids) or a standard chow diet for 10 weeks. In a separate cohort, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet for 9 weeks and then injected daily with 5 mg/kg O-1602, 1 mg/kg O-1918 or vehicle (0.9% saline/0.75% Tween 80) for a further 6 weeks. Our data demonstrated that high-fat feeding upregulates whole kidney G protein receptor 55 expression. In diet-induced obesity, we also demonstrated O-1602 reduces body weight, body fat and improves albuminuria. Despite this, treatment with O-1602 resulted in gross morphological changes in the liver and kidney. Treatment with O-1918 improved albuminuria, but did not alter body weight or fat composition. In addition, treatment with O-1918 also upregulated circulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1α, IL-2, IL-17α, IL-18 and RANTES as well as plasma AST. Thus O-1602 and O-1918 appear not to be suitable treatments for obesity and related comorbidities, due to their effects on organ morphology and pro-inflammatory signaling in obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EC-18-0535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6391900PMC
March 2019

The Acute Effect of Oleic- or Linoleic Acid-Containing Meals on Appetite and Metabolic Markers; A Pilot Study in Overweight or Obese Individuals.

Nutrients 2018 Sep 26;10(10). Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, PO Box 14428, Melbourne, Victoria 8001, Australia.

Despite the abundance of plant-derived fats in our diet, their effects on appetite, and metabolic markers, remain unclear. This single-blinded 3-way cross-over pilot study aimed to investigate the ability of the two most abundant dietary plant-derived fats, oleic (OA) and linoleic (LA) acids, to modulate postprandial appetite and levels of circulating appetite and metabolic regulators in overweight/obese individuals. Meals were a high-carbohydrate control, a high-OA or a high-LA meal, and provided 30% of participants' estimated energy requirements. Meals were consumed after an overnight fast, with blood samples collected over 3¼ h. Appetite parameters were assessed via a validated visual analogue scale questionnaire. Hormones and other circulating factors were quantified using multiplex immunoassays. Eight participants (age 45.8 ± 3.6 (years), body mass index 32.0 ± 1.3 (kg/m²)) completed the study. All meals significantly increased fullness and reduced desire to eat. The control and high-OA meals significantly decreased prospective food intake. The high-LA meal increased ghrelin levels ( < 0.05), a hormone which encourages food intake. This was coupled with a significant acute increase in resistin levels, which impairs insulin signaling. Taken together, this study indicates that in overweight/obese individuals, high-LA meals may promote excess energy intake and alter glucose handling, though a larger cohort may be required to strengthen results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10101376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213143PMC
September 2018

Peripheral modulation of the endocannabinoid system in metabolic disease.

Drug Discov Today 2018 03 10;23(3):592-604. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Centre for Chronic Disease, College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; School of Science, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, Australia. Electronic address:

Dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been identified in metabolic disease. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB) is abundantly expressed in the brain but also expressed in the periphery. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB) is more abundant in the periphery, including the immune cells. In obesity, global antagonism of overexpressed CB reduces bodyweight but leads to centrally mediated adverse psychological outcomes. Emerging research in isolated cultured cells or tissues has demonstrated that targeting the endocannabinoid system in the periphery alleviates the pathologies associated with metabolic disease. Further, peripheral specific cannabinoid ligands can reverse aspects of the metabolic phenotype. This Keynote review will focus on current research on the functionality of peripheral modulation of the ECS for the treatment of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2018.01.029DOI Listing
March 2018

Beetroot and Sodium Nitrate Ameliorate Cardiometabolic Changes in Diet-Induced Obese Hypertensive Rats.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2017 12 14;61(12). Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Centre for Chronic Disease, College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University, Melbourne, 3021, Australia.

Scope: Dietary intake of beetroot by humans reduces blood pressure but whether this is caused by nitrate or betanin is not well-defined; neither are effects on other signs of metabolic syndrome.

Methods And Results: Rats fed a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H) for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, altered cardiovascular and liver structure and function, and impaired glucose tolerance compared to rats fed a corn starch diet (C). H rats treated with ∼16 mg/kg/day of nitrate either from beetroot juice (H+B) or sodium nitrate (H+N) for the last 8 weeks reduced systolic blood pressure by ∼25 mmHg, improved cardiac structure and function, plasma lipid profile and plasma markers of liver function, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in heart and liver and decreased left ventricular fibrosis. In the left ventricle, H rats increased mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-alpha (AMPK-α) and decreased mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α); both beetroot and sodium nitrate diet-fed rats decreased CTGF threefold, MCP-1, and MMP-2 twofold, and doubled PPAR-α mRNA expression in left ventricular tissue.

Conclusion: The similar functional and molecular responses to beetroot and sodium nitrate indicate that the nitrate content of beetroot reduced inflammation and improved cardiovascular, liver, and metabolic function in rats with metabolic syndrome, rather than betanin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201700478DOI Listing
December 2017

Uteroplacental insufficiency reduces rat plasma leptin concentrations and alters placental leptin transporters: ameliorated with enhanced milk intake and nutrition.

J Physiol 2017 06 29;595(11):3389-3407. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

Department of Physiology, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010, Australia.

Key Points: Uteroplacental insufficiency compromises maternal mammary development, milk production and pup organ development; this is ameliorated by cross-fostering, which improves pup growth and organ development and prevents adult diseases in growth-restricted (Restricted) offspring by enhancing postnatal nutrition. Leptin is transported to the fetus from the mother by the placenta; we report reduced plasma leptin concentrations in Restricted fetuses associated with sex-specific alterations in placental leptin transporter expression. Pup plasma leptin concentrations were also reduced during suckling, which may suggest reduced milk leptin transport or leptin reabsorption. Mothers suckled by Restricted pups had impaired mammary development and changes in milk fatty acid composition with no alterations in milk leptin; cross-fostering restored pup plasma leptin concentrations, which may be correlated to improved milk composition and intake. Increased plasma leptin and altered milk fatty acid composition in Restricted pups suckling mothers with normal lactation may improve postnatal growth and prevent adult diseases.

Abstract: Uteroplacental insufficiency reduces birth weight and adversely affects fetal organ development, increasing adult disease risk. Cross-fostering improves postnatal nutrition and restores these deficits. Mothers with growth-restricted pups have compromised milk production and composition; however, the impact cross-fostering has on milk production and composition is unknown. Plasma leptin concentrations peak during the completion of organogenesis, which occurs postnatally in rats. Leptin is transferred to the fetus via the placenta and to the pup via the lactating mammary gland. This study investigated the effect of uteroplacental insufficiency on pup plasma leptin concentrations and placental leptin transporters. We additionally examined whether cross-fostering improves mammary development, milk composition and pup plasma leptin concentrations. Fetal growth restriction was induced by bilateral uterine vessel ligation surgery on gestation day 18 in Wistar Kyoto rats (termed uteroplacental insufficiency surgery mothers). Growth-restricted (Restricted) fetuses had reduced plasma leptin concentrations, persisting throughout lactation, and sex-specific alterations in placental leptin transporters. Mothers suckled by Restricted pups had impaired mammary development, altered milk fatty acid composition and increased plasma leptin concentrations, despite no changes in milk leptin. Milk intake was reduced in Restricted pups suckling uteroplacental insufficiency surgery mothers compared to Restricted pups suckling sham-operated mothers. Cross-fostering Restricted pups onto a sham-operated mother improved postnatal growth and restored plasma leptin concentrations compared to Restricted pups suckling uteroplacental insufficiency surgery mothers. Uteroplacental insufficiency alters leptin homeostasis. This is ameliorated with cross-fostering and enhanced milk fatty acid composition and consumption, which may protect the pups from developing adverse health conditions in adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP273825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5451707PMC
June 2017

Acute Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Continuous Moderate-Intensity Exercise Elicit a Similar Improvement in 24-h Glycemic Control in Overweight and Obese Adults.

Front Physiol 2016 9;7:661. Epub 2017 Jan 9.

Clinical Exercise Science Research Program, Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living, College of Sport and Exercise Science, Victoria UniversityMelbourne, VIC, Australia; Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventative Medicine, Monash University Clayton VictoriaMelbourne, VIC, Australia.

Acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress and glycemia; however, the effects of exercise intensity are unclear. We investigated the effect of acute low-volume high-intensity interval-exercise (LV-HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE) on glycemic control and oxidative stress in overweight and obese, inactive adults. Twenty-seven adults were randomly allocated to perform a single session of LV-HIIE (9 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 1 years; BMI: 29 ± 1 kg·m; mean ± SEM) or CMIE (8 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 2.0; BMI: 30 ± 2.0) 1 h after consumption of a standard breakfast. Plasma redox status, glucose and insulin were measured. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted during the 24-h period before (rest day) and after exercise (exercise day). Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; 29 ±13%, < 0.01; mean percent change ±90% confidence limit), hydrogen peroxide (44 ± 16%, < 0.01), catalase activity (50 ± 16%, < 0.01), and superoxide dismutase activity (21 ± 6%, < 0.01) significantly increased 1 h after breakfast (prior to exercise) compared to baseline. Exercise significantly decreased postprandial glycaemia in whole blood (-6 ± 5%, < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Only CMIE significantly decreased postprandial TBARS (CMIE: -33 ± 8%, < 0.01; LV-HIIE: 11 ± 22%, = 0.34) and hydrogen peroxide (CMIE: -25 ± 15%, = 0.04; LV-HIIE: 7 ± 26%; = 0.37). Acute exercise provided a similar significant improvement in 24-h average glucose levels (-5 ± 2%, < 0.01), hyperglycemic excursions (-37 ± 60%, < 0.01), peak glucose concentrations (-8 ± 4%, < 0.01), and the 2-h postprandial glucose response to dinner (-9 ± 4%, < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Despite elevated postprandial oxidative stress compared to CMIE, LV-HIIE is an equally effective exercise mode for improving 24-h glycemic control in overweight and obese adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2016.00661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5220056PMC
January 2017

Similar mitochondrial signaling responses to a single bout of continuous or small-sided-games-based exercise in sedentary men.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2016 12 14;121(6):1326-1334. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living (ISEAL), Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; and.

This study assessed the mitochondrial related signaling responses to a single bout of noncontact, modified football (touch rugby), played as small-sided games (SSG), or cycling (CYC) exercise in sedentary, obese, middle-aged men. In a randomized, crossover design, nine middle-aged, sedentary, obese men completed two, 40-min exercise conditions (CYC and SSG) separated by a 21-day recovery period. Heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected during each bout. Needle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were collected at rest and 30 and 240 min postexercise for analysis of protein content and phosphorylation (PGC-1α, SIRT1, p53, p53, AMPK, AMPK, CAMKII, CAMKII, p38MAPK, and p38MAPK) and mRNA expression (PGC-1α, p53, NRF1, NRF2, Tfam, and cytochrome c). A main effect of time effect for both conditions was evident for HR, RPE, and blood lactate (P < 0.05), with no condition by time interaction (P > 0.05). Both conditions increased PGC1-α protein and mRNA expression at 240 min (P < 0.05). AMPK increased 30 min post CYC (P < 0.05), with no change in SSG (P > 0.05). CYC increased p53 protein content at 240 min to a greater extent than SSG (P < 0.05). mRNA expression of NRF2 decreased in both conditions (P < 0.05). No condition by time interactions were evident for mRNA expression of Tfam, NRF1, cytochrome c, and p53. The similar PGC-1α response between intensity-matched conditions suggests both conditions are of similar benefit for stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis. Differences between conditions regarding fluctuation in exercise intensity and type of muscle contraction may explain the increase of p53 and AMPK within CYC and not SSG (noncontact, modified football).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00289.2016DOI Listing
December 2016

Uptake of leptin and albumin via separate pathways in proximal tubule cells.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2016 10 1;79:194-198. Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Centre For Chronic Disease, College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University, St. Albans, VIC 3021, Australia; Department of Physiology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

The adipokine leptin and oncotic protein albumin are endocytosed in the proximal tubule via the scavenger receptor megalin. Leptin reduces megalin expression and activates cell signalling pathways that upregulate fibrotic protein expression. The aim of this study was to investigate if leptin uptake in proximal tubule cells was via the albumin-megalin endocytic complex. In immortalised proximal tubule Opossum kidney cells (OK) fluorescent leptin and albumin co-localised following 5min exposure, however there was no co-localisation at 10, 20 and 30min exposure. In OK cells, acute exposure to leptin for 2h did not alter NHE3, ClC-5, NHERF1 and NHERF2 mRNA. However, acute leptin exposure increased NHERF2 protein expression in proximal tubule cells. In OK cells, immunoprecipitation experimentation indicated leptin did not bind to ClC-5. Leptin uptake in OK cells was enhanced by bafilomycin and ammonium chloride treatment, demonstrating that uptake was not dependent on lysosomal pH. Thus, it is likely that two pools of megalin exist in proximal tubule cells to facilitate separate uptake of leptin and albumin by endocytosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2016.08.031DOI Listing
October 2016

Cannabinoid receptors in the kidney.

Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2016 09;25(5):459-64

aDepartment of Physiology, The University of Melbourne bCentre for Chronic Disease, College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: The endocannabinoid system modulates cell signaling targets that are essential for energy homeostasis. Endocannabinoids bind to G protein-coupled receptors in the central nervous system and periphery, including the kidney. Modulation of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and CB2 activity in the kidney in diabetes and obesity has been identified as potential therapeutic target to reduce albuminuria and renal fibrosis. This review will highlight the results of recent studies that have identified a role for CB1 and CB2 in normal and pathological renal conditions.

Recent Findings: CB1 and CB2 have been reported to play key roles in renal function and dysfunction. Recent studies have determined that antagonism of CB1 and agonism of CB2 in diabetic nephropathy and obesity associated kidney disease can reduce albuminuria, potentially by acting on both the glomeruli and tubules. Emerging studies have also identified a role for CB1 in renal diseases associated with fibrosis, with CB1 upregulated in multiple models of human nephropathies.

Summary: Emerging studies using isolated cells, rodent models, and human studies have identified a critical role for the endocannabinoid system in renal function and disease. Thus, therapeutics that modulate the activity of CB1 and CB2 in renal disease could become clinically relevant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MNH.0000000000000249DOI Listing
September 2016

Linoleic acid and the pathogenesis of obesity.

Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2016 09 24;125:90-9. Epub 2016 Jun 24.

Centre for Chronic Disease, College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University, PO Box 14428, Melbourne, Victoria 8001, Australia. Electronic address:

The modern Western diet has been consumed in developed English speaking countries for the last 50 years, and is now gradually being adopted in Eastern and developing countries. These nutrition transitions are typified by an increased intake of high linoleic acid (LA) plant oils, due to their abundance and low price, resulting in an increase in the PUFA n-6:n-3 ratio. This increase in LA above what is estimated to be required is hypothesised to be implicated in the increased rates of obesity and other associated non-communicable diseases which occur following a transition to a modern Westernised diet. LA can be converted to the metabolically active arachidonic acid, which has roles in inducing inflammation and adipogenesis, and endocannabinoid system regulation. This review aims to address the possible implications of excessive LA and its metabolites in the pathogenesis of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2016.06.003DOI Listing
September 2016

Tocotrienols and Whey Protein Isolates Substantially Increase Exercise Endurance Capacity in Diet -Induced Obese Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

PLoS One 2016 8;11(4):e0152562. Epub 2016 Apr 8.

Centre for Chronic Disease, College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background And Aims: Obesity and impairments in metabolic health are associated with reductions in exercise capacity. Both whey protein isolates (WPIs) and vitamin E tocotrienols (TCTs) exert favorable effects on obesity-related metabolic parameters. This research sought to determine whether these supplements improved exercise capacity and increased glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese rats.

Methods: Six week old male rats (n = 35) weighing 187 ± 32g were allocated to either: Control (n = 9), TCT (n = 9), WPI (n = 8) or TCT + WPI (n = 9) and placed on a high-fat diet (40% of energy from fat) for 10 weeks. Animals received 50mg/kg body weight and 8% of total energy intake per day of TCTs and/or WPIs respectively. Food intake, body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, exercise capacity, skeletal muscle glycogen content and oxidative enzyme activity were determined.

Results: Both TCT and WPI groups ran >50% longer (2271 ± 185m and 2195 ± 265m respectively) than the Control group (1428 ± 139m) during the run to exhaustion test (P<0.05), TCT + WPI did not further improve exercise endurance (2068 ± 104m). WPIs increased the maximum in vitro activity of beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA in the soleus muscle (P<0.05 vs. Control) but not in the plantaris. Citrate synthase activity was not different between groups. Neither supplement had any effect on weight gain, adiposity, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity.

Conclusion: Ten weeks of both TCTs and WPIs increased exercise endurance by 50% in sedentary, diet-induced obese rats. These positive effects of TCTs and WPIs were independent of body weight, adiposity or glucose tolerance.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0152562PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4825941PMC
August 2016

Obesity: Dysfunction, regulation and control.

Authors:
Andrew J McAinch

Mol Nutr Food Res 2016 Jan;60(1)

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201670015DOI Listing
January 2016

G protein coupled receptor 18: A potential role for endocannabinoid signaling in metabolic dysfunction.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2016 Jan 22;60(1):92-102. Epub 2015 Sep 22.

Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Management, College of Health & Biomedicine, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Endocannabinoids are products of dietary fatty acids that are modulated by an alteration in food intake levels. Overweight and obese individuals have substantially higher circulating levels of the arachidonic acid derived endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, and show an altered pattern of cannabinoid receptor expression. These cannabinoid receptors are part of a large family of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs are major therapeutic targets for various diseases within the cardiovascular, neurological, gastrointestinal, and endocrine systems, as well as metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity is considered a state of chronic low-grade inflammation elicited by an immunological response. Interestingly, the newly deorphanized GPCR (GPR18), which is considered to be a putative cannabinoid receptor, is proposed to have an immunological function. In this review, the current scientific knowledge on GPR18 is explored including its localization, signaling pathways, and pharmacology. Importantly, the involvement of nutritional factors and potential dietary regulation of GPR18 and its (patho)physiological roles are described. Further research on this receptor and its regulation will enable a better understanding of the complex mechanisms of GPR18 and its potential as a novel therapeutic target for treating metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201500449DOI Listing
January 2016

What Doesn't Kill You Makes You Fitter: A Systematic Review of High-Intensity Interval Exercise for Patients with Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases.

Clin Med Insights Cardiol 2015 25;9:53-63. Epub 2015 Jun 25.

Advanced Heart Failure and Cardiac Transplant Service, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth. ; School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia. ; Allied Health Department, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Murdoch, Western Australia, Australia.

High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) has gained popularity in recent years for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Despite potential benefits, concerns remain about the safety of the acute response (during and/or within 24 hours postexercise) to a single session of HIIE for these cohorts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a systematic review to evaluate the safety of acute HIIE for people with cardiometabolic diseases. Electronic databases were searched for studies published prior to January 2015, which reported the acute responses of patients with cardiometabolic diseases to HIIE (≥80% peak power output or ≥85% peak aerobic power, VO2peak). Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria (n = 156; clinically stable, aged 27-66 years), with 13 adverse responses reported (~8% of individuals). The rate of adverse responses is somewhat higher compared to the previously reported risk during moderate-intensity exercise. Caution must be taken when prescribing HIIE to patients with cardiometabolic disease. Patients who wish to perform HIIE should be clinically stable, have had recent exposure to at least regular moderate-intensity exercise, and have appropriate supervision and monitoring during and after the exercise session.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4137/CMC.S26230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4482383PMC
July 2015

Australia's nutrition transition 1961-2009: a focus on fats.

Br J Nutr 2015 Aug 30;114(3):337-46. Epub 2015 Jun 30.

Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Management, College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University,PO Box 14428,Melbourne,Victoria8001,Australia.

Since the 1960s, Australian diets have changed considerably, influenced by a burgeoning multicultural cuisine, increase in urbanisation and food technology advances. This has been described as a 'nutrition transition', resulting in the adoption of a Western diet pattern, with a shift away from unrefined foods towards a diet higher in both plant-derived high PUFA and total fats and refined carbohydrates. Utilising the 1961-2009 annual food supply data from the UN FAO, the present study investigated changes in the intake of macronutrient and specific fatty acid in the Australian population, including that of the PUFA linoleic acid (LA), due to its hypothesised role in inflammation and risk for obesity. Cumulative change over time for the contribution of specific nutrients to total available energy (TAE) was calculated, as was linearity of change. Over the time period analysed, the cumulative change in TAE from carbohydrate was -9.35 and +16.67 % from lipid. The cumulative change in TAE from LA was +120.48 %. Moreover, the cumulative change in the contribution of LA to total PUFA availability was +7.1 %. Utilising the average g/d per capita of LA from selected dietary sources, the change in the contribution of specific foodstuffs was assessed, with total plant oils having a cumulative change of +627.19 % to LA availability, equating to a cumulative change of +195.61 % in contribution to total LA availability. The results of the present study indicate that LA availability in Australia has increased over the previous five decades as a result of the availability of increased plant oils, as has total fat, possibly contributing to the increasing rates of obesity and obesity-associated co-morbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114515001907DOI Listing
August 2015