Publications by authors named "Andrew E Schriefer"

5 Publications

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A multi-amplicon 16S rRNA sequencing and analysis method for improved taxonomic profiling of bacterial communities.

J Microbiol Methods 2018 11 29;154:6-13. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Genome Technology Access Center, Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, 63110 St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Metagenomic sequencing of bacterial samples has become the gold standard for profiling microbial populations, but 16S rRNA profiling remains widely used due to advantages in sample throughput, cost, and sensitivity even though the approach is hampered by primer bias and lack of specificity. We hypothesized that a hybrid approach, that combined targeted PCR amplification with high-throughput sequencing of multiple regions of the genome, would capture many of the advantages of both approaches. We developed a method that identifies and quantifies members of bacterial communities through simultaneous analysis of multiple variable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The method combines high-throughput microfluidics for PCR amplification, short read DNA sequencing, and a custom algorithm named MVRSION (Multiple 16S Variable Region Species-Level IdentificatiON) for optimizing taxonomic assignment. MVRSION performance was compared to single variable region analyses (V3 or V4) of five synthetic mixtures of human gut bacterial strains using existing software (QIIME), and the results of community profiling by shotgun sequencing (COPRO-Seq) of fecal DNA samples collected from gnotobiotic mice colonized with a defined, phylogenetically diverse consortium of human gut bacterial strains. Positive predictive values for MVRSION ranged from 65%-91% versus 44%-61% for single region QIIME analyses (p < .01, p < .001), while the abundance estimate r for MVRSION compared to COPRO-Seq was 0.77 vs. 0.46 and 0.45 for V3-QIIME and V4-QIIME, respectively. MVRSION represents a generally applicable tool for taxonomic classification that is superior to single-region 16S rRNA methods, resource efficient, highly scalable for assessing the microbial composition of up to thousands of samples concurrently, with multiple applications ranging from whole community profiling to targeted tracking of organisms of interest in diverse habitats as a function of specified variables/perturbations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2018.09.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375304PMC
November 2018

Postponing the Hypoglycemic Response to Partial Hepatectomy Delays Mouse Liver Regeneration.

Am J Pathol 2016 Mar 6;186(3):587-99. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri; Department of Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri. Electronic address:

All serious liver injuries alter metabolism and initiate hepatic regeneration. Recent studies using partial hepatectomy (PH) and other experimental models of liver regeneration implicate the metabolic response to hepatic insufficiency as an important source of signals that promote regeneration. Based on these considerations, the analyses reported here were undertaken to assess the impact of interrupting the hypoglycemic response to PH on liver regeneration in mice. A regimen of parenteral dextrose infusion that delays PH-induced hypoglycemia for 14 hours after surgery was identified, and the hepatic regenerative response to PH was compared between dextrose-treated and control mice. The results showed that regenerative recovery of the liver was postponed in dextrose-infused mice (versus vehicle control) by an interval of time comparable to the delay in onset of PH-induced hypoglycemia. The regulation of specific liver regeneration-promoting signals, including hepatic induction of cyclin D1 and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 expression and suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and p27 expression, was also disrupted by dextrose infusion. These data support the hypothesis that alterations in metabolism that occur in response to hepatic insufficiency promote liver regeneration, and they define specific pro- and antiregenerative molecular targets whose regenerative regulation is postponed when PH-induced hypoglycemia is delayed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2015.10.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4816713PMC
March 2016

Multi-platform assessment of transcriptional profiling technologies utilizing a precise probe mapping methodology.

BMC Genomics 2015 Sep 18;16:710. Epub 2015 Sep 18.

Genome Technology Access Center, Department of Genetics, Washington University in Saint Louis School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Ave. Campus Box 8232, Saint Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Background: The arrival of RNA-seq as a high-throughput method competitive to the established microarray technologies has necessarily driven a need for comparative evaluation. To date, cross-platform comparisons of these technologies have been relatively few in number of platforms analyzed and were typically gene name annotation oriented. Here, we present a more extensive and yet precise assessment to elucidate differences and similarities in performance of numerous aspects including dynamic range, fidelity of raw signal and fold-change with sample titration, and concordance with qRT-PCR (TaqMan). To ensure that these results were not confounded by incompatible comparisons, we introduce the concept of probe mapping directed "transcript pattern". A transcript pattern identifies probe(set)s across platforms that target a common set of transcripts for a specific gene. Thus, three levels of data were examined: entire data sets, data derived from a subset of 15,442 RefSeq genes common across platforms, and data derived from the transcript pattern defined subset of 7,034 RefSeq genes.

Results: In general, there were substantial core similarities between all 6 platforms evaluated; but, to varying degrees, the two RNA-seq protocols outperformed three of the four microarray platforms in most categories. Notably, a fourth microarray platform, Agilent with a modified protocol, was comparable, or marginally superior, to the RNA-seq protocols within these same assessments, especially in regards to fold-change evaluation. Furthermore, these 3 platforms (Agilent and two RNA-seq methods) demonstrated over 80% fold-change concordance with the gold standard qRT-PCR (TaqMan).

Conclusions: This study suggests that microarrays can perform on nearly equal footing with RNA-seq, in certain key features, specifically when the dynamic range is comparable. Furthermore, the concept of a transcript pattern has been introduced that may minimize potential confounding factors of multi-platform comparison and may be useful for similar evaluations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-015-1913-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4575490PMC
September 2015

Histologic, Molecular, and Clinical Evaluation of Explanted Breast Prostheses, Capsules, and Acellular Dermal Matrices for Bacteria.

Aesthet Surg J 2015 Aug;35(6):653-68

Drs Poppler and Dr Cohen are Residents, Dr Dolen is a Breast Fellow, Dr Tenenbaum is Residency Program Director and Assistant Professor, and Dr Myckatyn is Breast Fellowship Director and Associate Professor, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO. Mr. Schriefer is a Physicist, Genome Technology Access Center, Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO. Dr Deeken is Director of Biomedical Engineering and Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Section of Minimally Invasive Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO. and Dr Chole is Lindburg Professor and Chairman, Department of Otolaryngology, and Director of the Biofilm Core Facility, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO.

Background: Subclinical infections, manifest as biofilms, are considered an important cause of capsular contracture. Acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) are frequently used in revision surgery to prevent recurrent capsular contractures.

Objective: We sought to identify an association between capsular contracture and biofilm formation on breast prostheses, capsules, and ADMs in a tissue expander/implant (TE/I) exchange clinical paradigm.

Methods: Biopsies of the prosthesis, capsule, and ADM from patients (N = 26) undergoing TE/I exchange for permanent breast implant were evaluated for subclinical infection. Capsular contracture was quantified with Baker Grade and intramammary pressure. Biofilm formation was evaluated with specialized cultures, rtPCR, bacterial taxonomy, live:dead staining, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Collagen distribution, capsular histology, and ADM remodeling were quantified following fluorescent and light microscopy.

Results: Prosthetic devices were implanted from 91 to 1115 days. Intramammary pressure increased with Baker Grade. Of 26 patients evaluated, one patient had a positive culture and one patient demonstrated convincing evidence of biofilm morphology on SEM. Following PCR amplification 5 samples randomly selected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated an abundance of suborder Micrococcineae, consistent with contamination.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that bacterial biofilms likely contribute to a proportion, but not all diagnosed capsular contractures. Biofilm formation does not appear to differ significantly between ADMs or capsules. While capsular contracture remains an incompletely understood but common problem in breast implant surgery, advances in imaging, diagnostic, and molecular techniques can now provide more sophisticated insights into the pathophysiology of capsular contracture.

Level Of Evidence: 4 Therapeutic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjv017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4649701PMC
August 2015

Identification of an epigenetic signature of early mouse liver regeneration that is disrupted by Zn-HDAC inhibition.

Epigenetics 2014 Nov;9(11):1521-31

a Department of Pediatrics ; Washington University School of Medicine ; St. Louis , MO USA.

Liver regeneration has been well studied with hope of discovering strategies to improve liver disease outcomes. Nevertheless, the signals that initiate such regeneration remain incompletely defined, and translation of mechanism-based pro-regenerative interventions into new treatments for hepatic diseases has not yet been achieved. We previously reported the isoform-specific regulation and essential function of zinc-dependent histone deacetylases (Zn-HDACs) during mouse liver regeneration. Those data suggest that epigenetically regulated anti-proliferative genes are deacetylated and transcriptionally suppressed by Zn-HDAC activity or that pro-regenerative factors are acetylated and induced by such activity in response to partial hepatectomy (PH). To investigate these possibilities, we conducted genome-wide interrogation of the liver histone acetylome during early PH-induced liver regeneration in mice using acetyL-histone chromatin immunoprecipitation and next generation DNA sequencing. We also compared the findings of that study to those seen during the impaired regenerative response that occurs with Zn-HDAC inhibition. The results reveal an epigenetic signature of early liver regeneration that includes both hyperacetylation of pro-regenerative factors and deacetylation of anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic genes. Our data also show that administration of an anti-regenerative regimen of the Zn-HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) not only disrupts gene-specific pro-regenerative changes in liver histone deacetylation but also reverses PH-induced effects on histone hyperacetylation. Taken together, these studies offer new insight into and suggest novel hypotheses about the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate liver regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/15592294.2014.983371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4623439PMC
November 2014