Publications by authors named "Andrew E Jimenez"

76 Publications

Incidence, Timing, and Risk Factors for 5-Year Revision Surgery After Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation in 533 Patients.

Am J Sports Med 2022 Aug 2:3635465221111115. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Background: Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) can be used to treat focal, full-thickness chondral defects of the knee. However, there is limited large-sample evidence available regarding the incidence, timing, and risk factors for revision surgery after ACI.

Purpose: To assess the 5-year incidence, timing, and risk factors for revision surgery after ACI in a large national cohort.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: The 2010-2020 PearlDiver database was queried for patients aged 20 to 59 years who underwent primary ACI of the knee without previous chondral procedures or knee arthroplasty. Revision surgery was defined as subsequent revision ACI, osteochondral allograft transplantation, osteochondral autograft transfer, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty, or total knee arthroplasty within 5 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess both incidence and timing of revision surgery. Risk factors evaluated for revision surgery included patient age, sex, body mass index (BMI), Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (ECI) score, and previous or concomitant bony realignment procedures.

Results: In total, 533 patients underwent primary ACI and met inclusion criteria. The 5-year incidence of revision surgery was 10.3%, with 63% of revisions occurring in the first 2 years after surgery. Risk factors associated with revision surgery included female sex (odds ratio, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.22-5.45; = .013) and BMI ≥35 (odds ratio, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.01-4.94; = .047). There was no relationship between age, ECI score, or previous or concomitant bony realignment procedures and revision surgery at 5 years ( > .05).

Conclusion: In an analysis of 533 patients who underwent ACI, 10.3% required a subsequent articular cartilage procedure or conversion to knee arthroplasty in the first 5 postoperative years. Revision surgery was greatest in the first 2 postoperative years. Female sex and severe obesity (BMI, ≥35) were associated with increased risk of revision surgery, while age, ECI score, and previous or concomitant bony realignment procedures were not. These findings suggest that treatment of chondral defects of the knee with ACI is associated with durable outcomes at the 5-year follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221111115DOI Listing
August 2022

Posteromedial tibial plateau bone bruises are associated with medial meniscal ramp lesions in patients with concomitant anterior cruciate ligament ruptures: a systematic review & meta-analysis.

Phys Sportsmed 2022 Aug 5:1-8. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Imaging, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Objective: To determine if posteromedial tibial plateau (PMTP) bone bruising on pre-operative MRI is significantly associated with a ramp lesion identified during arthroscopy in patients with concomitant ACL ruptures.

Methods: PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Sciences, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched systematically for studies that investigated the association between PMTP bone bruises on preoperative MRI and ramp lesions confirmed during arthroscopy. Eight studies met inclusion criteria. The Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies (MINORS) checklist was used to assess quality. A meta-analysis was performed to analyze odds of a ramp lesion after PMTP bone bruising identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Publication bias was assessed by funnel plot and Egger's linear regression test.

Results: There are 2.05 greater odds of medial meniscal ramp lesions in patients with an ACL rupture when PMTP bone bruising is found on preoperative MRI (95% CI, 1.29-3.25; = 0.002). Heterogeneity of the pooled studies may be substantial (= 65%; = 0.006). Funnel plot analysis and Egger's linear regression test ( > 0.5) determined no publication bias among the studies included in the meta-analysis.

Conclusion: Patients with acute ACL injuries and PMTP bone bruising on MRI have 2.05 times greater odds of a concomitant medial meniscal ramp lesion than those without this bone bruise pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00913847.2022.2108350DOI Listing
August 2022

Outcomes of Staged Bilateral Hip Arthroscopic Surgery in the Context of Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome: A Nested Matched-Pair Control Study Focusing on the Effect of Time Between Procedures.

Am J Sports Med 2022 Jul 25:3635465221108955. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Des Plaines, Illinois, USA.

Background: Bilateral hip symptoms from femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) are a common finding in patients regardless of athletic involvement. Oftentimes, patients and surgeons choose to stage bilateral hip arthroscopic surgery.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose of this study was (1) to compare minimum 2-year outcomes between patients who underwent staged bilateral hip arthroscopic surgery for FAIS to a propensity score-matched control group that underwent unilateral hip arthroscopic surgery and (2) to investigate the effect of time between bilateral procedures on patient-reported outcomes (PROs). We hypothesized that, after bilateral hip arthroscopic surgery, the improvement in outcomes would be similar to that after unilateral hip arthroscopic surgery and the time duration between bilateral procedures would not affect the final outcome.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Data were retrospectively reviewed on a consecutive series of patients who underwent primary hip arthroscopic surgery at our institution between June 2008 and November 2017. Patients who underwent bilateral hip arthroscopic surgery with minimum 2-year PROs for the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS), the Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), patient satisfaction, and a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain were included. The study group was matched 1:1 based on age, sex, and body mass index to a control group that only required unilateral hip arthroscopic surgery. Additionally, a subanalysis was performed on the study group to determine the effect of time between arthroscopic procedures. Rates of achieving the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) and Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) for the mHHS and HOS-SSS were determined. The value was set at <.05.

Results: A total of 205 patients (410 hips) were included. The mean age and body mass index of the study group were 32.3 ± 13.2 years and 25.0 ± 5.1, respectively. All 410 hips that met the inclusion criteria were matched. There were no significant differences in patient, radiographic, or procedural data. A significant and comparable improvement was reported for all PRO measures and the VAS ( < .0001) in both groups. Similarly, rates of achieving the MCID and PASS were comparable. After dividing the study group based on whether the contralateral procedure was performed <3 months or >3 months after the first procedure, it was determined that patients had a significant improvement and favorable outcomes regardless of time between bilateral procedures.

Conclusion: Patients who underwent unilateral and bilateral hip arthroscopic surgery for FAIS had a significant and comparable improvement in PROs at a minimum 2-year follow-up. A time interval of <3 months or >3 months between bilateral procedures did not affect PROs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221108955DOI Listing
July 2022

5-Year Arthroscopy-Free Survivorship and Outcomes of Adolescents Undergoing Primary Hip Arthroscopy: A Comparison Between Traumatic and Atraumatic Injuries.

Am J Sports Med 2022 08 19;50(10):2613-2621. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: There is a paucity of literature evaluating the outcomes of adolescent patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) with a discrete traumatic event related to an injury.

Purpose: (1) To evaluate 5-year outcomes of adolescents undergoing hip arthroscopy for FAIS with traumatic injuries (TIs) and (2) to compare the traumatic group with a propensity-matched control group of patients with atraumatic injuries.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Data were reviewed for all adolescent patients (<18 years) undergoing primary hip arthroscopy for FAIS with a TI between November 2008 and March 2015. Patients were included if they had preoperative and minimum 5-year follow-up outcomes for the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Nonarthritic Hip Score, Hip Outcome Score-Sport Specific Subscale, and visual analog scale for pain. The Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS), minimum clinically important difference (MCID), and maximum outcome improvement satisfaction threshold (MOIT) were also calculated for both groups. Adolescents with TI were propensity matched in a 1:2 ratio according to age at surgery, sex, and body mass index (BMI) to a control group of adolescents who reported atraumatic hip symptoms (AHSs). Survivorship was defined as having no secondary surgery on the ipsilateral hip.

Results: A total of 31 patients (32 hips) with TI, out of 39 total patients (40 hips) (80%), were included with a mean follow-up time of 72.2 ± 24.1 months and age of 15.8 ± 1.3 years. The TI group demonstrated significant improvement in all patient-reported outcomes (PROs) ( < .001) and demonstrated high rates of MCID (78.3%) and PASS (91.3%) for the mHHS. When compared with a propensity-matched control group of 64 AHS hips (57 patients), the TI group demonstrated similar rates of improvement in all PROs, as well as rates of achieving the MCID, PASS, and MOIT for all PROs; however, the TI group demonstrated significantly higher revision rates compared with controls (28.1% vs 6.3%; = .008).

Conclusion: Adolescent patients with TIs undergoing hip arthroscopy demonstrated favorable outcomes for all PROs ( < .001) and achieved high rates of MCID (78.3%) and PASS (91.3%) for the mHHS. When compared with a propensity-matched control group of adolescents with atraumatic injuries undergoing hip arthroscopy, they achieved similar levels of improvement, postoperative scores, and clinical benefit thresholds; however, reoperation rates were higher in the TI group compared with controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221103255DOI Listing
August 2022

Lateral to Medial Joint Space Ratio is Predictive of Survivorship After Primary Hip Arthroscopy.

Arthroscopy 2022 Jul 7. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, IL 60018; American Hip Institute, Chicago, IL 60018. Electronic address:

Purpose: To assess whether preoperative joint space measures would be predictive of survivorship in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy (HA) for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI).

Methods: Data on consecutive patients who underwent hip arthroscopy between February 2008 and February 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. To be eligible for final analysis, patients were required to have preoperative radiographs for joint space measurements and data indicating conversion to a total hip arthroplasty (THA), hip resurfacing, or neither; at a minimum of two years after primary hip arthroscopy. Survivorship following HA was defined as remaining conversion free and served as the primary outcome. A multivariate logistic regression analysis and receiver operator curve (ROC) were used to evaluate the correlation between joint space measurements survivorship following HA.

Results: A total of 1,885 primary arthroscopy cases were included in this study. The multivariate regression analysis found preoperative lateral-to-medial joint space ratio (L/M ratio) to be the strongest predictive factor of survivorship after primary hip arthroscopy (OR = 2.084, CI = 1.239 - 3.503, p = 0.006). The ROC curve for the model demonstrated acceptable discrimination with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.792. Patients with an L/M ratio ≥ 0.75 had a survivorship rate of 91.7% compared to a rate of 75% for patients with an L/M ratio < 0.75 (OR: 3.68).

Conclusions: This study found that, of the factors evaluated in this study, the most significant factor in predicting survivorship at 2-years after undergoing primary hip arthroscopy was a larger lateral-to-medial joint space ratio. This may suggest an initiation of primary arthritis at the edge-loading area of the lateral acetabulum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2022.06.025DOI Listing
July 2022

X-Grab: An Arthroscopic Maneuver to Efficiently and Accurately Track the Post for Knot Tying.

Arthrosc Tech 2022 Jun 11;11(6):e947-e950. Epub 2022 May 11.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

Numerous studies have analyzed techniques for producing reliable and efficient arthroscopic knots. All aspects have been explored, from the biomechanics and strength to the ability to teach and replicate at all levels of training. This technique article describes an additional maneuver (X-grab) for efficiently marking the post side of the arthroscopic knot without having to do this separately outside of the joint. This is most useful for procedures such as rotator cuff repair and capsular repair or plication in hip arthroscopy in which the location of the knot (i.e., the post) is critical. The aim of this Technical Note is to describe the X-grab maneuver, which shortens this process to a single step, limiting the see-sawing of sutures and over-instrumentation of the joint seen with other techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eats.2022.01.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9243617PMC
June 2022

Propensity-Matched Patients Undergoing Revision Hip Arthroscopy Over the Age of 40 Had Higher Risk of Conversion to Total Hip Arthroplasty Compared to Their Primary Counterparts.

Arthroscopy 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, IL 60018; American Hip Institute, Chicago, IL 60018. Electronic address:

Purposes: To report patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and survivorship following revision hip arthroscopy in patients aged ≥ 40 years and to compare these results to a propensity-matched primary hip arthroscopy control group.

Methods: Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed for all patients who underwent revision hip arthroscopy between June 2008 and January 2019. Patients were included if they were ≥ 40 years of age at the time of surgery and had minimum 2-year follow-up for the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS), Visual Analog Scale for pain and the Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS). Patients who had a previous hip condition, or those who lacked minimum two-year follow-up, were excluded. The revision group was further analyzed by conducting a 1:1 propensity-matched sub-analysis to a primary hip arthroscopy control group based on age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and acetabular labrum articular disruption grade. Statistical significance was set at P < .05.

Results: Eighty-nine hips (92.7% follow-up) were included, with 66.3% being females. The mean age, BMI, and follow-up time were 49.4 ± 8.0 years, 26.6 ± 4.1, and 62.7 ± 38.5 months, respectively. Significant improvement in all PROs (P < .001) was reported, and 71.8%, 58 74.4%, and 65.2% achieved the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for the mHHS, NAHS, and HOS-SSS, respectively. Eighty-seven revision hips were successfully propensity-matched to 87 primary hips. Both groups reported similar improvement for all PROs, but the relative risk of THA conversion was 2.63 times higher (95% CI, 1.20 - 5.79) for the revision group.

Conclusion: Patients aged ≥ 40 years who underwent revision hip arthroscopy reported significant improvement in all PROs at a mean follow-up of 62.7 months with favorable rates of achieving the MCID. When compared to the propensity-matched control group, both achieved similar rates of improvement, but the revision group was 2.63 times more likely to convert to THA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2022.06.014DOI Listing
June 2022

Maximal Outcome Improvement Willingness Thresholds Are Predictive of a Patient's Willingness to Undergo the Same Surgery, in Retrospect, Given the Known Outcome of Their Primary Hip Arthroscopy.

Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil 2022 Jun 20;4(3):e1007-e1013. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

Purpose: To determine the percent maximal outcome improvement willingness thresholds (MOWTs) for the Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS) and the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain that were associated with a patient's willingness to undergo surgery, in retrospect, given the known outcome of their primary hip arthroscopy with concomitant endoscopy for gluteus medius (GM) tear repair.

Methods: An anchor question was provided to patients who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome with concomitant endoscopic GM tear repair between April 2008 to April 2020. Patients were included if they answered the anchor question and had baseline and postoperative minimum 1-year follow-up scores for the NAHS and VAS. Patients were excluded if they had a previous ipsilateral hip surgery, Tönnis grade >1, hip dysplasia, previous hip conditions, or a preoperative score that was already at the maximum value for the NAHS and VAS scores. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the MOWT. Significance was indicated by a value <.05.

Results: A total of 107 patients (107 hips) were included, with 101 (94.4%) females and 6 (5.6%) males. The average age and body mass index was 56.20 ± 9.88 years and 28.80 ± 4.92 kg/m, respectively. The average follow-up time was 54.89 ± 29.52 months. The ROC analysis determined that the MOWT for the mHHS and VAS were 54.7%, and 62.6%, respectively. The probability of a patient being willing to undergo surgery again if they met the MOWT was 85.8% and 85.6% for the NAHS and VAS, respectively.

Conclusion: The MOWTs that were predictive of willingness to undergo surgery again following primary hip arthroscopy with concomitant endoscopy for GM tear repair were 54.7% and 62.6% for the NAHS, and VAS, respectively.

Clinical Relevance: Outcome assessment has been a point of increasing emphasis in hip preservation surgery. Having a tool to measure whether patients would go through the process of surgery again knowing their current outcome status is important to understanding outcomes after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asmr.2022.02.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9210379PMC
June 2022

Comparison of Outcomes Between Nonsmokers and Patients Who Discontinued Smoking 1 Month Before Primary Hip Arthroscopy: A Propensity-Matched Study With Minimum 2-Year Follow-up.

Orthop J Sports Med 2022 Jun 8;10(6):23259671221097372. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Cigarette smoking has been shown to negatively affect outcomes after hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS). The effect of cessation of cigarette smoking before surgery has not been well established.

Purposes: (1) To report minimum 2-year patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of former smokers who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for FAIS and (2) to compare these results with those of a propensity-matched control group of nonsmokers.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Data were collected for all patients who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for FAIS between December 2008 and November 2017. Patients were eligible if they indicated that they had previously smoked cigarettes but had quit smoking at least 1 month before surgery and had minimum 2-year postoperative outcomes for the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS), and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. The percentage of hips achieving the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) were recorded. The study group was then propensity matched in a 1:1 ratio by age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) to patients who had never smoked.

Results: A total of 83 former-smoking patients (84 hips; age, 45.0 ± 13.5 years) were included at a median follow-up of 38.6 months (interquartile range, 27.5-48.2 months); all patients had stopped smoking at a mean ± standard deviation of 14.3 ± 24.5 months preoperatively. Former smokers demonstrated significant improvement from preoperatively to the minimum 2-year follow-up for all recorded PROs ( < .001 for all) and achieved the MCID for the mHHS, NAHS, and VAS at favorable rates (75.0%-81.6%). Logistic regression analysis did not identify a significant relationship between cessation time and rates of achieving MCID for mHHS, NAHS, or VAS. When compared with 84 never-smokers (84 hips), the former smokers demonstrated similar preoperative scores, postoperative scores, and improvement on all recorded PROs ( > .05 for all). Both groups achieved MCID for mHHS, NAHS, and VAS at similar rates and demonstrated similar rates of revision surgery.

Conclusion: Former smokers who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for FAIS demonstrated significant improvement in PROs at minimum 2-year follow-up. When compared with a propensity-matched control group of never-smokers, they achieved similar postoperative PROs and rates of achieving psychometric thresholds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671221097372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9185012PMC
June 2022

Sex-Based Differences in Athletes Undergoing Primary Hip Arthroscopy With Labral Reconstruction: A Propensity-Matched Analysis With Minimum 2-Year Follow-up.

Orthop J Sports Med 2022 Jun 3;10(6):23259671221100861. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: There is a paucity of literature comparing sex-based outcome differences in athletes after primary hip arthroscopy with labral reconstruction for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) and irreparable labral tears.

Purpose: To report sex-based differences in clinical characteristics, patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores, and return-to-sports (RTS) rates in athlete who underwent primary hip arthroscopy with labral reconstruction.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Data were reviewed for recreational, organized amateur, high school, collegiate, and professional athletes who underwent primary hip arthroscopy with labral reconstruction for FAIS and irreparable labral tears between July 2014 and May 2019. Inclusion criteria included preoperative and minimum 2-year postoperative PRO scores (modified Harris Hip Score, Non-Arthritic Hip Score, Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale, International Hip Outcome Tool [iHOT-12], and visual analog scale [VAS] for pain). Exclusion criteria were Tönnis grade >1, hip dysplasia (lateral center-edge angle, <18°), or prior ipsilateral hip surgery/conditions. Patients were divided into groups by sex and were propensity-matched in a 1:1 ratio by age, body mass index, graft type, labral tear size, and sports level.

Results: A total of 101 hips were eligible, and 94 hips (93.1%) had a minimum 2-year follow-up. Twenty-nine female athlete hips were propensity-matched to 29 male athlete hips. Female athletes underwent higher rates of capsular repair (79.3% vs 24.1% for men; < .001) and lower rates of acetabular microfracture (0.0% vs 20.7% for men; = .024). Both female and male athletes experienced significant improvement on all PRO scores ( < .001 for all), high RTS rates (women, 84% vs men, 80.8%), and high rates of achieving the minimal clinically important difference for the iHOT-12 and VAS pain (women, 88.5% vs men, 71.4% for both) and achieving the patient acceptable symptom state for the iHOT-12 (women, 88.5% vs men, 71.4%), with no significant difference between the sexes.

Conclusion: Despite different clinical characteristics and surgical procedures, both female and male athletes undergoing primary hip arthroscopy with labral reconstruction had significant improvements in all PROs at the minimum 2-year follow-up, high RTS rates, and similar rates of achieving the minimal clinically important difference and patient acceptable symptom state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671221100861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9168863PMC
June 2022

Outcomes and Return-to-Sport Rates for Elite Athletes With Femoral Retroversion Undergoing Hip Arthroscopy: A Propensity-Matched Analysis With Minimum 2-Year Follow-up.

Orthop J Sports Med 2022 Jun 3;10(6):23259671221099840. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Return to sports (RTS) and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) for elite athletes with femoral version abnormalities undergoing hip arthroscopy have not been well established.

Purposes: To (1) report minimum 2-year PROs and RTS rates in elite athletes with femoral retroversion who underwent primary hip arthroscopy and (2) compare clinical results to those of a propensity-matched control group of elite athletes with normal femoral version who underwent primary hip arthroscopy.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed for elite (professional and collegiate) athletes with femoral version <5°, as measured on magnetic resonance imaging scans, who underwent hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome between March 2010 and April 2018. Inclusion criteria were preoperative and minimum 2-year follow-up PROs for the modified Harris Hip Score, Nonarthritic Hip Score, Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), and visual analog scale for pain. Exclusion criteria were Tönnis grade >1, hip dysplasia, and previous ipsilateral hip surgery or conditions. Rates of achieving the minimal clinically important difference (MCID), Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS), and maximum outcome improvement satisfaction threshold were recorded in addition to RTS. Athletes with retroversion were propensity matched in a 1:2 ratio to elite athletes with normal femoral version (5°-20°) for comparison.

Results: A total of 33 elite athletes (33 hips) with femoral retroversion who underwent hip arthroscopy met the inclusion criteria, and follow-up was available for 30 hips in 30 athletes (90.9%) at an average of 36.1 ± 25.6 months. Elite athletes with femoral retroversion demonstrated significant improvements in all recorded PROs, achieved the MCID and PASS for the HOS-SSS at high rates (86.7%), and returned to sports at a rate of 83.3%. PROs, rates of achieving MCID and PASS for the HOS-SSS, and RTS rates were similar between the study and propensity-matched control group.

Conclusion: Elite athletes with femoral retroversion undergoing primary hip arthroscopy demonstrated favorable PROs and high RTS rates at a minimum 2-year follow-up. These results were comparable with those of a propensity-matched control group of elite athletes with normal femoral version.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671221099840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9168879PMC
June 2022

Outcomes After Primary Hip Arthroscopy in Athletes Older Than 40 Years Compared With Nonathletes.

Am J Sports Med 2022 07 6;50(8):2181-2189. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Master athletes (MAs), or athletes older than 40 years, make up a patient population whose outcomes after primary arthroscopic hip surgery are largely unknown.

Purpose: To report minimum 2-year outcomes of MAs after primary hip arthroscopy and compare their results to a propensity-matched nonathlete (NA) control group.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Data were prospectively collected between February 2008 and April 2019 and retrospectively reviewed for all patients who underwent primary hip arthroscopy. Patients were included if they were older than 40 years and had preoperative data for the modified Harris Hip Score, Nonarthritic Hip Score, Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale, and visual analog scale score for pain. MAs reported participating in organized sports competition within 1 year before surgery and were propensity matched to a control group of patients who did not report participating in organized sports competition (NAs). Patient characteristics, radiographic and intraoperative findings, surgical procedures performed, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were reported and compared between the groups. The rates of achieving the minimal clinically important difference and maximum outcome improvement satisfaction threshold were recorded.

Results: A total of 366 hips were eligible; 328 (89.6%) had adequate follow-up data. 328 patients met inclusion criteria but 88 were not included due to the restrictions of the propensity score match ratio. Of these, 80 hips (76 patients) were classified as MAs (mean age, 48.9 ± 6.2 years) and were propensity matched 1:2 to an NA control group. Groups were comparable for baseline demographic and radiographic parameters, intraoperative findings, and procedures performed. MAs had significantly better baseline and minimum 2-year PROM scores ( < .05), higher satisfaction ( = .01), and higher rates of achieving clinically meaningful improvement across all the outcome tools used ( < .05). MAs, when compared with NAs, had lower rates of secondary arthroscopy (0% vs 7.5%, respectively; = .001) and conversion to total hip arthroplasty (12.5% vs 26.9%, respectively; = .011).

Conclusion: MAs demonstrated favorable outcomes after primary hip arthroscopy. When compared with a propensity score-matched control group of NA patients, MAs demonstrated better preoperative and postoperative PROMs, higher rates of clinically meaningful improvement, and lower rates of secondary arthroscopy and conversion to total hip arthroplasty. Absolute improvements in PROM scores were similar between the groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221096843DOI Listing
July 2022

Basketball Players Undergoing Primary Hip Arthroscopy Exhibit Higher Grades of Acetabular Cartilage Damage but Achieve Favorable Midterm Outcomes and Return to Sports Rates Comparable With a Propensity-Matched Group of Other Cutting Sports Athletes.

Am J Sports Med 2022 06;50(7):1909-1918

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Favorable short-term outcomes in competitive basketball players have been reported. Midterm outcomes in these athletes and how they compare with athletes in sports with similar demands have not been well established.

Purpose: (1) To report minimum 5-year patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and return to sports data in competitive basketball players undergoing primary hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) and (2) to compare outcomes with a propensity-matched control group of other cutting sports athletes.

Study Design: Cohort study, Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed for basketball players who competed at the professional, collegiate, high school, or competitive amateur levels and underwent primary hip arthroscopy for FAIS between May 2009 and March 2016. Patients with preoperative and minimum 5-year postoperative outcomes for the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS), Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain were included. Patients were propensity matched to athletes in other cutting sports (soccer, lacrosse, field hockey, and tennis) according to age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and preoperative competition level for comparison.

Results: A total of 28 competitive basketball players were included, with a mean follow-up time of 67.1 ± 5.1 months and a mean BMI of 23.7 ± 4; there were 12 (42.9%) female athletes. The cohort was composed of 1 professional, 10 collegiate, 13 high school, and 4 organized amateur athletes. They demonstrated significant improvements in all recorded PROs from baseline to the minimum 5-year follow-up ( < .001) and had high rates of achieving the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for the mHHS (75%), NAHS (75%), HOS-SSS (67.9%), and VAS for pain (71.4%). Furthermore, 76.5% of basketball players who returned to sports were still competing at a minimum of 5 years postoperatively. When compared with a propensity-matched cohort of other cutting athletes, basketball athletes demonstrated a significantly higher acetabular labrum articular disruption (ALAD) grade ( < .001) and trended toward a higher Outerbridge grade of the acetabular cartilage ( = .067). Despite this, basketball players demonstrated similar preoperative, postoperative, and improvement scores in all recorded PROs. Moreover, both groups exhibited similar rates of achieving psychometric thresholds and rates of continued sports participation at minimum 5-year follow-up.

Conclusion: Competitive basketball players undergoing primary hip arthroscopy for FAIS demonstrated significant improvements in all recorded PROs and high rates of continued play at a minimum 5-year follow-up. When compared with a control group of other cutting sports athletes, basketball players exhibited more severe ALAD grades intraoperatively but similar midterm outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221092762DOI Listing
June 2022

Predictors of Achieving the Maximal Outcome Improvement Threshold for Willingness to Undergo Revision Hip Arthroscopy.

Am J Sports Med 2022 07 25;50(8):2174-2180. Epub 2022 May 25.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: The maximal outcome improvement threshold for willingness to undergo revision hip arthroscopy (MOWT) has not been defined yet.

Purpose: To determine the percentage MOWT in patients who underwent revision hip arthroscopy and to identify predictors of achieving the MOWT.

Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: An anchor question was provided to patients who underwent revision hip arthroscopy between April 2008 and June 2020 who returned for follow-up between August 2019 and June 2021 at one institution. Patients were included if they underwent revision hip arthroscopy, had answered the anchor question, and had baseline and postoperative minimum 1-year follow-up scores for the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS), and the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. Exclusion criteria were Tönnis grade >1, hip dysplasia, previous hip conditions, or unwillingness to participate. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the MOWT. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine intraoperative predictors of achieving the MOWT.

Results: In total, 153 patients (163 hips) were included, with 117 female hips (71.8%), a mean patient age of 34.3 ± 12.4 years, and an average follow-up time of 61.6 ± 42.7 months. It was determined that 77.3% of the patients reported that they would choose to undergo the revision hip arthroscopy again. The MOWT for the mHHS, NAHS, and VAS was 43.1%, 53%, and 33.4%, respectively. The probability of choosing to undergo revision surgery if the MOWT was achieved was 77.5%, 77.6%, and 79.2%, for the mHHS, NAHS, and VAS, respectively. Patients with residual cam-type morphology, which was addressed during the revision, were 2.3 times more likely to achieve the MOWT for the VAS ( = .014).

Conclusion: Patients who improved 43.1%, 53%, and 33.4% of their MOWT for the mHHS, NAHS, and VAS, respectively, were likely to be willing to undergo revision hip arthroscopy again. Moreover, the presence of residual cam-type femoroacetabular impingement morphology before their revision surgery was identified as a predictor to achieve the MOWT for the VAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221096872DOI Listing
July 2022

Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Midterm Outcomes After Arthroscopic Surgery for Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome: A Propensity-Matched Controlled Study With Minimum 5-Year Follow-up.

Orthop J Sports Med 2022 May 10;10(5):23259671221090905. Epub 2022 May 10.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: There is limited literature evaluating patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in cigarette smokers undergoing hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) at midterm follow-up.

Purpose: (1) To report minimum 5-year PROs for cigarette-smoking patients who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for FAIS and (2) to compare these results with a propensity-matched control group of never-smoking patients.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Data were collected for all patients who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for FAIS between June 2009 and March 2016. Patients were eligible if they indicated that they smoked cigarettes within 1 month of surgery and had minimum 5-year postoperative outcomes for the modified Harris Hip Score, Nonarthritic Hip Score, Hip Outcome Score-Sport Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), and International Hip Outcome Tool-12 (iHOT-12). The percentages of patients achieving the Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) and maximum outcome improvement satisfaction threshold were recorded. The study group was then propensity matched in a 1:2 ratio to patients who had never smoked for comparison.

Results: Included were 35 patients (35 hips) with a mean age of 39.4 ± 13.0 years and mean follow-up of 64.6 ± 4.1 months. These patients demonstrated significant improvement from preoperatively to a minimum 5-year follow-up for all recorded PROs ( < .05). When compared with 70 control patients (70 hips), smoking patients demonstrated significantly worse preoperative scores for all PROs ( < .05). Study patients also demonstrated worse minimum 5-year scores for all recorded PROs compared with control patients, which did not reach statistical significance but trended toward significance for HOS-SSS (70.4 vs 81.9; = .076) and iHOT-12 (74.7 vs 82.2; = .122). Smoking patients also trended toward lower rates of achieving PASS for the iHOT-12 compared with never-smoking patients (50.0% vs 68.2%; = .120).

Conclusion: Patients who smoked cigarettes and underwent primary hip arthroscopy for FAIS demonstrated significant improvement in PROs at a minimum 5-year follow-up. When compared with a propensity-matched control group of never-smokers, they trended toward lower postoperative HOS-SSS and iHOT-12 scores and lower rates of achieving PASS on the iHOT-12.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671221090905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9098985PMC
May 2022

Competitive Athletes Who Underwent Hip Arthroscopy With Capsular Repair Showed Greater Improvement in Patient-Reported Outcome Scores Compared With Those Who Did Not Undergo Repair.

Arthroscopy 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A; American Hip Institute, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare minimum 2-year postoperative patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores and return to sport between competitive athletes undergoing primary hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome with interportal capsulotomy repair and competitive athletes with an unrepaired interportal capsulotomy.

Methods: Data on all consecutive competitive athletes who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome between February 2012 and December 2018 were collected. Athletes were divided into 2 groups: those who underwent repair and those without repair. Athletes were considered eligible if they participated in sports within 1 year prior to surgery. Patients were eligible if the return-to-sport status and the following preoperative and minimum 2-year postoperative PROs were available: modified Harris Hip Score, Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS), Hip Outcome Score-Sport-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), and visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain. Patients were excluded if they underwent prior hip surgery, had Workers' Compensation, were unwilling to consent, had a Tönnis grade greater than 1, or had a previous hip condition. The percentages of patients achieving the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) and maximum outcome improvement satisfaction threshold were recorded. Athletes who underwent interportal capsulotomy repair were propensity score matched in a ratio of 2:1 to athletes without interportal capsulotomy repair according to age, sex, body mass index, sport level, and acetabular labrum articular disruption grade.

Results: Forty-nine athletes (53 hips) without repair with an average follow-up time of 36.5 ± 10.2 months and age of 32.1 ± 13.3 years were matched to 79 athletes (84 hips) with repair with an average follow-up time of 41.3 ± 9.4 months and age of 30.1 ± 12.1 years. Athletes in the repaired group showed significantly greater improvements in the NAHS, HOS-SSS, and VAS score and significantly higher rates of achievement of the MCID for the HOS-SSS compared with athletes in the unrepaired group.

Conclusions: Competitive athletes who underwent primary hip arthroscopy with interportal capsulotomy repair showed a significantly greater magnitude of improvement in PRO scores (NAHS, HOS-SSS, and VAS score) and rates of achieving the MCID (HOS-SSS) compared with a propensity score-matched control group of competitive athletes with an unrepaired interportal capsulotomy.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative therapeutic trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2022.04.010DOI Listing
May 2022

Hip Pain Increases With Age and Experience Level in Adult Karate Athletes: A Statewide Survey Study.

Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil 2022 Apr 7;4(2):e325-e333. Epub 2021 Dec 7.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago.

Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of hip pain from labral tears and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in karate athletes using a statewide online survey.

Methods: An anonymous electronic survey was distributed via Qualtrics to all registered members of a statewide karate organization who were a purple belt or higher. Basic demographic information was collected as well as belt level, competitive level, and information regarding hip pain and treatment for hip pain. Microsoft Excel was used to store and analyze data.

Results: Of 180 respondents, 123 (68.3%) never had hip pain when practicing karate, and 54 (30.0%) had hip pain at some point in their karate career. Three subjects did not provide an answer and were excluded. Furthermore, of the symptomatic individuals, 52 reported the location of their hip pain, whereas 2 subjects did not. Of the symptomatic individuals (54), 32 had formal diagnoses by a medical professional, 4 (12.5%) were diagnosed with FAI of the hip, 6 (18.8%) diagnosed with a hip labral tear, 3 (9.4%) diagnosed with hip bursitis, 3 (9.4%) diagnosed with hip arthritis, and 16 (50%) had other diagnoses. The remaining 22 participants have not received a formal diagnosis by a medical professional.

Conclusions: The prevalence of hip pain in karate athletes in this survey was lower compared to athletes of other martial arts and kicking sports. No differences in the percentage of injuries were found between sex and years practiced; however a higher incidence of hip pain was found between elite status and age group. When evaluating hip pain in the karate population, orthopaedic surgeons should maintain an index of suspicion for FAI and hip labral tears.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, retrospective cross-sectional study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asmr.2021.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9042759PMC
April 2022

Minimum 5-Year Outcomes After Primary Segmental Labral Reconstruction for Irreparable Labral Tears in the Hip With Hamstring Grafts: With a Subanalysis Comparing Autograft Versus Allograft.

Am J Sports Med 2022 06 29;50(7):1876-1887. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Comparable short-term outcomes have been obtained using hamstring allografts versus autografts after primary segmental labral reconstruction (SLR). Midterm results have not yet been determined.

Purpose: (1) To evaluate minimum 5-year patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores in patients who underwent primary SLR with hamstring grafts in the setting of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) and irreparable labral tears and (2) to compare the outcomes of hamstring autografts versus allografts in a subanalysis using propensity-matched groups.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Prospectively collected data were retrospectively reviewed for patients who underwent primary hip arthroscopy between September 2010 and November 2015. Patients were included if they underwent SLR using hamstring autografts or allografts and had preoperative and minimum 5-year PROs. The exclusion criteria were previous ipsilateral hip surgery or conditions, dysplasia, or Tönnis grade >1. Patients with autograft SLR were propensity matched 1 to 1 based on age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) to patients who underwent SLR using hamstring allografts. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) and the Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) were calculated.

Results: Overall, 48 patients (N = hips 48) were eligible to be included in this study, and 41 patients (n = 41 hips [85.4%]) had a minimum 5-year follow-up reporting significant improvements in all PROs. Within the entire cohort, 9.8% required a secondary arthroscopy, with a mean time of 19 ± 1.8 months, and survivorship was 82.9%. Of the 41 included patients, 15 underwent an SLR with a hamstring autograft and were matched to 15 patients with labral reconstruction using a hamstring allograft. Groups were similar for sex ( > .999), age ( = .775), and BMI ( = .486). The mean follow-up times were 80.8 ± 25.5 and 66.1 ± 8.3 months ( = .223) for the autograft and allograft groups, respectively. Baseline PROs, preoperative radiographic measurements, surgical findings, and intraoperative procedures were similar. The groups achieved significant and comparable improvements for all PROs ( < .0001), satisfaction ( = .187), and the rate of achieving the MCID and the PASS. However, a tendency for higher postoperative PROs favoring allograft reconstruction was found.

Conclusion: At a minimum 5-year follow-up, patients who underwent primary arthroscopic SLR in the context of FAIS and irreparable labra, with either autograft or allograft hamstring tendons, reported significant improvements and comparable postoperative scores for all PROs, patient satisfaction, MCID, and PASS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221091192DOI Listing
June 2022

Competitive Athletes with Femoroacetabular Impingement and Painful Internal Snapping Treated Arthroscopically with Intrabursal Iliopsoas Fractional Lengthening: High Rate of Return to Sport and Favorable Midterm Functional Outcomes.

Am J Sports Med 2022 05 19;50(6):1591-1602. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Athletes with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) who undergo hip arthroscopy with iliopsoas fractional lengthening (IFL) in the context of painful internal snapping have demonstrated favorable patient-reported outcomes (PROs), return to sport (RTS), and resolution of internal snapping symptoms at short term follow-up. Midterm outcomes have not been established.

Purposes: (1) To report minimum 5-year PROs and RTS rate in competitive athletes who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for FAIS and intra-bursal IFL for painful internal snapping and (2) to compare these clinical results with those of a propensity score-matched control group of competitive athletes who underwent primary hip arthroscopy without painful internal snapping and IFL.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Data were reviewed for consecutive surgeries performed by a single surgeon between February 2010 and December 2013. Patients were considered eligible if they were professional, collegiate, or high school athletes and received a primary hip arthroscopy for FAIS and intra-bursal IFL without extended capsulotomy for painful internal snapping. Indications for IFL were painful internal snapping on preoperative physical examination. Inclusion criteria were preoperative and minimum 5-year follow-up scores for the modified Harris Hip Score, Nonarthritic Hip Score, Hip Outcome Score-Sport Specific Subscale, and visual analog scale for pain. Rates of achieving the minimal clinically important difference were also reported. For comparison, athletes in the IFL group were propensity matched by age, sex, body mass index, lateral and anterior center-edge angles, and sports level to a control group of athletes without internal snapping who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for FAIS without IFL.

Results: A total of 105 competitive athletes in the IFL group were included in the study with a follow-up of 66.8 ± 6.9 months (mean ± SD). The IFL cohort showed significant improvement in all recorded PROs at minimum 5-year follow-up ( < .001). Furthermore, they demonstrated favorable rates of achieving the minimal clinically important difference for the modified Harris Hip Score (82.0%), Nonarthritic Hip Score (85.4%), and Hip Outcome Score-Sport Specific Subscale (82.8%). Further, 89.5% of athletes in the IFL cohort successfully returned to sport. A total of 42 athletes in the IFL group were propensity matched to 54 control athletes. When groups were compared, they demonstrated similar improvement in PROs and rates of RTS, revision arthroscopy, and achieving psychometric thresholds.

Conclusion: Competitive athletes undergoing primary hip arthroscopy and intra-bursal IFL in the context of FAIS and painful internal snapping demonstrated favorable PROs and RTS rate at minimum 5-year follow-up. These results were comparable with those of a control group of athletes not requiring IFL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221079844DOI Listing
May 2022

Revision Hip Arthroscopy With Labral Reconstruction for Irreparable Labral Tears in Athletes: Minimum 2-Year Outcomes With a Benchmark Control Group.

Am J Sports Med 2022 05 19;50(6):1571-1581. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: The incidence of revision hip arthroscopy with labral reconstruction in athletes is increasing. However, the outcomes of revision hip arthroscopy with labral reconstruction in athletes have not been well established.

Purposes: (1) To report minimum 2-year patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores and return to sports (RTS) characteristics for high-level athletes undergoing revision hip arthroscopy with labral reconstruction and (2) to compare clinical results with those of a propensity-matched control group of high-level athletes undergoing revision hip arthroscopy with labral repair.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed for athletes at any level who underwent a revision hip arthroscopy and a labral reconstruction between April 2010 and March 2019. Minimum 2-year PROs were reported for the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS), the Hip Outcome Score-Sport Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, and RTS. The percentages of athletes achieving the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) and the maximum outcome improvement satisfaction threshold (MOIST) were also recorded. These patients were propensity matched in a 1: 1 ratio to athletes undergoing revision hip arthroscopy with labral repair for comparison.

Results: A total of 46 athletes (N = 47 hips) were reported from 50 (n = 51 hips) athletes who underwent revision with labral reconstruction. A subanalysis of 30 propensity-matched athletes undergoing revision labral reconstruction was performed, with a mean follow-up time of 26.3 ± 2.4 months and an age of 28.5 ± 10.1 years, and compared with a revision labral repair group. Significant improvements were obtained for the mHHS, the NAHS, the HOS-SSS, and the VAS from preoperative to the latest follow-up ( < .001), with an achievement MCID rate of 61.5%, 72%, 62.5%, and 76.9% for the mHHS, the NAHS, the HOS-SSS, and the VAS, respectively. The rate for re-revision surgery (2 tertiary arthroscopy and 1 conversion to total hip arthroplasty) was 10%, and 14 patients (63.6%) were able to RTS. Improvements in PROs, rates of achieving MCID/MOIST, rate of re-revision surgery (re-revision hip arthroscopy, = .671; conversion to total hip arthroplasty, > .999), and RTS rate ( = .337) were similar when compared with those of the propensity-matched control labral repair group ( > .05).

Conclusion: Revision hip arthroscopy with labral reconstruction, in the context of an irreparable labral tear, seems to be a valid treatment option in the athletic population, demonstrating significant improvements in all PROs and low rates of undergoing revision surgery. Athletes experienced a similar magnitude of improvement in PROs, RTS rate, and revision surgery rate to that of a propensity-matched control group of athletes undergoing revision hip arthroscopy with labral repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221085030DOI Listing
May 2022

Minimum 2-Year Outcomes and Return to Sports of Competitive Athletes Who Undergo Subspine Decompression During Primary Hip Arthroscopy for Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome and Subspine Impingement: A Propensity-Matched Controlled Study.

Am J Sports Med 2022 05 19;50(6):1582-1590. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and return to sports (RTS) have not been established in athletes undergoing primary hip arthroscopy and subspine decompression for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) and subspine impingement (SSI).

Purpose: (1) To report minimum 2-year PROs and RTS in competitive athletes undergoing primary hip arthroscopy for treatment of FAIS with subspine decompression for treatment of SSI and (2) to compare clinical results with a matched control group of athletes without SSI.

Study Design: Cohort study, Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Data were reviewed for professional, collegiate, and high school athletes undergoing primary hip arthroscopy for FAIS with arthroscopic subspine decompression for SSI between February 2011 and October 2018. Inclusion criteria included preoperative and minimum 2-year follow-up scores for the modified Harris Hip Score, Nonarthritic Hip Score, Hip Outcome Score-Sport Specific Subscale, and visual analog scale for pain. Rates of achieving the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) were also calculated. For comparison, athletes in the SSI group were propensity matched according to age at the time of surgery, sex, body mass index, lateral center-edge angle, alpha angle, sport level, acetabular labrum articular disruption grade, and sport type to a control group of athletes without SSI.

Results: A total of 30 SSI athletes were included in the study, with a mean plus or minus standard deviation follow-up of 32.1 ± 7.1 months and age of 20.9 ± 5.7 years. The SSI cohort demonstrated significant improvement in all recorded PROs ( < .001), returned to sports at high rates (88.5%), and achieved the MCID for the Hip Outcome Score-Sport Specific Subscale at a high rate (80.0%). Furthermore, these patients had a low rate of undergoing revision surgery (6.7%). When compared with a propensity-matched control group of 59 athletes, the SSI group demonstrated similar rates of RTS, revision, and achieving the MCID for all PROs.

Conclusion: Competitive athletes with FAIS and SSI who underwent primary hip arthroscopy and subspine decompression had favorable outcomes and high RTS rates at minimum 2-year follow-up. These results were comparable with those of a control group of athletes without SSI undergoing primary hip arthroscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221085664DOI Listing
May 2022

Workers' Compensation Patients Improved After Hip Arthroscopy for Labral Tears: A 5-Year Outcome Propensity Score-Matched Study.

Am J Sports Med 2022 04 14;50(5):1281-1290. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: The workers' compensation (WC) status has been associated with inferior outcomes in orthopaedic procedures and is usually excluded from clinical outcome studies. Therefore, comparative studies based on WC status are scarce.

Purpose: (1) To determine outcomes of patients with WC claims treated with hip arthroscopy for labral tears at a minimum 5-year follow-up and (2) to compare these findings with a propensity score-matched control group without WC claims.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Patients were propensity score matched to a control group without WC claims. Data were prospectively collected for all patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. Patients were included if they received primary hip arthroscopy for labral tears in the setting of femoroacetabular impingement, had a WC claim, and had preoperative and minimum 5-year follow-up patient-reported outcomes ([PROs]; modified Harris Hip Score [mHHS], Non-Arthritic Hip Score [NAHS], Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale [HOS-SSS], and visual analog scale [VAS] for pain). Clinical outcomes were measured using the Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS), minimal clinically important difference (MCID), and maximum outcome improvement satisfaction threshold (MOI).

Results: A total of 111 from 132 (84.1%) eligible WC patients met the inclusion criteria with an average follow-up time of 80.3 ± 37.3 months. WC cases demonstrated significant improvement from preoperatively to a minimum 5-year follow-up for mHHS, NAHS, HOS-SSS, and VAS for pain ( < .05). WC patients returned to work at a 66% rate, with an average clearance time of 4.7 months to light duty and 9.5 months to heavy duty. When compared with the control group, the WC group demonstrated lower pre- and postoperative PROs ( < .05); however, WC cases had a greater magnitude of improvement (ΔmHHS [ = .0012], ΔNAHS [ < .001], and ΔHOS-SSS [ = .012]). Rates of achieving MCID and MOI were similar in both groups ( > .05). The WC group went on to receive a future arthroscopy in 19 cases (17.1%), while 10 cases (4.5%) in the control group required revision arthroscopy ( < .001). Patients in both the WC and the control groups converted to total hip arthroplasty at similar rates (13.3% and 15.4%, respectively; > .05).

Conclusion: Patients with WC claims treated with hip arthroscopic surgery showed significant improvement and high rates of returning to work at a minimum 5-year follow-up. Although having lower scores in PROs and achieving PASS rates, no differences were found in MCID and MOI rates. Furthermore, WC patients had a greater magnitude of improvement from preoperatively to a minimum 5-year follow-up after hip arthroscopy. Therefore, even though more studies are needed to determine the causes of inconsistent outcomes in the WC population, hip arthroscopy can effectively treat labral tears in the setting of femoroacetabular impingement, regardless of the WC status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221078620DOI Listing
April 2022

Return to Sport and Outcomes After Concomitant Periacetabular Osteotomy and Hip Arthroscopy in Athletes.

Arthroscopy 2022 Mar 5. Epub 2022 Mar 5.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.; AMITA Health St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, Illinois, U.S.A.; American Hip Institute, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purpose: To report minimum 2-year follow-up patient-reported outcomes and return-to-sport (RTS) rates in athletes undergoing concomitant hip arthroscopy and periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) to treat acetabular dysplasia and intra-articular pathologies such as cam deformity and labral tears.

Methods: We reviewed the data of consecutive athletes undergoing concomitant primary hip arthroscopy and PAO for acetabular dysplasia and cam deformity from November 2010 to December 2018. Patients were included in the study if they had the following preoperative and minimum 2-year postoperative scores: modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS), and Hip Outcome Score-Sport-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS). The percentage of patients who achieved the minimal clinically important difference was recorded, in addition to RTS status.

Results: A total of 29 athletes (29 hips) were included, with a mean follow-up time of 34.1 ± 7.9 months, mean age of 26.0 ± 8.7 years, and mean body mass index of 23.7 ± 3.4. These athletes showed significant improvements in the mHHS, NAHS, and HOS-SSS from baseline to latest follow-up (P < .001). The minimal clinically important difference was achieved at high rates for the mHHS (82.8%), NAHS (86.2%), and HOS-SSS (79.3%). Athletes who attempted to RTS successfully returned at a rate of 81.8%.

Conclusions: Athletes undergoing concomitant hip arthroscopy and PAO showed significant improvements in patient-reported outcomes at minimum 2-year follow-up and had an RTS rate of 81.8%.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, retrospective case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2022.02.017DOI Listing
March 2022

Pathologic Findings on Hip Arthroscopy in High-Level Athletes Competing in Flexibility Sports.

Am J Sports Med 2022 03 7;50(4):1028-1038. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Athletes who compete in flexibility sports (FS) place unique demands on their hip joints because of the supraphysiologic range of motion required.

Purpose: To compare the pathologic features, outcomes, and return-to-sports (RTS) rates of high-level athletes participating in FS who underwent hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) and labral tear against a propensity score-matched cohort of high-level athletes participating in non-flexibility sports (NFS).

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed for high-level athletes who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for FAIS from April 2008 to December 2018. Patients who participated in FS such as dancing, gymnastics, martial arts, figure skating, and cheerleading were propensity score matched by body mass index, age at time of surgery, sex, sports competition level, and labral treatment to a cohort of high-level athletes participating in all other sports, such as distance running, soccer, volleyball, and softball. Baseline patient characteristics, intraoperative findings, and surgical procedures were compared. Minimum 2-year patient-reported outcome measures were compared for the modified Harris Hip Score, Nonarthritic Hip Score, Hip Outcome Score-Sport Specific Subscale, and visual analog scale for pain and satisfaction. Rates of secondary surgery and RTS were compared.

Results: A total of 47 patients (50 hips) who participated in FS were included and propensity score matched to 130 patients (150 hips) who participated in NFS. Follow-up time was 37.5 ± 10.4 months (mean ± SD). Most patients (96.0%) were female with a mean age of 19.5 ± 7.3 years. FS athletes had significantly higher rates of femoral head cartilage lesions (Outerbridge ≥2; 12.0% vs 2.0%; = .008) and ligamentum teres tears (48% vs 26%; = .003). FS and NFS athletes demonstrated significant clinical improvements after surgery for all patient-reported outcome measures. Of the patients who attempted, 34 (75.6%) participating in FS were able to RTS while 11 (24.4%) were not because of ongoing hip issues. This was not significantly different than the NFS group ( = .073).

Conclusion: High-level athletes who participated in FS and were treated for FAIS with hip arthroscopy exhibited higher rates of femoral head cartilage lesions and ligamentum teres tears requiring debridement when compared with a benchmark group of athletes who participated in other sports. Despite this, both groups demonstrated similar improvements in outcome scores and comparable rates of RTS at minimum 2-year follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221077002DOI Listing
March 2022

Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Primary Hip Arthroscopy and Labral Reconstruction: A Propensity-Matched Controlled Study With Minimum 2-Year Follow-up.

Orthop J Sports Med 2022 Feb 24;10(2):23259671221075642. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: There is a paucity of literature evaluating the effect of cigarette smoking on outcomes in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy and labral reconstruction.

Purpose: (1) To report minimum 2-year patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores for patients who smoke cigarettes and underwent primary hip arthroscopic labral reconstruction and (2) to compare these results with those of a propensity-matched control group of patients who have never smoked.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Data were collected for all patients who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for labral reconstruction between January 2011 and January 2019. Patients were eligible for the study if they indicated that they smoked cigarettes within 1 month of surgery and had minimum 2-year postoperative outcome scores for the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS), and the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. The percentage of patients achieving the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) and patient-acceptable symptom state (PASS) was recorded. Rates of revision surgery were also documented. These patients were then propensity matched in a 1:3 ratio to patients who had never smoked (controls) for comparison.

Results: A total of 20 patients (20 hips) were included with a mean follow-up of 39.9 ± 13.0 months and mean age of 41.4 ± 10.4 years. These patients demonstrated significant improvement from preoperatively to the minimum 2-year follow-up for mHHS, NAHS, and VAS ( < .05). They also achieved MCID for mHHS and VAS at acceptable rates, 70% for both. When outcomes were compared with those of 60 control patients (60 hips), patients who smoke demonstrated lower preoperative PRO scores but similar minimum 2-year postoperative PRO scores for mHHS and NAHS. Patients who smoke demonstrated lower rates of achieving PASS for mHHS (55% vs 75%) and NAHS (40% vs 61.7%) compared with controls; however, these findings were not statistically significant. Rates of secondary surgery were statistically significantly higher in the smoking group compared with controls (25% vs 5%; = .031). Survivorship for the smoking patients was 80% and 98.3% for the control group. At the two-year mark survivorship was 90% for the smoking group and 100% for the control group ( = .06).

Conclusion: While smokers can still derive significant improvement from hip arthroscopy, their ultimate functional outcome and rate of secondary surgeries are inferior to those of nonsmokers. As smoking is a significant and modifiable risk factor, we should continue to counsel smokers on smoking cessation prior to and after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671221075642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8882953PMC
February 2022

The Fragility Index of Total Hip Arthroplasty Randomized Control Trials: A Systematic Review.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2022 May 24;30(9):e741-e750. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

From the American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, IL (CC Go, Maldonado, BC Go, Annin, Saks, Jimenez, Domb), American Hip Institute, Chicago, IL (Domb), and Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (CC Go, BC Go).

Introduction: Although randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the benchmark study design, a change of outcomes for a few patients can lead to a reversal of study conclusions. As such, examination of the fragility index (FI) of RCTs has become an increasingly popular method to provide further information regarding the relative robustness of RCT results. The purpose of this study was to systematically characterize and assess the predictors of the FI RCTs in total hip arthroplasty literature.

Methods: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane were systematically searched for all total hip arthroplasty RCTs published between January 2015 and December 2020, which had an equal assignment of participants to a two parallel-arm study design, examined a surgical intervention, and reported on at least one statistically significant dichotomous outcome in the abstract. Potential factors associated with the FI were examined using the Spearman correlation and Mann-Whitney U test.

Results: Thirty-four RCTs were selected, with a median number of study participants of 111 (interquartile range [IQR] 72-171] and a median total number of events of 15 (IQR 9.5 to 29). The median FI was 2 (IQR 1 to 6), while six studies had a FI of 0. In 18 cases (52.9%), the number of patients needed to change from no event to event was less than that loss to follow-up. Larger sample size was found to predictive of a higher FI (rs = 0.367, P = 0.033), but the year of publication, journal impact factor, the calculated power analysis size, and loss to follow-up were not associated with FI.

Conclusion: The FI serves as a useful addition to other more commonly used approaches of quantitative analyses, such as P values, effect sizes, and confidence intervals, and widespread reporting the FI may provide clinicians with further information about RCT results.

Level Of Evidence: Level I, systematic review of Level I studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-21-00489DOI Listing
May 2022

After Revision Hip Arthroscopy, Patients Having Either Circumferential or Segmental Labral Reconstructions for the Management of Irreparable Labra Show Clinical Improvement Based on Proper Indications.

Arthroscopy 2022 Aug 19;38(8):2459-2469. Epub 2022 Feb 19.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.; American Hip Institute, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare a minimum of two-year follow-up patient-reported outcome scores (PROs) in patients who underwent revision hip arthroscopy for acetabular circumferential labral reconstruction (CLR) and segmental labral reconstruction (SLR) using propensity-matched groups, in the setting of irreparable labral tear.

Methods: Prospectively collected data were retrospectively reviewed for patients who underwent revision hip arthroscopy from April 2010 to September 2018. Patients were included if they underwent labral reconstruction and had preoperative and minimum 2-year PROs. Patients unwilling to participate, with Tönnis grade >1, or hip dysplasia were excluded. Patients in the CLR group were propensity-matched on the basis of age, sex, body mass index, and Tönnis grade to patients in the SLR group in a 1:1 ratio. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) and the patient-acceptable symptomatic state (PASS) rates were calculated.

Results: Twenty-six hips (25 patients) with CLR were propensity-matched to 26 hips (26 patients) with SRL. The mean follow-up time 25.92 and 27.78 months for the CLR and SLR, respectively (P = .845). Groups reported comparable findings for sex (P = .773), age (P = .197), body mass index (P = .124), preoperative Tönnis grade (P = .124), lateral-center edge angle (P = .144), and alpha angle (P = .264), and comparable improvement for all PROs at minimum 2-year follow-up. Patient satisfaction was similar (P = .612). Rates of achievement for the MCID and PASS were comparable.

Conclusion: Following revision hip arthroscopy, patients who underwent CLR or SLR for complete and segmental irreparable labral tears, respectively, reported significant and comparable postoperative improvement for all PROs and rate of achievement for the MCID and PASS at a minimum 2-year follow-up.

Level Of Evidence: III, retrospective comparative therapeutic trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2022.02.005DOI Listing
August 2022

Females and Males Achieved Comparable Outcomes and Clinical Benefits Following Primary Hip Arthroscopy with Labral Repair, but Age Affected Outcomes and Conversion to Total Hip Arthroplasty. A Short and Mid-Term Follow-Up Analysis with Dual Stratification.

Arthroscopy 2022 Aug 17;38(8):2427-2440. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.; American Hip Institute, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purpose: To report and compare, according to sex and age, minimum 2-and minimum 5-year patient-reported outcome scores (PROs) and survivorship in a large cohort of patients who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS).

Methods: Data from February 2008 to September 2018 were reviewed. Patients aged 60 and younger who underwent primary hip arthroscopy with minimum 2-year follow-up were included. Exclusion criteria were Tönnis grade >1, hip dysplasia, previous hip conditions, or any labral treatment different than repair. Minimum 5-year PROs were also collected. All patients included were divided into groups by sex. For further analysis, males and females were stratified according to age: < 21 years old, 21-30 years old, 31-40 years old, 41-50 years old, and 51-60 years old.

Results: In total, 1,326 hips had minimum 2-year follow-up, including 860 (64.9%) females and 466 males (35.1%), with a mean age of 31.6 years (range, 12.8-60.9 years) and a mean follow-up of 58.7 ± 28.9 months. Of those, 772 had minimum 5-year follow-up, 515 females (66.7%), and 257 males (33.3%) with a mean age of 31.7 years (range, 13.1-60.7 years) and a mean follow-up of 78.5 ± 23.0 months. All patients showed significant improvements in PROs at minimum 2-and 5-year follow-up (P < .001). Between sex analysis revealed comparable PROs at latest follow-up between females and males across any age group. Within sexes, and when sexes were combined, patients <21 years old had significantly better outcomes compared to other age groups. There were more females <21 years old that required revision arthroscopy than males <21 years old (P = .015). Conversion to total hip arthroplasty (THA) showed no significant difference between sexes (P > .05). Rates of THA were <21 years (.8%), 21-30 years (2.1%), 31-40 years (4%), 41-50 years (8.9%), and 51-60 years (14.3%).

Conclusions: Following primary hip arthroscopy for FAIS, all patients reported significant improvements in all PROs at minimum 2-and minimum 5-year follow-up, with females and males achieving similar success. Age affected outcomes, with patients under 21 years old reporting better scores regardless of sex. Although the conversion rate to THA was similar between the sexes, it was lower in the younger ages groups in both sexes.

Level Of Evidence: III, retrospective comparative observation trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2022.02.003DOI Listing
August 2022

Arthroscopic Subspine Decompression Is Commonly Reported in a Heterogenous Patient Population With Concomitant Procedures: A Systematic Review.

Arthroscopy 2022 Aug 12;38(8):2529-2542. Epub 2022 Feb 12.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.; American Hip Institute, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purpose: To systematically review the evaluation, management, and surgical outcomes of arthroscopic subspine decompression in conjunction with other intra-articular hip preservation procedures.

Methods: Two databases (PubMed and Embase) were searched from 2010 to 2021, in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, for articles investigating arthroscopic subspine decompression using the key words: "subspine impingement", "AIIS impingement", and "extra-articular impingement." Exclusion criteria included diagnostic studies, failure to report postoperative outcomes, and case series of less than 10 hips. Studies were assessed for patient demographics, diagnostic criteria, clinical findings, concomitant procedures, outcomes, and postoperative complications. The quality of the studies was analyzed by 2 independent reviewers (A.J.C. and A.E.J.) using the Methodological Index for Non-randomized Studies (MINORS).

Results: Ten studies consisting of 438 patients (460 hips, 48.6% female) met the inclusion criteria, with average ages and follow-up ranging from 24.9 to 34.7 years and 6.0 to 44.4 months, respectively. There was 1 Level II study, 3 Level III studies, and 6 Level IV studies. The MINORS criteria yielded an average quality assessment of 13.0 (range: 7-22), with 3 methodological domains demonstrating mean scores of less than 1: unbiased assessment of the study endpoint (.25), loss of follow up less than 5% (.25), and prospective calculation of the study size (.7). The most common exam maneuver used was the subspine impingement test (9 studies). Most subspine decompressions were performed in addition to traditional femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) procedures, with only one study (33 hips) reporting solely on isolated subspine osteoplasty. Average preoperative and postoperative modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) values ranged from 44.93 to 75.7 and 79.5 to 98.0, respectively. Three studies noted improved hip flexion in the postoperative period. Five surgical complications were reported.

Conclusions: Arthroscopic subspine decompression is commonly reported in a heterogenous patient population with intra-articular hip pathology. A combination of the subspine impingement test and anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) morphology on imaging is frequently used for diagnosis. While improved patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are consistently observed following arthroscopic decompression, conclusions are limited by study methodology and concurrent procedures performed at the time of surgery.

Level Of Evidence: IV, systematic review of Level II through Level IV studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2022.01.049DOI Listing
August 2022

Limited lumbopelvic mobility does not influence short-term outcomes after primary hip arthroscopy: a propensity-matched controlled study.

J Hip Preserv Surg 2021 Jul 26;8(2):177-184. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, IL 60018, USA.

There is a paucity of literature investigating the effect of lumbopelvic mobility on patient-reported outcome scores (PROs) after primary hip arthroscopy. The purpose of this study was (i) to report minimum 1-year PROs in patients with limited lumbopelvic mobility (LM) who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) and (ii) to compare clinical results with a propensity-matched control group of patients with normal lumbopelvic mobility (NM). Data were reviewed for surgeries performed between November 2019 and March 2020. Patients were considered eligible if they received a primary hip arthroscopy for FAIS in the setting of LM (seated to standing change in sacral slope ≤ 10°). LM patients were propensity-matched to a control group of patients with normal lumbopelvic motion (seated to standing change in sacral slope > 10°) for comparison. A total of 17 LM and 34 propensity-matched NM patients were included in the study. LM patients showed significant improvement in all outcome measures and achieved the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) and patient acceptable symptomatic state (PASS) at high rates for modified Harris Hip Score (MCID: 94% and PASS: 82%) and International Hip Outcome Tool-12 (iHOT-12; MCID: 94% and iHOT-12: 76%). When LM patients were compared to a propensity-matched control group of NM patients, they demonstrated similar postoperative PROs and rates of achieving MCID/PASS. LM patients who undergo primary hip arthroscopy may expect favorable short-term PROs at minimum 1-year follow-up. These results were comparable to a control group of NM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jhps/hnab056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8825469PMC
July 2021
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