Publications by authors named "Andrew J Bredemeyer"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Occult Specimen Contamination in Routine Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing Testing.

Am J Clin Pathol 2015 Oct;144(4):667-74

From the Departments of Pathology and Immunology and.

Objectives: To evaluate the extent of human-to-human specimen contamination in clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) data.

Methods: Using haplotype analysis to detect specimen admixture, with orthogonal validation by short tandem repeat analysis, we determined the rate of clinically significant (>5%) DNA contamination in clinical NGS data from 296 consecutive cases. Haplotype analysis was performed using read haplotypes at common, closely spaced single-nucleotide polymorphisms in low linkage disequilibrium in the population, which were present in regions targeted by the clinical assay. Percent admixture was estimated based on frequencies of the read haplotypes at loci that showed evidence for contamination.

Results: We identified nine (3%) cases with at least 5% DNA admixture. Three cases were bone marrow transplant patients known to be chimeric. Six admixed cases were incidents of contamination, and the rate of contamination was strongly correlated with DNA yield from the tissue specimen.

Conclusions: Human-human specimen contamination occurs in clinical NGS testing. Tools for detecting contamination in NGS sequence data should be integrated into clinical bioinformatics pipelines, especially as laboratories trend toward using smaller amounts of input DNA and reporting lower frequency variants. This study provides one estimate of the rate of clinically significant human-human specimen contamination in clinical NGS testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1309/AJCPR88WDJJLDMBNDOI Listing
October 2015

Clinical next-generation sequencing in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

Cancer 2015 Feb 24;121(4):631-9. Epub 2014 Oct 24.

Division of Laboratory and Genomic Medicine, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: A clinical assay was implemented to perform next-generation sequencing (NGS) of genes commonly mutated in multiple cancer types. This report describes the feasibility and diagnostic yield of this assay in 381 consecutive patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: Clinical targeted sequencing of 23 genes was performed with DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue. The assay used Agilent SureSelect hybrid capture followed by Illumina HiSeq 2000, MiSeq, or HiSeq 2500 sequencing in a College of American Pathologists-accredited, Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified laboratory. Single-nucleotide variants and insertion/deletion events were reported. This assay was performed before methods were developed to detect rearrangements by NGS.

Results: Two hundred nine of all requisitioned samples (55%) were successfully sequenced. The most common reason for not performing the sequencing was an insufficient quantity of tissue available in the blocks (29%). Excisional, endoscopic, and core biopsy specimens were sufficient for testing in 95%, 66%, and 40% of the cases, respectively. The median turnaround time (TAT) in the pathology laboratory was 21 days, and there was a trend of an improved TAT with more rapid sequencing platforms. Sequencing yielded a mean coverage of 1318×. Potentially actionable mutations (ie, predictive or prognostic) were identified in 46% of 209 samples and were most commonly found in KRAS (28%), epidermal growth factor receptor (14%), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (4%), phosphatase and tensin homolog (1%), and BRAF (1%). Five percent of the samples had multiple actionable mutations. A targeted therapy was instituted on the basis of NGS in 11% of the sequenced patients or in 6% of all patients.

Conclusions: NGS-based diagnostics are feasible in NSCLC and provide clinically relevant information from readily available FFPE tissue. The sample type is associated with the probability of successful testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.29089DOI Listing
February 2015

Detection of gene rearrangements in targeted clinical next-generation sequencing.

J Mol Diagn 2014 Jul 9;16(4):405-17. Epub 2014 May 9.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri. Electronic address:

The identification of recurrent gene rearrangements in the clinical laboratory is the cornerstone for risk stratification and treatment decisions in many malignant tumors. Studies have reported that targeted next-generation sequencing assays have the potential to identify such rearrangements; however, their utility in the clinical laboratory is unknown. We examine the sensitivity and specificity of ALK and KMT2A (MLL) rearrangement detection by next-generation sequencing in the clinical laboratory. We analyzed a series of seven ALK rearranged cancers, six KMT2A rearranged leukemias, and 77 ALK/KMT2A rearrangement-negative cancers, previously tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Rearrangement detection was tested using publicly available software tools, including Breakdancer, ClusterFAST, CREST, and Hydra. Using Breakdancer and ClusterFAST, we detected ALK rearrangements in seven of seven FISH-positive cases and KMT2A rearrangements in six of six FISH-positive cases. Among the 77 ALK/KMT2A FISH-negative cases, no false-positive identifications were made by Breakdancer or ClusterFAST. Further, we identified one ALK rearranged case with a noncanonical intron 16 breakpoint, which is likely to affect its response to targeted inhibitors. We report that clinically relevant chromosomal rearrangements can be detected from targeted gene panel-based next-generation sequencing with sensitivity and specificity equivalent to that of FISH while providing finer-scale information and increased efficiency for molecular oncology testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2014.03.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4078366PMC
July 2014

Validation of a next-generation sequencing assay for clinical molecular oncology.

J Mol Diagn 2014 Jan 6;16(1):89-105. Epub 2013 Nov 6.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Genomics and Pathology Services, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Currently, oncology testing includes molecular studies and cytogenetic analysis to detect genetic aberrations of clinical significance. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows rapid analysis of multiple genes for clinically actionable somatic variants. The WUCaMP assay uses targeted capture for NGS analysis of 25 cancer-associated genes to detect mutations at actionable loci. We present clinical validation of the assay and a detailed framework for design and validation of similar clinical assays. Deep sequencing of 78 tumor specimens (≥ 1000× average unique coverage across the capture region) achieved high sensitivity for detecting somatic variants at low allele fraction (AF). Validation revealed sensitivities and specificities of 100% for detection of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) within coding regions, compared with SNP array sequence data (95% CI = 83.4-100.0 for sensitivity and 94.2-100.0 for specificity) or whole-genome sequencing (95% CI = 89.1-100.0 for sensitivity and 99.9-100.0 for specificity) of HapMap samples. Sensitivity for detecting variants at an observed 10% AF was 100% (95% CI = 93.2-100.0) in HapMap mixes. Analysis of 15 masked specimens harboring clinically reported variants yielded concordant calls for 13/13 variants at AF of ≥ 15%. The WUCaMP assay is a robust and sensitive method to detect somatic variants of clinical significance in molecular oncology laboratories, with reduced time and cost of genetic analysis allowing for strategic patient management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2013.10.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5762937PMC
January 2014

Performance of common analysis methods for detecting low-frequency single nucleotide variants in targeted next-generation sequence data.

J Mol Diagn 2014 Jan 5;16(1):75-88. Epub 2013 Nov 5.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri. Electronic address:

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming a common approach for clinical testing of oncology specimens for mutations in cancer genes. Unlike inherited variants, cancer mutations may occur at low frequencies because of contamination from normal cells or tumor heterogeneity and can therefore be challenging to detect using common NGS analysis tools, which are often designed for constitutional genomic studies. We generated high-coverage (>1000×) NGS data from synthetic DNA mixtures with variant allele fractions (VAFs) of 25% to 2.5% to assess the performance of four variant callers, SAMtools, Genome Analysis Toolkit, VarScan2, and SPLINTER, in detecting low-frequency variants. SAMtools had the lowest sensitivity and detected only 49% of variants with VAFs of approximately 25%; whereas the Genome Analysis Toolkit, VarScan2, and SPLINTER detected at least 94% of variants with VAFs of approximately 10%. VarScan2 and SPLINTER achieved sensitivities of 97% and 89%, respectively, for variants with observed VAFs of 1% to 8%, with >98% sensitivity and >99% positive predictive value in coding regions. Coverage analysis demonstrated that >500× coverage was required for optimal performance. The specificity of SPLINTER improved with higher coverage, whereas VarScan2 yielded more false positive results at high coverage levels, although this effect was abrogated by removing low-quality reads before variant identification. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of high-sensitivity variant callers with data from 15 clinical lung cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2013.09.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3873500PMC
January 2014

Transcription factor MIST1 in terminal differentiation of mouse and human plasma cells.

Physiol Genomics 2011 Feb 23;43(3):174-86. Epub 2010 Nov 23.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

Despite their divergent developmental ancestry, plasma cells and gastric zymogenic (chief) cells share a common function: high-capacity secretion of protein. Here we show that both cell lineages share increased expression of a cassette of 269 genes, most of which regulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi function, and they both induce expression of the transcription factors X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) and Mist1 during terminal differentiation. XBP1 is known to augment plasma cell function by establishing rough ER, and MIST1 regulates secretory vesicle trafficking in zymogenic cells. We examined morphology and function of plasma cells in wild-type and Mist1(-/-) mice and found subtle differences in ER structure but no overall defect in plasma cell function, suggesting that Mist1 may function redundantly in plasma cells. We next reasoned that MIST1 might be useful as a novel and reliable marker of plasma cells. We found that MIST1 specifically labeled normal plasma cells in mouse and human tissues, and, moreover, its expression was also characteristic of plasma cell differentiation in a cohort of 12 human plasma cell neoplasms. Overall, our results show that MIST1 is enriched upon plasma cell differentiation as a part of a genetic program facilitating secretory cell function and also that MIST1 is a novel marker of normal and neoplastic plasma cells in mouse and human tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00084.2010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3055710PMC
February 2011

XBP1 controls maturation of gastric zymogenic cells by induction of MIST1 and expansion of the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Gastroenterology 2010 Dec 14;139(6):2038-49. Epub 2010 Oct 14.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA.

Background & Aims: The transition of gastric epithelial mucous neck cells (NCs) to digestive enzyme-secreting zymogenic cells (ZCs) involves an increase in rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and formation of many large secretory vesicles. The transcription factor MIST1 is required for granulogenesis of ZCs. The transcription factor XBP1 binds the Mist1 promoter and induces its expression in vitro and expands the ER in other cell types. We investigated whether XBP1 activates Mist1 to regulate ZC differentiation.

Methods: Xbp1 was inducibly deleted in mice using a tamoxifen/Cre-loxP system; effects on ZC size and structure (ER and granule formation) and gastric differentiation were studied and quantified for up to 13 months after deletion using morphologic, immunofluorescence, quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblot analyses. Interactions between XBP1 and the Mist1 promoter were studied by chromatin immunoprecipitation from mouse stomach and in XBP1-transfected gastric cell lines.

Results: Tamoxifen-induced deletion of Xbp1 (Xbp1Δ) did not affect survival of ZCs but prevented formation of their structure. Xbp1Δ ZCs shrank 4-fold, compared with those of wild-type mice, with granulogenesis and cell shape abnormalities and disrupted rough ER. XBP1 was required and sufficient for transcriptional activation of MIST1. ZCs that developed in the absence of XBP1 induced ZC markers (intrinsic factor, pepsinogen C) but showed abnormal retention of progenitor NC markers.

Conclusions: XBP1 controls the transcriptional regulation of ZC structural development; it expands the lamellar rough ER and induces MIST1 expression to regulate formation of large granules. XBP1 is also required for loss of mucous NC markers as ZCs form.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2010.08.050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2997137PMC
December 2010

The transcription factor MIST1 is a novel human gastric chief cell marker whose expression is lost in metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma.

Am J Pathol 2010 Sep 13;177(3):1514-33. Epub 2010 Aug 13.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, Louis, MO 63110, USA.

The lack of reliable molecular markers for normal differentiated epithelial cells limits understanding of human gastric carcinogenesis. Recognized precursor lesions for gastric adenocarcinoma are intestinal metaplasia and spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM), defined here by ectopic CDX2 and TFF2 expression, respectively. In mice, expression of the bHLH transcription factor MIST1, normally restricted to mature chief cells, is down-regulated as chief cells undergo experimentally induced metaplasia. Here, we show MIST1 expression is also a specific marker of human chief cells. SPEM, with and without MIST1, is present in human lesions and, akin to murine data, likely represents transitional (TFF2(+)/MIST1(+) = "hybrid"-SPEM) and established (TFF2(+)/MIST1(-) = SPEM) stages. Co-visualization of MIST1 and CDX2 shows similar progressive loss of MIST1 with a transitional, CDX2(+)/MIST1(-) hybrid-intestinal metaplasia stage. Interinstitutional analysis and comparison of findings in tissue microarrays, resection specimens, and biopsies (n > 400 samples), comprising the entire spectrum of recognized stages of gastric carcinogenesis, confirm MIST1 expression is restricted to the chief cell compartment in normal oxyntic mucosa, rare in established metaplastic lesions, and lost in intraepithelial neoplasia/dysplasia and carcinoma of various types with the exception of rare chief cell carcinoma ( approximately 1%). Our findings implicate MIST1 as a reliable marker of mature, healthy chief cells, and we provide the first evidence that metaplasia in humans arises at least in part from the chief cell lineage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2353/ajpath.2010.100328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2928982PMC
September 2010

RAB26 and RAB3D are direct transcriptional targets of MIST1 that regulate exocrine granule maturation.

Mol Cell Biol 2010 Mar 28;30(5):1269-84. Epub 2009 Dec 28.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, Box 8118, 660 S. Euclid Ave., St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Little is known about how differentiating cells reorganize their cellular structure to perform specialized physiological functions. MIST1, an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, is required for the formation of large, specialized secretory vesicles in gastric zymogenic (chief) cells (ZCs) as they differentiate from their mucous neck cell progenitors. Here, we show that MIST1 binds to highly conserved CATATG E-boxes to directly activate transcription of 6 genes, including those encoding the small GTPases RAB26 and RAB3D. We next show that RAB26 and RAB3D expression is significantly downregulated in Mist1(-)(/)(-) ZCs, suggesting that MIST1 establishes large secretory granules by inducing RAB transcription. To test this hypothesis, we transfected human gastric cancer cell lines stably expressing MIST1 with red fluorescent protein (RFP)-tagged pepsinogen C, a key secretory product of ZCs. Those cells upregulate expression of RAB26 and RAB3D to form large secretory granules, whereas control, non-MIST1-expressing cells do not. Moreover, granule formation in MIST1-expressing cells requires RAB activity because treatment with a RAB prenylation inhibitor and transfection of dominant negative RAB26 abrogate granule formation. Together, our data establish the molecular process by which a transcription factor can directly induce fundamental cellular architecture changes by increasing transcription of specific cellular effectors that act to organize a unique subcellular compartment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.01328-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2820885PMC
March 2010

The gastric epithelial progenitor cell niche and differentiation of the zymogenic (chief) cell lineage.

Dev Biol 2009 Jan 31;325(1):211-24. Epub 2008 Oct 31.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

In the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, the cell fate decisions that specify the development of multiple, diverse lineages are governed in large part by interactions of stem and early lineage progenitor cells with their microenvironment, or niche. Here, we show that the gastric parietal cell (PC) is a key cellular component of the previously undescribed niche for the gastric epithelial neck cell, the progenitor of the digestive enzyme secreting zymogenic (chief) cell (ZC). Genetic ablation of PCs led to failed patterning of the entire zymogenic lineage: progenitors showed premature expression of differentiated cell markers, and fully differentiated ZCs failed to develop. We developed a separate mouse model in which PCs localized not only to the progenitor niche, but also ectopically to the gastric unit base, which is normally occupied by terminally differentiated ZCs. Surprisingly, these mislocalized PCs did not maintain adjacent zymogenic lineage cells in the progenitor state, demonstrating that PCs, though necessary, are not sufficient to define the progenitor niche. We induced this PC mislocalization by knocking out the cytoskeleton-regulating gene Cd2ap in Mist1(-/-) mice, which led to aberrant E-cadherin localization in ZCs, irregular ZC-ZC junctions, and disruption of the ZC monolayer by PCs. Thus, the characteristic histology of the gastric unit, with PCs in the middle and ZCs in the base, may depend on establishment of an ordered adherens junction network in ZCs as they migrate into the base.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2008.10.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2634829PMC
January 2009

Acquisition of murine NK cell cytotoxicity requires the translation of a pre-existing pool of granzyme B and perforin mRNAs.

Immunity 2007 Jun 31;26(6):798-811. Epub 2007 May 31.

Division of Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Although activated murine NK cells can use the granule exocytosis pathway to kill target cells immediately upon recognition, resting murine NK cells are minimally cytotoxic for unknown reasons. Here, we showed that resting NK cells contained abundant granzyme A, but little granzyme B or perforin; in contrast, the mRNAs for all three genes were abundant. Cytokine-induced in vitro activation of NK cells resulted in potent cytotoxicity associated with a dramatic increase in granzyme B and perforin, but only minimal changes in mRNA abundance for these genes. The same pattern of regulation was found in vivo with murine cytomegalovirus infection as a physiologic model of NK cell activation. These data suggest that resting murine NK cells are minimally cytotoxic because of a block in perforin and granzyme B mRNA translation that is released by NK cell activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2007.04.010DOI Listing
June 2007

Hop cleavage and function in granzyme B-induced apoptosis.

J Biol Chem 2006 Dec 27;281(48):37130-41. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

Granzyme B (GzmB) is a cytotoxic protease found in the granules of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. GzmB cleaves multiple intracellular protein substrates, leading to caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, cytoskeletal instability, and rapid induction of target cell apoptosis. However, no known individual substrate is required for GzmB to induce apoptosis. GzmB is therefore thought to initiate multiple cell death pathways simultaneously to ensure the death of target cells. We previously identified Hop (Hsp70/Hsp90-organizing protein) as a GzmB substrate in a proteomic survey (Bredemeyer, A. J., Lewis, R. M., Malone, J. P., Davis, A. E., Gross, J., Townsend, R. R., and Ley, T. J. (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 11785-11790). Hop is a co-chaperone for Hsp70 and Hsp90, which have been implicated in the negative regulation of apoptosis. We therefore hypothesized that Hop may have an anti-apoptotic function that is abolished upon cleavage, lowering the threshold for GzmB-induced apoptosis. Here, we show that Hop was cleaved directly by GzmB in vitro and in cells undergoing GzmB-induced apoptosis. Expression of the two cleavage fragments of Hop did not induce cell death. Although cleavage of Hop by GzmB destroyed Hop function in vitro, both cells overexpressing GzmB-resistant Hop and cells with a 90-95% reduction in Hop levels exhibited unaltered susceptibility to GzmB-induced death. We conclude that Hop per se does not set the threshold for susceptibility to GzmB-induced apoptosis. Although it is possible that Hop may be cleaved by GzmB as an "innocent bystander" during the induction of apoptosis, it may also act to facilitate apoptosis in concert with other GzmB substrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M607969200DOI Listing
December 2006

Use of protease proteomics to discover granzyme B substrates.

Immunol Res 2005 ;32(1-3):143-53

Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

A wide variety of proteases play important roles in immunity, including the destruction of microbes, induction of apoptosis, antigen processing, and regulation of the immune response. Characterization of these proteases requires not only an understanding of substrate specificity, but also the identification of specific protein substrates. Recent advances in proteomics technology have introduced new techniques for the study of protease function. Here, we highlight a proteomic approach used in our laboratory that employs two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry to identify native protease substrates. With this technique, we have successfully detected both known and novel granzyme B substrates, characterized cleavage products, and identified a granzyme B cleavage site. This approach may serve as an important discovery tool for other immunologic proteases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/IR:32:1-3:143DOI Listing
August 2006

A proteomic approach for the discovery of protease substrates.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004 Aug 27;101(32):11785-90. Epub 2004 Jul 27.

Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center and Proteomics Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Standardized, comprehensive platforms for the discovery of protease substrates have been extremely difficult to create. Screens for protease specificity are now frequently based on the cleavage patterns of peptide substrates, which contain small recognition motifs that are required for the cleavage of the scissile bond within an active site. However, these studies do not identify in vivo substrates, nor can they lead to the definition of the macromolecular features that account for the biological specificity of proteases. To use properly folded proteins in a proteomic screen for protease substrates, we used 2D difference gel electrophoresis and tandem MS to identify substrates of an apoptosis-inducing protease, granzyme B. We confirmed the cleavage of procaspase-3, one of the key substrates of this enzyme, and identified several substrates that were previously unknown, as well as the cleavage site for one of these substrates. We were also able to observe the kinetics of substrate cleavage and cleavage product accumulation by using the 2D difference gel electrophoresis methodology. "Protease proteomics" may therefore represent an important tool for the discovery of the native substrates of a variety of proteases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0402353101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC511053PMC
August 2004

The orphan granzymes of humans and mice.

Curr Opin Immunol 2003 Oct;15(5):544-52

Department of Pediatrics, Hale Irwin Center for Pediatric Oncology, #1 St Louis Children's Hospital, St Louis, MO 63110, USA.

The granzyme/perforin pathway is a central pathway for lymphocyte-mediated killing in both the innate and adaptive immune systems. This pathway is important in a variety of host defenses, including viral clearance and tumor cell killing, and its dysregulation results in several human and rodent diseases. To date, the majority of reports in this field have concentrated on the functions of granzymes A and B. Recent reports, however, suggest that the non-A/non-B 'orphan' granzymes found in both humans and mice are potentially significant. Although the functions of these orphan granzymes have yet to be fully established, initial data suggests their importance in both immune and nonimmune cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0952-7915(03)00099-2DOI Listing
October 2003