Publications by authors named "Andrew D Warren"

40 Publications

Computed Tomography Angiography Spot Sign, Hematoma Expansion, and Functional Outcome in Spontaneous Cerebellar Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Stroke 2021 Jun 15:STROKEAHA120033297. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands (S.D.S., J.R.S., G.J.E.R., H.B.B.).

Background And Purpose: The computed tomography angiography spot sign is associated with hematoma expansion, case fatality, and poor functional outcome in spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, no data are available on the spot sign in spontaneous cerebellar ICH.

Methods: We investigated consecutive patients with spontaneous cerebellar ICH at 3 academic hospitals between 2002 and 2017. We determined patient characteristics, hematoma expansion (>33% or 6 mL), rate of expansion, discharge and 90-day case fatality, and functional outcome. Poor functional outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 4 to 6. Associations were tested using univariable and multivariable logistic regression.

Results: Three hundred fifty-eight patients presented with cerebellar ICH, of whom 181 (51%) underwent a computed tomography angiography. Of these 181 patients, 121 (67%) were treated conservatively of which 15 (12%) had a spot sign. Patients with a spot sign treated conservatively presented with larger hematoma volumes (median [interquartile range]: 26 [7-41] versus 6 [2-13], =0.001) and higher speed of expansion (median [interquartile range]: 15 [24-3] mL/h versus 1 [5-0] mL/h, =0.034). In multivariable analysis, presence of the spot sign was independently associated with death at 90 days (odds ratio, 7.6 [95% CI, 1.6-88], =0.037). With respect to surgically treated patients (n=60, [33%]), 14 (23%) patients who underwent hematoma evacuation had a spot sign. In these 60 patients, patients with a spot sign were older (73.5 [9.2] versus 66.6 [15.4], =0.047) and more likely to be female (71% versus 37%, =0.033). In a multivariable analysis, the spot sign was independently associated with death at 90 days (odds ratio, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.1-4.3], =0.033).

Conclusions: In patients with spontaneous cerebellar ICH treated conservatively, the spot sign is associated with speed of hematoma expansion, case fatality, and poor functional outcome. In surgically treated patients, the spot sign is associated with 90-day case fatality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033297DOI Listing
June 2021

Decreased Basal Ganglia Volume in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy.

J Stroke 2021 May 31;23(2):223-233. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Neurology, J.P. Kistler Stroke Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background And Purpose: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common pathology of the leptomeningeal and cortical small vessels associated with hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic brain injury. Given previous evidence for CAA-related loss of cortical thickness and white matter volume, we hypothesized that CAA might also cause tissue loss in the basal ganglia.

Methods: We compared basal ganglia volumes expressed as a percentage of total intracranial volume (pBGV) of non-demented patients with sporadic and hereditary CAA to age-matched healthy control (HC) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) cohorts.

Results: Patients with sporadic CAA had lower pBGV (n=80, 1.16%±0.14%) compared to HC (n=80, 1.30%±0.13%, P<0.0001) and AD patients (n=80, 1.23%±0.11%, P=0.001). Similarly, patients with hereditary CAA demonstrated lower pBGV (n=25, 1.26%±0.17%) compared to their matched HC (n=25, 1.36%±0.15%, P=0.036). Using a measurement of normalized basal ganglia width developed for analysis of clinical-grade magnetic resonance images, we found smaller basal ganglia width in patients with CAA-related lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH; n=93, 12.35±1.47) compared to age-matched patients with hypertension-related deep ICH (n=93, 13.46±1.51, P<0.0001) or HC (n=93, 15.45±1.22, P<0.0001). Within the sporadic CAA research cohort, decreased basal ganglia volume was independently correlated with greater cortical gray matter atrophy (r=0.45, P<0.0001), increased basal ganglia fractional anisotropy (r=-0.36, P=0.001), and worse performance on language processing (r=0.35, P=0.003), but not with cognitive tests of executive function or processing speed.

Conclusions: These findings suggest an independent effect of CAA on basal ganglia tissue loss, indicating a novel mechanism for CAA-related brain injury and neurologic dysfunction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5853/jos.2020.04280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8189850PMC
May 2021

Impact of Uncontrolled Hypertension at 3 Months After Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Jun 15;10(11):e020392. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Neurology Massachusetts General Hospital Boston MA.

Background Survivors of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are at high risk for recurrent stroke, which is associated with blood pressure control. Because most recurrent stroke events occur within 12 to 18 months of the index ICH, rapid blood pressure control is likely to be crucial. We investigated the frequency and prognostic impact of uncontrolled short-term hypertension after ICH. Methods and Results We analyzed data from Massachusetts General Hospital (n=1305) and the University of Hong Kong (n=523). We classified hypertension as controlled, undertreated, or treatment resistant at 3 months after ICH and determined the following: (1) the risk factors for uncontrolled hypertension and (2) whether hypertension control at 3 months is associated with stroke recurrence and mortality. We followed 1828 survivors of ICH for a median of 46.2 months. Only 9 of 234 (4%) recurrent strokes occurred before 3 months after ICH. At 3 months, 713 participants (39%) had controlled hypertension, 755 (41%) had undertreated hypertension, and 360 (20%) had treatment-resistant hypertension. Black, Hispanic, and Asian race/ethnicity and higher blood pressure at time of ICH increased the risk of uncontrolled hypertension at 3 months (all <0.05). Uncontrolled hypertension at 3 months was associated with recurrent stroke and mortality during long-term follow-up (all <0.05). Conclusions Among survivors of ICH, >60% had uncontrolled hypertension at 3 months, with undertreatment accounting for the majority of cases. The 3-month blood pressure measurements were associated with higher recurrent stroke risk and mortality. Black, Hispanic, and Asian survivors of ICH and those presenting with severe acute hypertensive response were at highest risk for uncontrolled hypertension.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.020392DOI Listing
June 2021

Hematoma Expansion in Intracerebral Hemorrhage With Unclear Onset.

Neurology 2021 05 1;96(19):e2363-e2371. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

From UO Neurologia (A.M.), Azienda Socio-Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) Valcamonica, Esine, Italy; Neuroradiology Department (G. Boulouis), Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Paris, France; J.P. Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (A. Charidimou, Q.L., A.D.W., C.D.A., M.E.G., A.B., A.V., S.M.G., J.R., J.N.G.), Massachusetts General Hospital Stroke Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston; Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Sperimentali, Clinica Neurologica (L.P., A. Pezzini, A. Padovani), Università degli Studi di Brescia; UO di Neurologia (P.C.), Istituto Clinico Fondazione Poliambulanza, Brescia; UOC Neurologia (V.D.G.), ASST Cremona; UC Malattie Cerebrovascolari e Stroke Unit (E.L., F.M., A. Cavallini) and UC Neurologia d'Urgenza (E.L., F.M., G.M.), IRCCS Fondazione Mondino, Pavia; Dipartimento di Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sperimentali e Cliniche, Neuroradiologia, Università degliStudi di Firenze (G. Busto, E.F.), and Stroke Unit (F.A., A.Z.), Ospedale Universitario Careggi, Firenze; UOC Neurologia e Rete Stroke, Metropolitana (L.B., S.G.), and Unità di Neuroradiologia (L.S.), IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Ospedale Maggiore; Clinica Neurologica, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Chirurgico Specialistiche (M.L., I.C.), Università degli studi diFerrara, Ospedale Universitario S. Anna, Ferrara; Neurologia e Stroke Unit (E.C.), Ospedale di Circolo, ASST Settelaghi, Varese; Stroke Unit (M.G., M.M.), Neurologia Vascolare, ASST Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy; Division of Neurocritical Care and Emergency Neurology, Department of Neurology (C.D.A., J.R., J.N.G.), Harvard Medical School, Henry and Allison McCance Center for Brain Health (C.D.A., J.R., J.N.G.), and Department of Emergency Medicine (J.N.G.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

Objective: To investigate the prevalence, predictors, and prognostic effect of hematoma expansion (HE) in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with unclear symptom onset (USO).

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with primary spontaneous ICH admitted at 5 academic medical centers in the United States and Italy. HE (volume increase >6 mL or >33% from baseline to follow-up noncontrast CT [NCCT]) and mortality at 30 days were the outcomes of interest. Baseline NCCT was also analyzed for presence of hypodensities (any hypodense region within the hematoma margins). Predictors of HE and mortality were explored with multivariable logistic regression.

Results: We enrolled 2,165 participants, 1,022 in the development cohort and 1,143 in the replication cohort, of whom 352 (34.4%) and 407 (35.6%) had ICH with USO, respectively. When compared with participants having a clear symptom onset, patients with USO had a similar frequency of HE (25.0% vs 21.9%, = 0.269 and 29.9% vs 31.5%, = 0.423). Among patients with USO, HE was independently associated with mortality after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio [OR] 2.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-4.89, = 0.002). This finding was similar in the replication cohort (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.86-6.44, < 0.001). The presence of NCCT hypodensities in patients with USO was an independent predictor of HE in the development (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.27-5.28, = 0.009) and replication (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.42-4.17, = 0.001) population.

Conclusion: HE is common in patients with USO and independently associated with worse outcome. These findings suggest that patients with USO may be enrolled in clinical trials of medical treatments targeting HE.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166446PMC
May 2021

Lacunes, Microinfarcts, and Vascular Dysfunction in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy.

Neurology 2021 03 3;96(12):e1646-e1654. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

From the J. Philip Kistler Hemorrhagic Stroke Research Program, Department of Neurology (E.G., M.J.H., S.J.v.V., M.P., P.F., A.D.W., K.S., J.R., A.V., S.M.G., M.E.G.), Massachusetts General Hospital Stroke Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston; Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging (A.F.-P., J.R.P.), Charlestown; Department of Neurology (A.S.D.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; and Department of Neurology, Stroke Unit (M.P.), Univ-Lille, Inserm U1171, CHU Lille, France.

Objective: To analyze the relationship of lacunes with cortical cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs), to assess their association with vascular dysfunction, and to evaluate their effect on the risk of incident intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA).

Methods: The count and topography of lacunes (deep/lobar), CMIs, and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume were retrospectively analyzed in a prospectively enrolled CAA cohort that underwent high-resolution research MRIs. The relationship of lacunes with CMIs and other CAA-related markers including time to peak (TTP) of blood oxygen level-dependent signal, an established measure of vascular dysfunction, was evaluated in multivariate models. Adjusted Cox regression models were used to investigate the relationship between lacunes and incident ICH.

Results: The cohort consisted of 122 patients with probable CAA without dementia (mean age, 69.4 ± 7.6 years). Lacunes were present in 31 patients (25.4%); all but one were located in lobar regions. Cortical CMIs were more common in patients with lacunes compared to patients without lacunes (51.6% vs 20.9%, = 0.002). TTP was not associated with either lacunes or CMIs (both > 0.2) but longer TTP response independently correlated with higher WMH volume ( = 0.001). Lacunes were associated with increased ICH risk in univariate and multivariate Cox regression models ( = 0.048 and = 0.026, respectively).

Conclusions: Our findings show a high prevalence of lobar lacunes, frequently coexisting with CMIs in CAA, suggesting that these 2 lesion types may be part of a common spectrum of CAA-related infarcts. Lacunes were not related to vascular dysfunction but predicted incident ICH, favoring severe focal vessel involvement rather than global ischemia as their mechanism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8032369PMC
March 2021

Genomics Reveals the Origins of Historical Specimens.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 05;38(5):2166-2176

Department of Biophysics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Centuries of zoological studies have amassed billions of specimens in collections worldwide. Genomics of these specimens promises to reinvigorate biodiversity research. However, because DNA degrades with age in historical specimens, it is a challenge to obtain genomic data for them and analyze degraded genomes. We developed experimental and computational protocols to overcome these challenges and applied our methods to resolve a series of long-standing controversies involving a group of butterflies. We deduced the geographical origins of several historical specimens of uncertain provenance that are at the heart of these debates. Here, genomics tackles one of the greatest problems in zoology: countless old specimens that serve as irreplaceable embodiments of species concepts cannot be confidently assigned to extant species or population due to the lack of diagnostic morphological features and clear documentation of the collection locality. The ability to determine where they were collected will resolve many on-going disputes. More broadly, we show the utility of applying genomics to historical museum specimens to delineate the boundaries of species and populations, and to hypothesize about genotypic determinants of phenotypic traits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msab013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097301PMC
May 2021

A review of the Neotropical skipper genus Sodalia Evans, 1955 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae) with the description of a new species.

Zootaxa 2020 Nov 9;4877(1):zootaxa.4877.1.4. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Laboratório de Estudos de Lepidoptera Neotropical, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, P.O. Box 19020, 81.531-980 Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil..

The Neotropical skipper genus Sodalia Evans, 1955 and its respective species are revised. Sodalia includes five species: S. sodalis (Butler, 1877) (type species), S. argyrospila (Mabille, 1876), S. coler (Schaus, 1902), S. petiti Gaviria-Ortiz, Dolibaina A. Warren sp. nov. (described from low to mid elevations of the western Andes of Ecuador and from the Cordillera de la Costa in Venezuela), and Sodalia spangla (Evans, 1955) comb. nov. hitherto combined with Mnasitheus Godman, 1900. Lectotypes for Pamphila sodalis Butler, 1877 and Achlyodes argyrospila Mabille, 1876 are designated. The genus and species are redescribed and illustrations of relevant morphological characters necessary for identification are provided, as well as updated distributional maps.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4877.1.4DOI Listing
November 2020

CT-Visible Convexity Subarachnoid Hemorrhage is Associated With Cortical Superficial Siderosis and Predicts Recurrent ICH.

Neurology 2021 02 21;96(7):e986-e994. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

From the Department of Neurology (Q.L., M.C.Z.Z., A.D.W., E.G., S.M.G., A.C., A.V.) and Division of Neurocritical Care and Emergency Neurology (J.N.G.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston; Department of Neurology (Q.L.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, China; Department of Epidemiology (Y.M.), Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA; and Department of Neurology (N.R.), Hôpital Pierre-Paul Riquet, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, France.

Objective: To investigate whether acute convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) detected on CT in lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is associated with recurrent ICH.

Methods: We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of consecutive acute lobar ICH survivors fulfilling the Boston criteria for possible or probable CAA who had both brain CT and MRI at index ICH. Presence of cSAH was assessed on CT blinded to MRI data. Cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities were evaluated on MRI. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the association between cSAH and the risk of recurrent symptomatic ICH during follow-up.

Results: A total of 244 ICH survivors (76.4 ± 8.7 years; 54.5% female) were included. cSAH was observed on baseline CT in 99 patients (40.5%). Presence of cSAH was independently associated with cSS, hematoma volume, and preexisting dementia. During a median follow-up of 2.66 years, 49 patients (20.0%) had recurrent symptomatic ICH. Presence of cSAH was associated with recurrent ICH (hazard ratio 2.64; 95% confidence interval 1.46-4.79; = 0.001), after adjusting for age, antiplatelet use, warfarin use, and history of previous ICH.

Conclusion: cSAH was detected on CT in 40.5% of patients with acute lobar ICH related to CAA and heralds an increased risk of recurrent ICH. This CT marker may be widely used to stratify the ICH risk in patients with CAA.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that cSAH accurately predicts recurrent stroke in patients with CAA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055336PMC
February 2021

Ultra-Early Blood Pressure Reduction Attenuates Hematoma Growth and Improves Outcome in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Ann Neurol 2020 08 1;88(2):388-395. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Division of Neurocritical Care and Emergency Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: The aim was to investigate whether intensive blood pressure treatment is associated with less hematoma growth and better outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients who received intravenous nicardipine treatment ≤2 hours after onset of symptoms.

Methods: A post-hoc exploratory analysis of the Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage 2 (ATACH-2) trial was performed. This was a multicenter, international, open-label, randomized clinical trial, in which patients with primary ICH were allocated to intensive versus standard blood pressure treatment with nicardipine ≤4.5 hours after onset of symptoms. We have included 913 patients with complete imaging and follow-up data in the present analysis.

Results: Among the 913 included patients, 354 (38.7%) had intravenous nicardipine treatment initiated within 2 hours. In this subgroup of patients treated within 2 hours, the frequency of ICH expansion was significantly lower in the intensive blood pressure reduction group compared with the standard treatment group (p = 0.02). Multivariable analysis showed that ultra-early intensive blood pressure treatment was associated with a decreased risk of hematoma growth (odds ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.92; p = 0.02), higher rate of functional independence (odds ratio, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.28-3.68; p = 0.004), and good outcome (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.01-2.83; p = 0.048) at 90 days. Ultra-early intensive blood pressure reduction was associated with a favorable shift in modified Rankin Scale score distribution at 3 months (p = 0.04).

Interpretation: In a subgroup of ICH patients with elevated blood pressure given intravenous nicardipine ≤2 hours after onset of symptoms, intensive blood pressure reduction was associated with reduced hematoma growth and improved functional outcome. ANN NEUROL 2020;88:388-395.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25793DOI Listing
August 2020

Cortical superficial siderosis progression in cerebral amyloid angiopathy: Prospective MRI study.

Neurology 2020 04 13;94(17):e1853-e1865. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

From the Hemorrhagic Stroke Research Program, J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (T.P., P.F., M.P., G.B., L.X., A.D.W., K.M.S., J.R., M.E.G., S.M.G., A.V., A.C.), and Division of Neurocritical Care and Emergency Neurology (J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, and MIND Informatics, Massachusetts General Hospital Biomedical Informatics Core (J.R.), Harvard Medical School, Boston; and Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine (T.P.), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objective: To investigate the prevalence, predictors, and clinical relevance of cortical superficial siderosis (cSS) progression in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA).

Methods: Consecutive patients with symptomatic CAA meeting Boston criteria in a prospective cohort underwent baseline and follow-up MRI within 1 year. cSS progression was evaluated on an ordinal scale and categorized into mild (score 1-2 = cSS extension within an already present cSS focus or appearance of 1 new cSS focus) and severe progression (score 3-4 = appearance of ≥2 new cSS foci). Binominal and ordinal multivariable logistic regression were used to determine cSS progression predictors. We investigated future lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) risk in survival analysis models.

Results: We included 79 patients with CAA (mean age, 69.2 years), 56 (71%) with lobar ICH at baseline. cSS progression was detected in 23 (29%) patients: 15 (19%) patients had mild and 8 (10%) severe progression. In binominal multivariable logistic regression, ICH presence (odds ratio [OR], 7.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75-53.52; = 0.016) and baseline cSS (OR, 10.41; 95% CI, 2.84-52.83; = 0.001) were independent predictors of cSS progression. In similar models, presence of disseminated (but not focal) cSS at baseline (OR, 5.58; 95% CI, 1.81-19.41; = 0.004) was an independent predictor of cSS progression. Results were similar in ordinal multivariable logistic regression models. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, severe cSS progression was independently associated with increased future ICH risk (HR, 5.90; 95% CI, 1.30-26.68; = 0.021).

Conclusions: cSS evolution on MRI is common in patients with symptomatic CAA and might be a potential biomarker for assessing disease severity and future ICH risk. External validation of these findings is warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274850PMC
April 2020

Urinary detection of lung cancer in mice via noninvasive pulmonary protease profiling.

Sci Transl Med 2020 04;12(537)

Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death, and patients most commonly present with incurable advanced-stage disease. U.S. national guidelines recommend screening for high-risk patients with low-dose computed tomography, but this approach has limitations including high false-positive rates. Activity-based nanosensors can detect dysregulated proteases in vivo and release a reporter to provide a urinary readout of disease activity. Here, we demonstrate the translational potential of activity-based nanosensors for lung cancer by coupling nanosensor multiplexing with intrapulmonary delivery and machine learning to detect localized disease in two immunocompetent genetically engineered mouse models. The design of our multiplexed panel of sensors was informed by comparative transcriptomic analysis of human and mouse lung adenocarcinoma datasets and in vitro cleavage assays with recombinant candidate proteases. Intrapulmonary administration of the nanosensors to a - and -mutant lung adenocarcinoma mouse model confirmed the role of metalloproteases in lung cancer and enabled accurate detection of localized disease, with 100% specificity and 81% sensitivity. Furthermore, this approach generalized to an alternative autochthonous model of lung adenocarcinoma, where it detected cancer with 100% specificity and 95% sensitivity and was not confounded by lipopolysaccharide-driven lung inflammation. These results encourage the clinical development of activity-based nanosensors for the detection of lung cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aaw0262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894603PMC
April 2020

Infrared optical and thermal properties of microstructures in butterfly wings.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 01 9;117(3):1566-1572. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697;

While surface microstructures of butterfly wings have been extensively studied for their structural coloration or optical properties within the visible spectrum, their properties in infrared wavelengths with potential ties to thermoregulation are relatively unknown. The midinfrared wavelengths of 7.5 to 14 µm are particularly important for radiative heat transfer in the ambient environment, because of the overlap with the atmospheric transmission window. For instance, a high midinfrared emissivity can facilitate surface cooling, whereas a low midinfrared emissivity can minimize heat loss to surroundings. Here we find that the midinfrared emissivity of butterfly wings from warmer climates such as (Oaxaca, Mexico) and (Pichincha, Ecuador) is up to 2 times higher than that of butterfly wings from cooler climates such as (Colorado) and (Florida), using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and infrared thermography. Our optical computations using a unit cell approach reproduce the spectroscopy data and explain how periodic microstructures play a critical role in the midinfrared. The emissivity spectrum governs the temperature of butterfly wings, and we demonstrate that wings heat up to 8 °C more than wings under the same sunlight in the clear sky of Irvine, CA. Furthermore, our thermal computations show that butterfly wings in their respective habitats can maintain a moderate temperature range through a balance of solar absorption and infrared emission. These findings suggest that the surface microstructures of butterfly wings potentially contribute to thermoregulation and provide an insight into butterflies' survival.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1906356117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6983360PMC
January 2020

Taxonomic revision of the genus Tarmia Lindsey, 1925 stat. rev. (Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae: Hesperiini: Moncina) with the description of a new species from the Andes.

Zootaxa 2019 Sep 24;4674(2):zootaxa.4674.2.3. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Laboratório de Estudos de Lepidoptera Neotropical, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, P.O. Box 19020, 81.531-980, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil..

The genus Tarmia Lindsey, 1925, long considered a junior synonym of Phanes Godman, 1901, is here revised and its status is revalidated based on morphological evidence. Two Andean species are included in Tarmia: the type species, T. monastica Lindsey, 1925 comb. rev., and a new species herein described, Tarmia greeneyi A. Warren, Medeiros, Dolibaina O. Mielke sp. nov., from Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. The male's symmetrical valvae and aedeagus with a twisted median portion, and the very wide ductus bursae of the female genitalia support Tarmia as valid genus apart of Phanes. Illustrations of the main diagnostic characters of both sexes and a distribution map are provided for the species of Tarmia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4674.2.3DOI Listing
September 2019

New and expanding ventricular hemorrhage predicts poor outcome in acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

Neurology 2019 08 1;93(9):e879-e888. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

From the Ottawa Stroke Program (V.Y., D.D.), Department of Medicine (Neurology), Department of Radiology (C.L.), Ottawa Methods Center (T.R., D.F.), and Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (T.R., D.F., D.D.), University of Ottawa, Ontario; Calgary Stroke Program (A.M.D., M.D.H.), Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Department of Radiology, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Alberta; Division of Neuroradiology and Department of Medical Imaging (R.I.A.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Neurology (D.R.-L., C.A.M.), Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica Girona Foundation, Spain; Department of Neurology (I.D.), Elblandklinikum Meissen Academic Teaching Hospital of Technische University, Dresden, Germany; Interventional Stroke and Cerebrovascular Treatment Center and 2nd Department of Neurology (A.K.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, and Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Warsaw, Poland; Department of Medicine (J.-M.B.), Charles LeMoyne Hospital, University of Sherbrooke, Longueuil, Quebec; Department of Neurology (G.G.), Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; Department of Neurology (P.S., R.B.), All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi; Apollo Gleneagles Hospitals (J.R.), Kolkata, India; Department of Neurology (C.S.K.), Boston Medical Center; and Department of Neurology (A.D.W., C.D.A., M.E.G., S.M.G., A.V., J.R.), Henry and Allison McCance Center for Brain Health (J.R.), and Department of Emergency Medicine (J.N.G.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

Objective: To describe the relationship between intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) expansion and long-term outcome and to use this relationship to select and validate clinically relevant thresholds of IVH expansion in 2 separate intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) populations.

Methods: We used fractional polynomial analysis to test linear and nonlinear models of 24-hour IVH volume change and clinical outcome with data from the Predicting Hematoma Growth and Outcome in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Using Contrast Bolus CT (PREDICT)-ICH study. The primary outcome was poor clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score 4-6) at 90 days. We derived dichotomous thresholds from the selected model and calculated diagnostic accuracy measures. We validated all thresholds in an independent single-center ICH cohort (Massachusetts General Hospital).

Results: Of the 256 patients from PREDICT, 127 (49.6%) had an mRS score of 4 to 6. Twenty-four-hour IVH volume change and poor outcome fit a nonlinear relationship, in which minimal increases in IVH were associated with a high probability of an mRS score of 4 to 6. IVH expansion ≥1 mL (n = 53, sensitivity 33%, specificity 92%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-6.46) and development of any new IVH (n = 74, sensitivity 43%, specificity 85%, aOR 2.53, 95% CI 1.22-5.26) strongly predicted poor outcome at 90 days. The dichotomous thresholds reproduced well in a validation cohort of 169 patients.

Conclusion: IVH expansion as small as 1 mL or any new IVH is strongly predictive of poor outcome. These findings may assist clinicians with bedside prognostication and could be incorporated into definitions of hematoma expansion to inform future ICH treatment trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000008007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6745728PMC
August 2019

Cerebellar Microbleed Distribution Patterns and Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy.

Stroke 2019 07 4;50(7):1727-1733. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Hemorrhagic Stroke Research Program, Department of Neurology, J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center (M.P., T.P., A.C., S.D.S., L.X., A.D.W., A.V., M.E.G., S.M.G.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston.

Background and Purpose- Hematoma location within the cerebellum may help identify the dominant small vessel disease type (cerebral amyloid angiopathy [CAA] versus nonamyloid small vessel disease). However, it is unknown whether this holds true for cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) within the cerebellum. We tested the hypothesis that cerebellar CMBs restricted to the cortex and vermis (defined as superficial regions) are associated with clinically diagnosed and pathology-verified CAA. Methods- Three hundred and seven consecutive spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients with a baseline magnetic resonance imaging that included susceptibility-weighted imaging or angiography were enrolled. Using a topographical template, cerebellar CMB patterns were defined as strictly superficial versus deep (cerebellar gray nuclei and white matter) or mixed (both regions involved). Thirty-six ICH patients with cerebellar CMBs and neuropathology data available were evaluated for the presence of CAA. Results- One hundred and thirty-five (44%) ICH patients had CMBs in the cerebellum. In the patient group with cerebellar CMBs, 85 (63%) showed a superficial pattern, and 50 (37%) had a deep/mixed pattern. Strictly superficial cerebellar CMBs were independently associated with a supratentorial pattern of probable CAA-ICH according to the Boston criteria (odds ratio, 1.6; CI, 1.03-2.5) and deep/mixed cerebellar CMBs with a pattern of deep/mixed ICH (odds ratio, 1.8; CI, 1.2-2.7). Pathologically verified CAA was present in 23 of 24 (96%) patients with superficial cerebellar CMBs versus 3 of 12 (25%) patients with deep/mixed cerebellar CMBs ( P<0.001). Conclusions- In ICH patients, cerebellar CMBs are relatively common and often restricted to superficial regions. A strictly superficial distribution of cerebellar CMBs is associated with clinically diagnosed and pathologically verified CAA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.024843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6599711PMC
July 2019

Interrater and Intrarater Measurement Reliability of Noncontrast Computed Tomography Predictors of Intracerebral Hemorrhage Expansion.

Stroke 2019 05;50(5):1260-1262

Department of Emergency Medicine (J.N.G.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston.

Background and Purpose- Early hematoma expansion after intracerebral hemorrhage is a potentially modifiable predictor of outcome and a promising therapeutic target. Radiological markers seen on noncontrast computed tomography can help predict hematoma expansion and risk stratify patients presenting with intracerebral hemorrhage. Our objective was to assess the interrater and intrarater reliability of 5 commonly reported noncontrast computed tomographic markers of hematoma expansion. Methods- Four readers independently reviewed images from 40 patients from 2 intracerebral hemorrhage imaging databases (PREDICT Collaboration [Predicting Haematoma Growth and Outcome in Intracerebral Haemorrhage Using Contrast Bolus CT] and Massachusetts General Hospital). Readers were blind to all demographic and outcome data and used accepted definitions to establish the presence or absence of intrahematoma hypodensities, blend sign, fluid level, irregular hematoma morphology, and heterogeneous hematoma density. We calculated interrater and intrarater agreement and stratified kappas for the 5 imaging markers. Results- Interrater agreement was excellent for all 5 markers, ranging from 94% to 98%. Interrater kappas ranged from 0.67 to 0.91 (the lowest for fluid level). Interrater agreement had a similar pattern, ranging from 89% to 93%, with Kappas ranging from 0.60 to 0.89. Conclusions- We show that 5 commonly used noncontrast computed tomographic imaging findings all have good-to-excellent interrater and intrarater reliabilities, with the best kappa for blend sign, hypodensities, and heterogeneity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.024050DOI Listing
May 2019

Four hundred shades of brown: Higher level phylogeny of the problematic Euptychiina (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) based on hybrid enrichment data.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2019 02 10;131:116-124. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA.

Relationships within satyrine butterflies have been notoriously difficult to resolve using both morphology and Sanger sequencing methods, and this is particularly true for the mainly Neotropical subtribe Euptychiina, which contains about 400 described species. Known larvae of Euptychiina feed on grasses and sedges, with the exception of the genus Euptychia, which feed on mosses and lycopsids, and the butterflies occur widely in rainforest, cloudforest and grassland habitats, where they are often abundant. Several previous molecular and morphological studies have made significant progress in tackling the systematics of the group, but many relationships remain unresolved, with long-branch-attraction artifacts being a major problem. Additionally, the monophyly of the clade remains uncertain, with Euptychia possibly not being closely related to the remainder of the clade. Here we present a backbone phylogeny of the subtribe based on 106 taxa, 368 nuclear loci, and over 180,000 bps obtained through hybrid enrichment. Using both concatenation and species tree approaches (IQ-TREE, EXABAYES, ASTRAL), we can for the first time strongly confirm the monophyly of Euptychiina with Euptychia being the sister group to the remainder of the clade. The Euptychiina is divided into nine well supported clades, but the placement of a few genera such as Hermeuptychia, Pindis and the Chloreuptychia catharina group still remain uncertain. As partially indicated in previous studies, the genera Cissia, Chloreuptychia, Magneuptychia, Megisto, Splendeuptychia and Euptychoides, among others, were found to be highly polyphyletic and revisions are in preparation. The phylogeny will provide a strong backbone for the analysis of datasets in development that are much more taxonomically comprehensive but have orders of magnitude fewer loci. This study therefore represents a critical step towards resolving the higher classification and studying the evolution of this highly diverse lineage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2018.10.039DOI Listing
February 2019

Aggregated occurrence records of the federally endangered Poweshiek skipperling ().

Biodivers Data J 2018 27(6):e29081. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Central Michigan University and Institute for Great Lakes Research, Mount Pleasant, United States of America Central Michigan University and Institute for Great Lakes Research Mount Pleasant United States of America.

Background: Primary biodiversity data records that are open access and available in a standardised format are essential for conservation planning and research on policy-relevant time-scales. We created a dataset to document all known occurrence data for the Federally Endangered Poweshiek skipperling butterfly [ (Parker, 1870; Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)]. The Poweshiek skipperling was a historically common species in prairie systems across the upper Midwest, United States and Manitoba, Canada. Rapid declines have reduced the number of verified extant sites to six. Aggregating and curating Poweshiek skipperling occurrence records documents and preserves all known distributional data, which can be used to address questions related to Poweshiek skipperling conservation, ecology and biogeography. Over 3500 occurrence records were aggregated over a temporal coverage from 1872 to present. Occurrence records were obtained from 37 data providers in the conservation and natural history collection community using both "HumanObservation" and "PreservedSpecimen" as an acceptable basisOfRecord. Data were obtained in different formats and with differing degrees of quality control. During the data aggregation and cleaning process, we transcribed specimen label data, georeferenced occurrences, adopted a controlled vocabulary, removed duplicates and standardised formatting. We examined the dataset for inconsistencies with known Poweshiek skipperling biogeography and phenology and we verified or removed inconsistencies by working with the original data providers. In total, 12 occurrence records were removed because we identified them to be the western congener (Reakirt, 1866). This resulting dataset enhances the permanency of Poweshiek skipperling occurrence data in a standardised format.

New Information: This is a validated and comprehensive dataset of occurrence records for the Poweshiek skipperling () utilising both observation and specimen-based records. Occurrence data are preserved and available for continued research and conservation projects using standardised Darwin Core formatting where possible. Prior to this project, much of these occurrence records were not mobilised and were being stored in individual institutional databases, researcher datasets and personal records. This dataset aggregates presence data from state conservation agencies, natural heritage programmes, natural history collections, citizen scientists, researchers and the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. The data include opportunistic observations and collections, research vouchers, observations collected for population monitoring and observations collected using standardised research methodologies. The aggregated occurrence records underwent cleaning efforts that improved data interoperablitity, removed transcription errors and verified or removed uncertain data. This dataset enhances available information on the spatiotemporal distribution of this Federally Endangered species. As part of this aggregation process, we discovered and verified Poweshiek skipperling occurrence records from two previously unknown states, Nebraska and Ohio.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.6.e29081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6172292PMC
September 2018

Classification of prostate cancer using a protease activity nanosensor library.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 09 20;115(36):8954-8959. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139;

Improved biomarkers are needed for prostate cancer, as the current gold standards have poor predictive value. Tests for circulating prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels are susceptible to various noncancer comorbidities in the prostate and do not provide prognostic information, whereas physical biopsies are invasive, must be performed repeatedly, and only sample a fraction of the prostate. Injectable biosensors may provide a new paradigm for prostate cancer biomarkers by querying the status of the prostate via a noninvasive readout. Proteases are an important class of enzymes that play a role in every hallmark of cancer; their activities could be leveraged as biomarkers. We identified a panel of prostate cancer proteases through transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Using this panel, we developed a nanosensor library that measures protease activity in vitro using fluorescence and in vivo using urinary readouts. In xenograft mouse models, we applied this nanosensor library to classify aggressive prostate cancer and to select predictive substrates. Last, we coformulated a subset of nanosensors with integrin-targeting ligands to increase sensitivity. These targeted nanosensors robustly classified prostate cancer aggressiveness and outperformed PSA. This activity-based nanosensor library could be useful throughout clinical management of prostate cancer, with both diagnostic and prognostic utility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1805337115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6130343PMC
September 2018

Anchored phylogenomics illuminates the skipper butterfly tree of life.

BMC Evol Biol 2018 06 19;18(1):101. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, USA.

Background: Butterflies (Papilionoidea) are perhaps the most charismatic insect lineage, yet phylogenetic relationships among them remain incompletely studied and controversial. This is especially true for skippers (Hesperiidae), one of the most species-rich and poorly studied butterfly families.

Methods: To infer a robust phylogenomic hypothesis for Hesperiidae, we sequenced nearly 400 loci using Anchored Hybrid Enrichment and sampled all tribes and more than 120 genera of skippers. Molecular datasets were analyzed using maximum-likelihood, parsimony and coalescent multi-species phylogenetic methods.

Results: All analyses converged on a novel, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for skippers. Different optimality criteria and methodologies recovered almost identical phylogenetic trees with strong nodal support at nearly all nodes and all taxonomic levels. Our results support Coeliadinae as the sister group to the remaining skippers, the monotypic Euschemoninae as the sister group to all other subfamilies but Coeliadinae, and the monophyly of Eudaminae plus Pyrginae. Within Pyrginae, Celaenorrhinini and Tagiadini are sister groups, the Neotropical firetips, Pyrrhopygini, are sister to all other tribes but Celaenorrhinini and Tagiadini. Achlyodini is recovered as the sister group to Carcharodini, and Erynnini as sister group to Pyrgini. Within the grass skippers (Hesperiinae), there is strong support for the monophyly of Aeromachini plus remaining Hesperiinae. The giant skippers (Agathymus and Megathymus) once classified as a subfamily, are recovered as monophyletic with strong support, but are deeply nested within Hesperiinae.

Conclusions: Anchored Hybrid Enrichment sequencing resulted in a large amount of data that built the foundation for a new, robust evolutionary tree of skippers. The newly inferred phylogenetic tree resolves long-standing systematic issues and changes our understanding of the skipper tree of life. These resultsenhance understanding of the evolution of one of the most species-rich butterfly families.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-018-1216-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6011192PMC
June 2018

A new species of Wahydra from Ecuador (Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae, Anthoptini).

Zootaxa 2018 Mar 7;4392(1):196-200. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Laboratório de Estudos em Lepidoptera Neotropical, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná. P.O. Box 19020, 81531-980 Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

Recent taxonomic studies on the genus Wahydra Steinhauser, 1991, have described five new species in the past two years, from high elevations in the Andes Mountains. A markedly distinct species of Wahydra is herein described and illustrated based on a single male specimen from Ecuadorian Andes, Wahydra graslieae A. Warren, Carneiro Dolibaina, sp. nov. The new species is compared with other species of Wahydra, as well as with the somewhat similar species Lerema viridis (Bell, 1942) and Tigasis viridenex (Weeks, 1901).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4392.1.11DOI Listing
March 2018

A new species of Cyllopsis R. Felder, 1869 from the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

Zootaxa 2018 Apr 5;4403(3):570-577. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, P.O. Box 112710, Gainesville, Florida 32611 USA..

A new species of Cyllopsis R. Felder, 1869, is described and illustrated from the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. Cyllopsis tomemmeli A. Warren Nakahara, sp. nov., is currently known from 13 specimens (9 males and 4 females) collected on March 26-28, 1959, southeast of San Cristóbal de Las Casas. Despite extensive studies on the butterfly fauna of this region, this species has not since been encountered. We discuss possible relationships between this new species and other species of Cyllopsis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4403.3.9DOI Listing
April 2018

A Comprehensive and Dated Phylogenomic Analysis of Butterflies.

Curr Biol 2018 03 15;28(5):770-778.e5. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Electronic address:

Butterflies (Papilionoidea), with over 18,000 described species [1], have captivated naturalists and scientists for centuries. They play a central role in the study of speciation, community ecology, biogeography, climate change, and plant-insect interactions and include many model organisms and pest species [2, 3]. However, a robust higher-level phylogenetic framework is lacking. To fill this gap, we inferred a dated phylogeny by analyzing the first phylogenomic dataset, including 352 loci (> 150,000 bp) from 207 species representing 98% of tribes, a 35-fold increase in gene sampling and 3-fold increase in taxon sampling over previous studies [4]. Most data were generated with a new anchored hybrid enrichment (AHE) [5] gene kit (BUTTERFLY1.0) that includes both new and frequently used (e.g., [6]) informative loci, enabling direct comparison and future dataset merging with previous studies. Butterflies originated around 119 million years ago (mya) in the late Cretaceous, but most extant lineages diverged after the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass-extinction 65 mya. Our analyses support swallowtails (Papilionidae) as sister to all other butterflies, followed by skippers (Hesperiidae) + the nocturnal butterflies (Hedylidae) as sister to the remainder, indicating a secondary reversal from diurnality to nocturnality. The whites (Pieridae) were strongly supported as sister to brush-footed butterflies (Nymphalidae) and blues + metalmarks (Lycaenidae and Riodinidae). Ant association independently evolved once in Lycaenidae and twice in Riodinidae. This study overturns prior notions of the taxon's evolutionary history, as many long-recognized subfamilies and tribes are para- or polyphyletic. It also provides a much-needed backbone for a revised classification of butterflies and for future comparative studies including genome evolution and ecology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2018.01.061DOI Listing
March 2018

A new species of from Mexico (Hesperiidae, Pyrginae, Pyrrhopygini).

Zookeys 2017 10(667):155-164. Epub 2017 Apr 10.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Departments of Biophysics and Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX, 75390-9050, USA.

is described from the Sierra Madre Oriental of east-central Mexico. Visually similar to Mesoamerican Staudinger, 1888 in having five orange bands on the abdomen above, it is diagnosed by orange forecoxae and palpi beneath, narrower forewing hyaline bands and a prominent 6% difference in the COI DNA barcode sequence. It is the northernmost representative of the species group that also includes Grishin & Burns, 2013, characterized by a single-banded abdomen and currently known only from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica. Both and possess white forecoxae and ventral palpi. This new discovery brings the total number of C. & R. Felder, 1862 species to five.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.667.6080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5523390PMC
April 2017

Hostplant change and paleoclimatic events explain diversification shifts in skipper butterflies (Family: Hesperiidae).

BMC Evol Biol 2017 08 2;17(1):174. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

IISER-TVM Centre for Research and Education in Ecology and Evolution (ICREEE), School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, 695 551, India.

Background: Skippers (Family: Hesperiidae) are a large group of butterflies with ca. 4000 species under 567 genera. The lack of a time-calibrated higher-level phylogeny of the group has precluded understanding of its evolutionary past. We here use a 10-gene dataset to reconstruct the most comprehensive time-calibrated phylogeny of the group, and explore factors that affected the diversification of these butterflies.

Results: Ancestral state reconstructions show that the early hesperiid lineages utilized dicots as larval hostplants. The ability to feed on monocots evolved once at the K-Pg boundary (ca. 65 million years ago (Mya)), and allowed monocot-feeders to diversify much faster on average than dicot-feeders. The increased diversification rate of the monocot-feeding clade is specifically attributed to rate shifts in two of its descendant lineages. The first rate shift, a four-fold increase compared to background rates, happened ca. 50 Mya, soon after the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum, in a lineage of the subfamily Hesperiinae that mostly fed on forest monocots. The second rate shift happened ca. 40 Mya in a grass-feeding lineage of Hesperiinae when open-habitat grasslands appeared in the Neotropics owing to gradual cooling of the atmospheric temperature.

Conclusions: The evolution of monocot feeding strongly influenced diversification of skippers. We hypothesize that although monocot feeding was an intrinsic trait that allowed exploration of novel niches, the lack of extensive availability of monocots comprised an extrinsic limitation for niche exploration. The shifts in diversification rate coincided with paleoclimatic events during which grasses and forest monocots were diversified.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-017-1016-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5541431PMC
August 2017

Ten genes and two topologies: an exploration of higher relationships in skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae).

PeerJ 2016 6;4:e2653. Epub 2016 Dec 6.

School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram , Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala , India.

Despite multiple attempts to infer the higher-level phylogenetic relationships of skipper butterflies (Family Hesperiidae), uncertainties in the deep clade relationships persist. The most recent phylogenetic analysis included fewer than 30% of known genera and data from three gene markers. Here we reconstruct the higher-level relationships with a rich sampling of ten nuclear and mitochondrial markers (7,726 bp) from 270 genera and find two distinct but equally plausible topologies among subfamilies at the base of the tree. In one set of analyses, the nuclear markers suggest two contrasting topologies, one of which is supported by the mitochondrial dataset. However, another set of analyses suggests mito-nuclear conflict as the reason for topological incongruence. Neither topology is strongly supported, and we conclude that there is insufficient phylogenetic evidence in the molecular dataset to resolve these relationships. Nevertheless, taking morphological characters into consideration, we suggest that one of the topologies is more likely.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2653DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5144725PMC
December 2016

Speciation in Cloudless Sulphurs Gleaned from Complete Genomes.

Genome Biol Evol 2016 Mar 30;8(3):915-31. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Departments of Biophysics and Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

For 200 years, zoologists have relied on phenotypes to learn about the evolution of animals. A glance at the genotype, even through several gene markers, revolutionized our understanding of animal phylogeny. Recent advances in sequencing techniques allow researchers to study speciation mechanisms and the link between genotype and phenotype using complete genomes. We sequenced and assembled a complete genome of the Cloudless Sulphur (Phoebis sennae) from a single wild-caught specimen. This genome was used as reference to compare genomes of six specimens, three from the eastern populations (Oklahoma and north Texas), referred to as a subspeciesPhoebis sennae eubule, and three from the southwestern populations (south Texas) known as a subspeciesPhoebis sennae marcellina While the two subspecies differ only subtly in phenotype and mitochondrial DNA, comparison of their complete genomes revealed consistent and significant differences, which are more prominent than those between tiger swallowtailsPterourus canadensisandPterourus glaucus The two sulphur taxa differed in histone methylation regulators, chromatin-associated proteins, circadian clock, and early development proteins. Despite being well separated on the whole-genome level, the two taxa show introgression, with gene flow mainly fromP. s. marcellinatoP. s. eubule Functional analysis of introgressed genes reveals enrichment in transmembrane transporters. Many transporters are responsible for nutrient uptake, and their introgression may be of selective advantage for caterpillars to feed on more diverse food resources. Phylogenetically, complete genomes place family Pieridae away from Papilionidae, which is consistent with previous analyses based on several gene markers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evw045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4894063PMC
March 2016

The Butterflies of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Local Extinction since the 1930s.

PLoS One 2015 25;10(8):e0136623. Epub 2015 Aug 25.

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apartado 0843-03092, Panama City, Republic of Panama.

Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama) between an old (1923-1943) and a recent (1993-2013) period. Although 601 butterfly species have been recorded from BCI during the 1923-2013 period, we estimate that 390 species are currently breeding on the island, including 34 cryptic species, currently only known by their DNA Barcode Index Number. Twenty-three butterfly species that were considered abundant during the old period could not be collected during the recent period, despite a much higher sampling effort in recent times. We consider these species locally extinct from BCI and they conservatively represent 6% of the estimated local pool of resident species. Extinct species represent distant phylogenetic branches and several families. The butterfly traits most likely to influence the probability of extinction were host growth form, wing size and host specificity, independently of the phylogenetic relationships among butterfly species. On BCI, most likely candidates for extinction were small hesperiids feeding on herbs (35% of extinct species). However, contrary to our working hypothesis, extinction of these species on BCI cannot be attributed to loss of host plants. In most cases these host plants remain extant, but they probably subsist at lower or more fragmented densities. Coupled with low dispersal power, this reduced availability of host plants has probably caused the local extinction of some butterfly species. Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates and, therefore, should not necessarily be neglected from a conservation viewpoint.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0136623PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4549329PMC
May 2016

A new species of Cogia from Oaxaca, Mexico (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Eudaminae).

Zootaxa 2015 Mar 31;3941(2):239-46. Epub 2015 Mar 31.

Museo de Zoología (Entomología), Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-399, México, D.F. 04510, México.; Email:

A new species of Cogia A. Butler, 1870, is described from two localities ranging from 1470 to 2000 m elevation in the Sierra Madre del Sur of Oaxaca, Mexico; it occurs in cloud forest habitats and appears to be endemic to Mexico. Cogia buena, n. sp., is closely related to C. mala Evans, 1953 and C. aventinus (Godman & Salvin, 1894); these three species are the only known Cogia taxa whose males lack a hair tuft on the dorsal hindwing, and all have similar genitalia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3941.2.4DOI Listing
March 2015

Disease detection by ultrasensitive quantification of microdosed synthetic urinary biomarkers.

J Am Chem Soc 2014 Oct 23;136(39):13709-14. Epub 2014 Sep 23.

Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology , 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Building 76-453, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.

The delivery of exogenous agents can enable noninvasive disease monitoring, but existing low-dose approaches require complex infrastructure. In this paper, we describe a microdose-scale injectable formulation of nanoparticles that interrogate the activity of thrombin, a key regulator of clotting, and produce urinary reporters of disease state. We establish a customized single molecule detection assay that enables urinary discrimination of thromboembolic disease in mice using doses of the nanoparticulate diagnostic agents that fall under regulatory guidelines for "microdosing."
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja505676hDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4183649PMC
October 2014