Publications by authors named "Andrew D Shaw"

149 Publications

Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists Clinical Practice Update for Management of Acute Kidney Injury Associated With Cardiac Surgery.

Anesth Analg 2022 May 12. Epub 2022 May 12.

From the Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of California Davis Health, Sacramento, California.

Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CS-AKI) is common and is associated with increased risk for postoperative morbidity and mortality. Our recent survey of the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists (SCA) membership showed 6 potentially renoprotective strategies for which clinicians would most value an evidence-based review (ie, intraoperative target blood pressure, choice of specific vasopressor agent, erythrocyte transfusion threshold, use of alpha-2 agonists, goal-directed oxygen delivery on cardiopulmonary bypass [CPB], and the "Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes [KDIGO] bundle of care"). Thus, the SCA's Continuing Practice Improvement Acute Kidney Injury Working Group aimed to provide a practice update for each of these strategies in cardiac surgical patients based on the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases were comprehensively searched for eligible studies from inception through February 2021, with search results updated in August 2021. A total of 15 RCTs investigating the effects of the above-mentioned strategies on CS-AKI were included for meta-analysis. For each strategy, the level of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Across the 6 potentially renoprotective strategies evaluated, current evidence for their use was rated as "moderate," "low," or "very low." Based on eligible RCTs, our analysis suggested using goal-directed oxygen delivery on CPB and the "KDIGO bundle of care" in high-risk patients to prevent CS-AKI (moderate level of GRADE evidence). Our results suggested considering the use of vasopressin in vasoplegic shock patients to reduce CS-AKI (low level of GRADE evidence). The decision to use a restrictive versus liberal strategy for perioperative red cell transfusion should not be based on concerns for renal protection (a moderate level of GRADE evidence). In addition, targeting a higher mean arterial pressure during CPB, perioperative use of dopamine, and use of dexmedetomidine did not reduce CS-AKI (a low or very low level of GRADE evidence). This review will help clinicians provide evidence-based care, targeting improved renal outcomes in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000006068DOI Listing
May 2022

Controversies in enhanced recovery after cardiac surgery.

Perioper Med (Lond) 2022 Apr 28;11(1):19. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

University of Massachusetts Medical School-Baystate, Baystate Medical Center, 759 Chestnut St, Springfield, MA, USA.

Advances in cardiac surgical operative techniques and myocardial protection have dramatically improved outcomes in the past two decades. An unfortunate and unintended consequence is that 80% of the preventable morbidity and mortality following cardiac surgery now originates outside of the operating room. Our hope is that a renewed emphasis on evidence-based best practice and standardized perioperative care will reduce overall morbidity and mortality and improve patient-centric care. The Perioperative Quality Initiative (POQI) and Enhanced Recovery After Surgery-Cardiac Society (ERAS® Cardiac) have identified significant evidence gaps in perioperative medicine related to cardiac surgery, defined as areas in which there is significant controversy about how best to manage patients. These five areas of focus include patient blood management, goal-directed therapy, acute kidney injury, opioid analgesic reduction, and delirium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13741-022-00250-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9047268PMC
April 2022

The Intensivist's Perspective of Shock, Volume Management, and Hemodynamic Monitoring.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2022 May 4;17(5):706-716. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Department of Intensive Care and Resuscitation, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

One of the primary reasons for intensive care admission is shock. Identifying the underlying cause of shock (hypovolemic, distributive, cardiogenic, and obstructive) may lead to entirely different clinical pathways for management. Among patients with hypovolemic and distributive shock, fluid therapy is one of the leading management strategies. Although an appropriate amount of fluid administration might save a patient's life, inadequate (or excessive) fluid use could lead to more complications, including organ failure and mortality due to either hypovolemia or volume overload. Currently, intensivists have access to a wide variety of information sources and tools to monitor the underlying hemodynamic status, including medical history, physical examination, and specific hemodynamic monitoring devices. Although appropriate and timely assessment and interpretation of this information can promote adequate fluid resuscitation, misinterpretation of these data can also lead to additional mortality and morbidity. This article provides a narrative review of the most commonly used hemodynamic monitoring approaches to assessing fluid responsiveness and fluid tolerance. In addition, we describe the benefits and disadvantages of these tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.14191021DOI Listing
May 2022

Utility of bedside ultrasound derived hepatic and renal parenchymal flow patterns to guide management of acute kidney injury.

Curr Opin Crit Care 2021 12;27(6):587-592

Department of Intensive Care and Resuscitation, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Ideal fluid management of critically ill patients is maintaining an adequate perfusion pressure but avoiding venous congestion. Venous excess ultrasound score (VExUS) quantifies venous congestion to guide the management of fluid balance.

Recent Findings: VExUS of abdominal veins measures fluid tolerance and helps clinicians avoid congestion. VExUS scoring predicts the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) that is a common hospital problem resulting in higher mortality and morbidity. VExUS can predict patients at risk of developing AKI post cardiac surgery. VExUS has been associated with an increase in adverse outcomes in a general intensive care population. Hepatic vein ultrasound can manifest as a sequela of right heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. Intrarenal congestion suggests poorer prognosis in heart failure patients. VExUS score has been used in decision-making to remove fluid in patients with cardiorenal syndrome. VExUS scoring may help curtail overly aggressive fluid resuscitation for patients with septic shock and help avoid iatrogenic 'salt water drowning'.

Summary: We summarize the technique and clinical practice of VExUS to help guide fluid balance across different populations of critically ill patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0000000000000899DOI Listing
December 2021

Incidence and Predictive Factors of Acute Kidney Injury After Off-pump Lung Transplantation.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2022 01 17;36(1):93-99. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Anesthesiology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX. Electronic address:

Objectives: To determine the incidence and predictive factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) after off-pump lung transplantation.

Design: A retrospective cohort study.

Setting: The operating room and intensive care unit.

Participants: Adult patients who underwent lung transplant without cardiopulmonary bypass or extracorporeal membrane oxygenator between 2006 and 2016 at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: The presence of postoperative AKI was assessed by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria in the first seven postoperative days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent predictive factors of AKI. One hundred forty-eight patients were included in the final analysis, of whom 63 (42.6%) subsequently developed AKI: 43 (29.0%) stage 1, ten (6.8%) stage 2, and ten (6.8%) stage 3. Patients who had AKI had a longer hospital length of stay (12 days [interquartile range (IQR): 10-17] vs ten days [IQR: 8-12], p < 0.001). For every one-year increase in age, the odds of AKI decreased by 8% (odds ratio [OR] 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87-0.98, p = 0.008). The odds of having AKI in patients with bilateral lung transplant was lower than patients with unilateral transplant (OR 0.09, 95% CI: 0.01-0.63, p = 0.015). Additionally, a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increased the odds of AKI by four-fold compared with a diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (OR 4.73, 95% CI: 1.44-15.56, p = 0.011).

Conclusions: AKI is a common complication after off-pump lung transplantation and is associated with increased hospital length of stay. Younger age, unilateral lung transplant, and diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are independently associated with AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2021.09.021DOI Listing
January 2022

Editorial: Introduction to Renal Section, Current Opinion in Critical Care, 2021.

Authors:
Andrew D Shaw

Curr Opin Crit Care 2021 12;27(6):551-552

Chair, Department of Intensive Care and Resuscitation, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0000000000000893DOI Listing
December 2021

Association of perioperative hypotension with subsequent greater healthcare resource utilization.

J Clin Anesth 2021 12 15;75:110516. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Mayo Clinic, Department of Anesthesiology & Critical Care Medicine, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Study Objective: Determine if perioperative hypotension, a modifiable risk factor, is associated with increased postoperative healthcare resource utilization (HRU).

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Multicenter using the Optum® electronic health record database.

Patients: Patients discharged to the ward after non-cardiac, non-obstetric surgeries between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2017 with six months of data, before and after the surgical visit.

Interventions/exposure: Perioperative hypotension, a binary variable (presence/absence) at an absolute MAP of ≤65-mmHg, measured during surgery and within 48-h after, to dichotomize patients with greater versus lesser hypotensive exposures.

Measurements: Short-term HRU defined by postoperative length-of-stay (LOS), discharge to a care facility, and 30-day readmission following surgery discharge. Mid-term HRU (within 6 months post-discharge) quantified via number of outpatient and emergency department (ED) visits, and readmission LOS.

Main Results: 42,800 distinct patients met study criteria and 37.5% experienced perioperative hypotension. After adjusting for study covariates including patient demographics and comorbidities, patients with perioperative hypotension had: longer LOS (4.01 vs. 3.83 days; LOS ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.04-1.06), higher odds of discharge to a care facility (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.12-1.24; observed rate 22.1% vs. 18.1%) and of 30-day readmission (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.11-1.33; observed rate 6.2% vs. 5.0%) as compared to the non-hypotensive population (all outcomes, p < 0.001). During 6-month follow-up, patients with perioperative hypotension showed significantly greater HRU regarding number of ED visits (0.34 vs. 0.31 visits; visit ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.05-1.15) and readmission LOS (1.06 vs. 0.92 days; LOS ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07-1.24) but not outpatient visits (10.47 vs. 10.82; visit ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.99) compared to those without hypotension. There was no difference in HRU during the 6-month period before qualifying surgery.

Conclusions: We report a significant association of perioperative hypotension with an increase in HRU, including additional LOS and readmissions, both important contributors to overall medical costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinane.2021.110516DOI Listing
December 2021

Postoperative acute kidney injury in adult non-cardiac surgery: joint consensus report of the Acute Disease Quality Initiative and PeriOperative Quality Initiative.

Nat Rev Nephrol 2021 09 11;17(9):605-618. Epub 2021 May 11.

Center for Critical Care Nephrology, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Postoperative acute kidney injury (PO-AKI) is a common complication of major surgery that is strongly associated with short-term surgical complications and long-term adverse outcomes, including increased risk of chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular events and death. Risk factors for PO-AKI include older age and comorbid diseases such as chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus. PO-AKI is best defined as AKI occurring within 7 days of an operative intervention using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) definition of AKI; however, additional prognostic information may be gained from detailed clinical assessment and other diagnostic investigations in the form of a focused kidney health assessment (KHA). Prevention of PO-AKI is largely based on identification of high baseline risk, monitoring and reduction of nephrotoxic insults, whereas treatment involves the application of a bundle of interventions to avoid secondary kidney injury and mitigate the severity of AKI. As PO-AKI is strongly associated with long-term adverse outcomes, some form of follow-up KHA is essential; however, the form and location of this will be dictated by the nature and severity of the AKI. In this Consensus Statement, we provide graded recommendations for AKI after non-cardiac surgery and highlight priorities for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41581-021-00418-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8367817PMC
September 2021

Potential Renoprotective Strategies in Adult Cardiac Surgery: A Survey of Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists Members to Explore the Rationale and Beliefs Driving Current Clinical Decision-Making.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021 Jul 6;35(7):2043-2051. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Objectives: The authors sought to (1) characterize the rationale underpinning anesthesiologists' use of various perioperative strategies hypothesized to affect renal function in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery, (2) characterize existing belief about the quality of evidence addressing the renal impact of these strategies, and (3) identify potentially renoprotective strategies for which anesthesiologists would most value a detailed, evidence-based review.

Design: Survey of perioperative practice in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

Setting: Online survey.

Participants: Members of the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists (SCA).

Interventions: None.

Measurements & Main Results: The survey was distributed to more than 2,000 SCA members and completed in whole or in part by 202 respondents. Selection of target intraoperative blood pressure (and relative hypotension avoidance) was the strategy most frequently reported to reflect belief about its potential renal effect (79%; 95% CI: 72-85). Most respondents believed the evidence supporting an effect on renal injury of intraoperative target blood pressure during cardiac surgery was of high or moderate quality. Other factors, including a specific nonrenal rationale, surgeon preference, department- or institution-level decisions, tradition, or habit, also frequently were reported to affect decision making across queried strategies. Potential renoprotective strategies most frequently requested for inclusion in a subsequent detailed, evidence-based review were intraoperative target blood pressure and choice of vasopressor agent to achieve target pressure.

Conclusions: A large number of perioperative strategies are believed to variably affect renal injury in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery, with wide variation in perceived quality of evidence for a renal effect of these strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2021.02.004DOI Listing
July 2021

Postoperative Hypotension and Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Patients Without Intraoperative Hypotension, After Noncardiac Surgery.

Anesth Analg 2021 05;132(5):1410-1420

Department of Anesthesiology & Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Postoperative hypotension (POH) is associated with major adverse events. However, little is known about the association of blood pressure thresholds and outcomes in postoperative patients without intraoperative hypotension (IOH) on the general-care ward. We evaluated the association of POH with major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in patients without IOH.

Methods: This retrospective analysis included 67,968 noncardiac patient-procedures (2008-2017) for patients discharged to the ward with postoperative mean arterial pressure (MAP) readings, managed for ≥48 hours postsurgery, with no evidence of IOH. The primary outcome was 30-day MACCE evaluated by postoperative MAP thresholds: ≤75, ≤65, and ≤55 mm Hg (POH defined as a single measurement below threshold). Secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality (30-/90-day), 30-day acute myocardial infarction, 30-day acute ischemic stroke, 30-day readmission, 7-day acute kidney injury, and 30-day readmission. Associations between POH and adverse events were also evaluated in a cohort (#2) of 16,034 patient-procedures with IOH (intraoperative MAP ≤65 mm Hg).

Results: In patients without IOH, exposure to POH was not associated with MACCE at any investigated MAP threshold (P < .016 was considered significant: ≤75 mm Hg, hazard ratio [HR] 1.18 [98.4% confidence interval {CI} 0.99-1.39], P = .023; ≤65 mm Hg, HR 1.18 [0.99-1.41], P = .028; ≤55 mm Hg, HR 1.23 [0.90-1.71], P = .121); however, associations were observed at all MAP thresholds for secondary outcomes of acute kidney injury and 30-day readmission, for 30-/90-day mortality for MAP ≤65 mm Hg, and 90-day mortality for MAP ≤55 mm Hg, compared to those without POH. No associations were detected between POH and secondary outcomes of acute ischemic stroke or acute myocardial infarction at any MAP threshold. No interaction between POH and IOH was found when we evaluated the association of POH on outcomes in the data set including all patients, regardless of IOH status (P values for interaction terms nonsignificant). When the interaction term was utilized, the association between POH without IOH and MACCE was significant for MAP ≤75 mm Hg (HR 1.20 [1.01-1.41]) and MAP ≤65 mm Hg (HR 1.21 [1.02-1.45]), but not MAP ≤55 mm Hg. Cohort #2 (POH with IOH) showed largely similar results for MACCE: not significant for MAP ≤75 and ≤65 mm Hg, but significant for MAP ≤55 mm Hg (HR 1.53 [1.05-2.22], P = .006).

Conclusions: POH in patients without IOH was not associated with MACCE at any MAP investigated. No interaction was identified between POH and IOH. Large prospective randomized trials are necessary to develop better evidence and inform clinicians the value of postoperative blood pressure management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000005374DOI Listing
May 2021

Short and Mid-Term Economic Impact of Pulmonary Artery Catheter Use in Adult Cardiac Surgery: A Hospital and Integrated Health System Perspective.

Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 2021 5;13:109-119. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Objective: A monitoring pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is utilized in approximately 34% of the US cardiac surgical procedures. Increased use of PAC has been reported to have an association with complication rates: significant decreases in new-onset heart failure (HF) and respiratory failure (RF), but increases in bacteremia and urinary tract infections. We assessed the impact of increasing PAC adoption on hospital costs among cardiac surgery patients for US-based healthcare systems.

Methods: An Excel-based economic model calculated annualized savings for a US hospital with various cardiac surgical volumes and PAC adoption rates. A second model, for an integrated payer-provider health system, analyzed outcomes/costs resulting from the cardiac surgical admission and for the treatment of persistent HF and RF complications in the year following surgery. Model inputs were extracted from published literature, and one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.

Results: For an acute care hospital with 500 procedures/year and 34% PAC adoption, annualized savings equalled $61,806 vs no PAC utilization. An increase in PAC adoption rate led to increased savings of $134,751 for 75% and $170,685 for 95% adoption. Savings ranged from $12,361 to $185,418 at volumes of 100 and 1500 procedures/year, respectively. For an integrated payer-provider health system with the base-case scenario of 3845 procedures/year and 34% PAC adoption, estimated savings were $596,637 for the combined surgical index admission and treatment for related complications over the following year.

Conclusion: PAC utilization in adult cardiac surgery patients results in reduced costs for both acute care hospitals and payer-provider integrated health systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CEOR.S282253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7872861PMC
February 2021

The incidence, risk, presentation, pathophysiology, treatment, and effects of perioperative acute kidney injury.

Can J Anaesth 2021 Mar 6;68(3):409-422. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Purpose: Present clinical updates, current research findings, and consensus statements relevant to the care of the acute kidney injury (AKI) patient.

Principal Findings: Acute kidney injury is one of the most frequent and debilitating complications of surgery and critical illness. Consensus criteria use serum creatinine and urine output measurements to diagnose AKI and allow for objective diagnosis and more accurate comparisons across populations. New serum and urine biomarkers may provide earlier evidence of AKI, but their clinical utility, while increasing, remains limited. Avoidance of nephrotoxins, intravascular fluid management, and maintenance of renal perfusion are the mainstays of preventive management and treatment of AKI. Optimal timing for the initiation of renal replacement therapy is controversial and remains under investigation.

Conclusions: Acute kidney injury continues to affect large numbers of patients receiving surgery or in the intensive care unit, but specific advances in resuscitation techniques, endpoint refinements, epidemiology, biomarkers, and pathology are providing the necessary framework to reduce AKI and associated morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12630-020-01894-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088760PMC
March 2021

Association between perioperative fluid management and patient outcomes: a multicentre retrospective study.

Br J Anaesth 2021 Mar 13;126(3):720-729. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Orlando Regional Medical Center, Orlando, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Postoperative complications increase hospital length of stay and patient mortality. Optimal perioperative fluid management should decrease patient complications. This study examined associations between fluid volume and noncardiac surgery patient outcomes within a large multicentre US surgical cohort.

Methods: Adults undergoing noncardiac procedures from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2017, with a postoperative length of stay ≥24 h, were extracted from a large US electronic health record database. Patients were segmented into quintiles based on recorded perioperative fluid volumes with Quintile 3 (Q3) serving as the reference. The primary outcome was defined as a composite of any complications during the surgical admission and a postoperative length of stay ≥7 days. Secondary outcomes included in-hospital mortality, respiratory complications, and acute kidney injury.

Results: A total of 35 736 patients met the study criteria. There was a U-shaped pattern with highest (Q5) and lowest (Q1) quintiles of fluid volumes having increased odds of complications and a postoperative length of stay ≥7 days (Q5: odds ratio [OR] 1.51 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.30-1.74], P<0.001; Q1: OR 1.20 [95% CI: 1.04-1.38], P=0.011) compared with Q3. Patients in Q5 had greater odds of more severe acute kidney injury compared with Q3 (OR 1.52 [95% CI: 1.22-1.90]; P<0.001) and respiratory complications (OR 1.44 [95% CI: 1.17-1.77]; P<0.001).

Conclusions: Both very high and very low perioperative fluid volumes were associated with an increase in complications after noncardiac surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bja.2020.10.031DOI Listing
March 2021

The effect of adding goal-directed hemodynamic management for elective patients in an established enhanced recovery program for colorectal surgery: results of quasi-experimental pragmatic trial.

Perioper Med (Lond) 2020 Nov 23;9(1):35. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1301 Medical Center Drive, TVC 4648, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA.

Background: Recent literature has demonstrated that hemodynamic instability in the intraoperative period places patients at risk of poor outcomes. Furthermore, recent studies have reported that stroke volume optimization and protocolized hemodynamic management may improve perioperative outcomes, especially surgical site infection (SSI), in certain high-risk populations. However, the optimal strategy for intraoperative management of all elective patients within an enhanced recovery program remains to be elucidated.

Methods: We performed a pre-post quasi-experimental study to assess the effect of adding goal-directed hemodynamic therapy to an enhanced recovery program (ERP) for colorectal surgery on SSI and other outcomes. Three groups were compared: "Pre-ERP," defined as historical control (before enhanced recovery program); "ERP," defined as enhanced recovery program using zero fluid balance; and "ERP+GDHT," defined as enhanced recovery program plus goal-directed hemodynamic therapy. Outcomes were obtained through our National Surgical Quality Improvement Program participation.

Results: A total of 623 patients were included in the final analysis (Pre-ERP = 246, ERP = 140, and ERP + GDHT = 237). Demographics and baseline clinical characteristics were balanced between groups. We did not observe statistically significant differences in SSI or composite complication rates in unadjusted or adjusted analysis. There was no evidence of association between study group and 30-day readmission. American Society of Anesthesiologists status ≥ 3 and open surgical approach were significantly associated with increased risk of SSI, composite complication, and 30-day readmission (p < 0.05 for all) in all groups.

Conclusions: There was no evidence that addition of goal-directed hemodynamic therapy for all patients in an enhanced recovery program for colorectal surgery affects the risk of SSI, composite complications, or 30-day readmission. Further research is needed to investigate whether there is benefit of goal-directed hemodynamic therapy for select high-risk populations.

Trial Registration: NCT03189550. Registered 16 June 2017-Retrospectively registered, https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=&term=NCT03189550&cntry=&state=&city=&dist=.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13741-020-00163-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7682072PMC
November 2020

Postoperative hypotension in patients discharged to the intensive care unit after non-cardiac surgery is associated with adverse clinical outcomes.

Crit Care 2020 12 7;24(1):682. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Section on Critical Care Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Background: The postoperative period is critical for a patient's recovery, and postoperative hypotension, specifically, is associated with adverse clinical outcomes and significant harm to the patient. However, little is known about the association between postoperative hypotension in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) after non-cardiac surgery, and morbidity and mortality, specifically among patients who did not experience intraoperative hypotension. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of postoperative hypotension at various absolute hemodynamic thresholds (≤ 75, ≤ 65 and ≤ 55 mmHg), in the absence of intraoperative hypotension (≤ 65 mmHg), on outcomes among patients in the ICU following non-cardiac surgery.

Methods: This multi-center retrospective cohort study included specific patient procedures from Optum® healthcare database for patients without intraoperative hypotension (MAP ≤ 65 mmHg) discharged to the ICU for ≥ 48 h after non-cardiac surgery with valid mean arterial pressure (MAP) readings. A total of 3185 procedures were included in the final cohort, and the association between postoperative hypotension and the primary outcome, 30-day major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events, was assessed. Secondary outcomes examined included all-cause 30- and 90-day mortality, 30-day acute myocardial infarction, 30-day acute ischemic stroke, 7-day acute kidney injury stage II/III and 7-day continuous renal replacement therapy/dialysis.

Results: Postoperative hypotension in the ICU was associated with an increased risk of 30-day major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events at MAP ≤ 65 mmHg (hazard ratio [HR] 1.52; 98.4% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.96) and ≤ 55 mmHg (HR 2.02, 98.4% CI 1.50-2.72). Mean arterial pressures of ≤ 65 mmHg and ≤ 55 mmHg were also associated with higher 30-day mortality (MAP ≤ 65 mmHg, [HR 1.56, 98.4% CI 1.22-2.00]; MAP ≤ 55 mmHg, [HR 1.97, 98.4% CI 1.48-2.60]) and 90-day mortality (MAP ≤ 65 mmHg, [HR 1.49, 98.4% CI 1.20-1.87]; MAP ≤ 55 mmHg, [HR 1.78, 98.4% CI 1.38-2.31]). Furthermore, we found an association between postoperative hypotension with MAP ≤ 55 mmHg and acute kidney injury stage II/III (HR 1.68, 98.4% CI 1.02-2.77). No associations were seen between postoperative hypotension and 30-day readmissions, 30-day acute myocardial infarction, 30-day acute ischemic stroke and 7-day continuous renal replacement therapy/dialysis for any MAP threshold.

Conclusions: Postoperative hypotension in critical care patients with MAP ≤ 65 mmHg is associated with adverse events even without experiencing intraoperative hypotension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-03412-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7720547PMC
December 2020

Intraoperative Hypotension Is Associated With Adverse Clinical Outcomes After Noncardiac Surgery.

Anesth Analg 2021 06;132(6):1654-1665

From the Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Alberta.

Background: Intraoperative hypotension (IOH) occurs frequently during surgery and may be associated with organ ischemia; however, few multicenter studies report data regarding its associations with adverse postoperative outcomes across varying hemodynamic thresholds. Additionally, no study has evaluated the association between IOH exposure and adverse outcomes among patients by various age groups.

Methods: A multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted between 2008 and 2017 using intraoperative blood pressure data from the US electronic health records database to examine postoperative outcomes. IOH was assessed in 368,222 noncardiac surgical procedures using 5 methods: (a) absolute maximum decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during surgery, (b) time under each absolute threshold, (c) total area under each threshold, (d) time-weighted average MAP under each threshold, and (e) cumulative time under the prespecified relative MAP thresholds. MAP thresholds were defined by absolute limits (≤75, ≤65, ≤55 mm Hg) and by relative limits (20% and 40% lower than baseline). The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events; secondary outcomes were all-cause 30- and 90-day mortality, 30-day acute myocardial injury, and 30-day acute ischemic stroke. Residual confounding was minimized by controlling for observable patient and surgical factors. In addition, we stratified patients into age subgroups (18-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, 71-80, >80) to investigate how the association between hypotension and the likelihood of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events and acute kidney injury differs in these age subgroups.

Results: IOH was common with at least 1 reading of MAP ≤75 mm Hg occurring in 39.5% (145,743) of cases; ≤65 mm Hg in 19.3% (70,938) of cases, and ≤55 mm Hg in 7.5% (27,473) of cases. IOH was significantly associated with the primary outcome for all age groups. For an absolute maximum decrease, the estimated odds of a major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events in the 30-day postsurgery was increased by 12% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11-14) for ≤75 mm Hg; 17.0% (95% CI, 15-19) for ≤65 mm Hg; and by 26.0% (95% CI, 22-29) for ≤55 mm Hg.

Conclusions: IOH during noncardiac surgery is common and associated with increased 30-day major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events. This observation is magnified with increasing hypotension severity. The potentially avoidable nature of the hazard, and the extent of the exposed population, makes hypotension in the operating room a serious public health issue that should not be ignored for any age group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000005250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8115733PMC
June 2021

American Society for Enhanced Recovery and Perioperative Quality Initiative Joint Consensus Statement on the Role of Neuromonitoring in Perioperative Outcomes: Cerebral Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

Anesth Analg 2020 11;131(5):1444-1455

Departments of Anesthesiology and Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Some neurological complications following surgery have been related to a mismatch in cerebral oxygen supply and demand that may either lead to more subtle changes of brain function or overt complications like stroke or coma. Discovery of a perioperative neurological complication may be outside the treatment window, thereby making prevention an important focus. Early commercial devices used differential spectroscopy to measure relative changes from baseline of 2 chromophores: oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin. It was the introduction of spatially resolved spectroscopy techniques that allowed near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-based cerebral oximetry as we know it today. Modern cerebral oximeters measure the hemoglobin saturation of blood in a specific "optical field" containing arterial, capillary, and venous blood, not tissue oxygenation itself. Multiple cerebral oximeters are commercially available, all of which have technical differences that make them noninterchangeable. The mechanism and meaning of these measurements are likely not widely understood by many practicing physicians. Additionally, as with many clinically used monitors, there is a lack of high-quality evidence on which clinicians can base decisions in their effort to use cerebral oximetry to reduce neurocognitive complications after surgery. Therefore, the Sixth Perioperative Quality Initiative (POQI-6) consensus conference brought together an international team of multidisciplinary experts including anesthesiologists, surgeons, and critical care physicians to objectively survey the literature on cerebral oximetry and provide consensus, evidence-based recommendations for its use in accordance with the GRading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria for evaluating biomedical literature. The group produced the following consensus recommendations: (1) interpreting perioperative cerebral oximetry measurements in the context of a preinduction baseline value; (2) interpreting perioperative cerebral oximetry measurements in the context of the physiologic variables that affect them; (3) using caution in comparing cerebral oximetry values between different manufacturers; (4) using preoperative cerebral oximetry to identify patients at increased risk of adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery; (5) using intraoperative cerebral oximetry indexed to preinduction baseline to identify patients at increased risk of adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery; (6) using cerebral oximetry to identify and guide management of acute cerebral malperfusion during cardiac surgery; (7) using an intraoperative cerebral oximetry-guided interventional algorithm to reduce intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay after cardiac surgery. Additionally, there was agreement that (8) there is insufficient evidence to recommend using intraoperative cerebral oximetry to reduce mortality or organ-specific morbidity after cardiac surgery; (9) there is insufficient evidence to recommend using intraoperative cerebral oximetry to improve outcomes after noncardiac surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000005081DOI Listing
November 2020

Recommendations on Acute Kidney Injury Biomarkers From the Acute Disease Quality Initiative Consensus Conference: A Consensus Statement.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 10 1;3(10):e2019209. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Importance: In the last decade, new biomarkers for acute kidney injury (AKI) have been identified and studied in clinical trials. Guidance is needed regarding how best to incorporate them into clinical practice.

Objective: To develop recommendations on AKI biomarkers based on existing data and expert consensus for practicing clinicians and researchers.

Evidence Review: At the 23rd Acute Disease Quality Initiative meeting, a meeting of 23 international experts in critical care, nephrology, and related specialties, the panel focused on 4 broad areas, as follows: (1) AKI risk assessment; (2) AKI prediction and prevention; (3) AKI diagnosis, etiology, and management; and (4) AKI progression and kidney recovery. A literature search revealed more than 65 000 articles published between 1965 and May 2019. In a modified Delphi process, recommendations and consensus statements were developed based on existing data, with 90% agreement among panel members required for final adoption. Recommendations were graded using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations system.

Findings: The panel developed 11 consensus statements for biomarker use and 14 research recommendations. The key suggestions were that a combination of damage and functional biomarkers, along with clinical information, be used to identify high-risk patient groups, improve the diagnostic accuracy of AKI, improve processes of care, and assist the management of AKI.

Conclusions And Relevance: Current evidence from clinical studies supports the use of new biomarkers in prevention and management of AKI. Substantial gaps in knowledge remain, and more research is necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.19209DOI Listing
October 2020

Controversies in acute kidney injury: conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Conference.

Kidney Int 2020 08 26;98(2):294-309. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

In 2012, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) published a guideline on the classification and management of acute kidney injury (AKI). The guideline was derived from evidence available through February 2011. Since then, new evidence has emerged that has important implications for clinical practice in diagnosing and managing AKI. In April of 2019, KDIGO held a controversies conference entitled Acute Kidney Injury with the following goals: determine best practices and areas of uncertainty in treating AKI; review key relevant literature published since the 2012 KDIGO AKI guideline; address ongoing controversial issues; identify new topics or issues to be revisited for the next iteration of the KDIGO AKI guideline; and outline research needed to improve AKI management. Here, we present the findings of this conference and describe key areas that future guidelines may address.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.04.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481001PMC
August 2020

Healthcare utilization and costs of cardiopulmonary complications following cardiac surgery in the United States.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(12):e0226750. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Purpose: This study examined postoperative heart failure (HF) and respiratory failure (RF) complications and related healthcare utilization for one year following cardiac surgery.

Methods: This study identified adult patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and/or valve procedures from the Cerner Health Facts® database. It included patients experiencing postoperative HF or RF complications. We quantified healthcare utilization using the frequency of inpatient admissions, emergency department (ED) visits with or without hospital admission, and outpatient visits. We then determined direct hospital costs from the determined healthcare utilization. We analyzed trends over time for both HF and RF and evaluated the association between surgery type and HF complication.

Results: Of 10,298 patients with HF complications, 1,714 patients (16.6%) developed persistent HF; of the 10,385 RF patients, 175 (1.7%) developed persistent RF. Healthcare utilization for those with persistent complications over the one-year period following index hospital discharge comprised an average number of the following visit types: Inpatient (1.49 HF; 1.55 RF), Outpatient (2.02, 0.51), ED without hospital admission (0.33, 0.13), ED + Inpatient (0.08, 0.06). Per patient annual costs related to persistent complications of HF and RF were $20,857 and $30,745, respectively. There was a significant association between cardiac surgical type and the incidence of HF, with risk for isolated valve procedures (adjusted OR 2.60; 95% CI: 2.35-2.88) and CABG + valve procedures (adjusted OR 2.38; 95% CI: 2.17-2.61) exceeding risk for isolated CABG procedures.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that HF and RF complication rates post cardiac surgery are substantial, and complication-related healthcare utilization over the first year following surgery results in significant incremental costs. Given the need for both payers and providers to focus on healthcare cost reduction, this study fills an important gap in quantifying the mid-term economic impact of postoperative cardiac surgical complications.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226750PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6922411PMC
April 2020

American Society for Enhanced Recovery and Perioperative Quality Initiative Joint Consensus Statement on Perioperative Opioid Minimization in Opioid-Naïve Patients.

Anesth Analg 2019 08;129(2):567-577

Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Surgical care episodes place opioid-naïve patients at risk for transitioning to new persistent postoperative opioid use. With one of the central principles being the application of multimodal pain interventions to reduce the reliance on opioid-based medications, enhanced recovery pathways provide a framework that decreases perioperative opioid use. The fourth Perioperative Quality Initiative brought together a group of international experts representing anesthesiology, surgery, and nursing with the objective of providing consensus recommendations on this important topic. Fourth Perioperative Quality Initiative was a consensus-building conference designed around a modified Delphi process in which the group alternately convened for plenary discussion sessions in between small group discussions. The process included several iterative steps including a literature review of the topics, building consensus around the important questions related to the topic, and sequential steps of content building and refinement until agreement was achieved and a consensus document was produced. During the fourth Perioperative Quality Initiative conference and thereafter as a writing group, reference applicability to the topic was discussed in any area where there was disagreement. For this manuscript, the questions answered included (1) What are the potential strategies for preventing persistent postoperative opioid use? (2) Is opioid-free anesthesia and analgesia feasible and appropriate for routine operations? and (3) Is opioid-free (intraoperative) anesthesia associated with equivalent or superior outcomes compared to an opioid minimization in the perioperative period? We will discuss the relevant literature for each questions, emphasize what we do not know, and prioritize the areas for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000004194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7261519PMC
August 2019

American Society for Enhanced Recovery and Perioperative Quality Initiative-4 Joint Consensus Statement on Persistent Postoperative Opioid Use: Definition, Incidence, Risk Factors, and Health Care System Initiatives.

Anesth Analg 2019 08;129(2):543-552

Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Persistent postoperative opioid use is thought to contribute to the ongoing opioid epidemic in the United States. However, efforts to study and address the issue have been stymied by the lack of a standard definition, which has also hampered efforts to measure the incidence of and risk factors for persistent postoperative opioid use. The objective of this systematic review is to (1) determine a clinically relevant definition of persistent postoperative opioid use, and (2) characterize its incidence and risk factors for several common surgeries. Our approach leveraged a group of international experts from the Perioperative Quality Initiative-4, a consensus-building conference that included representation from anesthesiology, surgery, and nursing. A search of the medical literature yielded 46 articles addressing persistent postoperative opioid use in adults after arthroplasty, abdominopelvic surgery, spine surgery, thoracic surgery, mastectomy, and thoracic surgery. In opioid-naïve patients, the overall incidence ranged from 2% to 6% based on moderate-level evidence. However, patients who use opioids preoperatively had an incidence of >30%. Preoperative opioid use, depression, factors associated with the diagnosis of substance use disorder, preoperative pain, and tobacco use were reported risk factors. In addition, while anxiety, sex, and psychotropic prescription are associated with persistent postoperative opioid use, these reports are based on lower level evidence. While few articles addressed the health policy or prescriber characteristics that influence persistent postoperative opioid use, efforts to modify prescriber behaviors and health system characteristics are likely to have success in reducing persistent postoperative opioid use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000003941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6640123PMC
August 2019

A Novel Fluorescent Clinical Method to Rapidly Quantify Plasma Volume.

Cardiorenal Med 2019 7;9(3):168-179. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Objectives: To determine the performance of a rapid fluorescent indicator technique for measuring plasma volume (PV).

Methods: This was an open-label, observational evaluation of a two-component intravenous visible fluorescent dye technique to rapidly measure PV in 16 healthy subjects and 16 subjects with chronic kidney disease (8 stage 3 and 8 stage 4 CKD), at 2 clinical research sites. The method consisted of a single intravenous injection of 12 mg of a large 150-kDa carboxy-methyl dextran conjugated to a fluorescent rhodamine-derived dye as the PV marker (PVM), and 35 mg of a small 5-kDa carboxy-methyl dextran conjugated to fluorescein, the renal clearance marker. Dye concentrations were quantified 15 min after the injections for initial PV measurements using the indicator-dilution principle. Additional samples were taken over 8 h to evaluate the stability of the PVM as a determinant of PV. Blood volumes (BV) were calculated based on PV and the subject's hematocrit. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from the plasma concentration data taken over several days using noncompartmental methods (Phoenix WinNonlin®). Linear correlation and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare visible fluorescent injectate-measured PV compared to Nadler's formula for estimating PV. Finally, 8 healthy subjects received 350 mL infusion of a 5% albumin solution in normal saline over 30 min and a repeat PV determination was then carried out.

Results: PV and BV varied according to weight and body surface area, with PV ranging from 2,115 to 6,234 mL and 28.6 to 41.9 mL/kg when weight adjusted. Both parameters were stable for > 6 h with repeated plasma measurements of the PVM. There was no difference between healthy subjects and CKD subjects. Overall, there was general agreement with Nadler's estimation formula for the mean PV in subjects. A 24-h repeat dose measurement in 8 healthy subjects showed PV variability of 98 ± 121 mL (mean = 3.8%). Additionally, following an intravenous bolus of 350 mL of a 5% albumin solution in normal saline in 8 healthy subjects, the mean (SD) measured increase in PV was 356 (±50.0) mL post-infusion. There were no serious adverse events reported during the study.

Conclusions: This minimally invasive fluorescent dye approach safely allowed for rapid, accurate, and reproducible determination of PV, BV, and dynamic monitoring of changes following fluid administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000496480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7175413PMC
August 2019

American Society for Enhanced Recovery and Perioperative Quality Initiative Joint Consensus Statement on Perioperative Management of Patients on Preoperative Opioid Therapy.

Anesth Analg 2019 08;129(2):553-566

From the Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Enhanced recovery pathways have quickly become part of the standard of care for patients undergoing elective surgery, especially in North America and Europe. One of the central tenets of this multidisciplinary approach is the use of multimodal analgesia with opioid-sparing and even opioid-free anesthesia and analgesia. However, the current state is a historically high use of opioids for both appropriate and inappropriate reasons, and patients with chronic opioid use before their surgery represent a common, often difficult-to-manage population for the enhanced recovery providers and health care team at large. Furthermore, limited evidence and few proven successful protocols exist to guide providers caring for these at-risk patients throughout their elective surgical experience. Therefore, the fourth Perioperative Quality Initiative brought together an international team of multidisciplinary experts, including anesthesiologists, nurse anesthetists, surgeons, pain specialists, neurologists, nurses, and other experts with the objective of providing consensus recommendations. Specifically, the goal of this consensus document is to minimize opioid-related complications by providing expert-based consensus recommendations that reflect the strength of the medical evidence regarding: (1) the definition, categorization, and risk stratification of patients receiving opioids before surgery; (2) optimal perioperative treatment strategies for patients receiving preoperative opioids; and (3) optimal discharge and continuity of care management practices for patients receiving opioids preoperatively. The overarching theme of this document is to provide health care providers with guidance to reduce potentially avoidable opioid-related complications including opioid dependence (both physical and behavioral), disability, and death. Enhanced recovery programs attempt to incorporate best practices into pathways of care. By presenting the available evidence for perioperative management of patients on opioids, this consensus panel hopes to encourage further development of pathways specific to this high-risk group to mitigate the often unintentional iatrogenic and untoward effects of opioids and to improve perioperative outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000004018DOI Listing
August 2019

Intraoperative prediction of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury using urinary biomarkers of cell cycle arrest.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2019 04 26;157(4):1545-1553.e5. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Division of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tenn; Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tenn. Electronic address:

Objective: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) are postoperative urinary biomarkers of renal stress and acute kidney injury (AKI). We conducted this study to test the hypothesis that intraoperative concentrations of urinary [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] are associated with postoperative AKI.

Methods: We measured urinary [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] at 8 perioperative timepoints in 400 patients who participated in a randomized controlled trial of atorvastatin for AKI in cardiac surgery. We compared [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] between subjects who did and did not develop KDIGO stage 2 or 3 AKI within 48 hours of surgery, adjusted for AKI risk factors.

Results: Fourteen patients (3.5%) met the primary endpoint of stage 2 or 3 AKI within 48 hours of surgery, and an additional 77 patients (19.3%) developed stage 1 AKI. Patients who developed stage 2 or 3 AKI displayed bimodal elevations of [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7], with a first elevation (median, 0.45 [ng/mL]/1000) intraoperatively and a second elevation (1.45 [ng/mL]/1000) 6 hours postoperatively. Patients who did not develop AKI did not have any elevations in [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7]. Each 10-fold increase in intraoperative [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] was independently associated with a 290% increase in the odds of stage 2 or 3 AKI (P = .01), and each 10-fold increase in the 6 hours postoperative [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] was independently associated with a 650% increase in the odds of stage 2 or 3 AKI (P < .001). The maximum [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] between these 2 timepoints provided an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73-0.90), 100% sensitivity, and 100% negative predictive value using the >0.3 cutoff to predict stage 2 or 3 AKI.

Conclusions: Intraoperative elevations of [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] can predict moderate or severe AKI and could provide an opportunity to alter postoperative management to prevent kidney injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2018.08.090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6431272PMC
April 2019

Pulmonary artery catheter use in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a retrospective, cohort study.

Perioper Med (Lond) 2018 25;7:24. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Boston Strategic Partners, Inc., Boston, MA USA.

Background: The utility of pulmonary artery catheters (PACs) and their measurements depend on a variety of factors including data interpretation and personnel training. This US multi-center, retrospective electronic health record (EHR) database analysis was performed to identify associations between PAC use in adult cardiac surgeries and effects on subsequent clinical outcomes.

Methods: This cohort analysis utilized the Cerner Health Facts database to examine patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), isolated valve surgery, aortic surgery, other complex non-valvular and multi-cardiac procedures, and/or heart transplant from January 1, 2011, to June 30, 2015. A total of 6844 adults in two cohorts, each with 3422 patients who underwent a qualifying cardiac procedure with or without the use of a PAC for monitoring purposes, were included. Patients were matched 1:1 using a propensity score based upon the date and type of surgery, hospital demographics, modified European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE II), and patient characteristics. Primary outcomes of 30-day in-hospital mortality, length of stay, cardiopulmonary morbidity, and infectious morbidity were analyzed after risk adjustment for acute physiology score.

Results: There was no difference in the 30-day in-hospital mortality rate between treatment groups (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.65-2.10;  = 0.516). PAC use was associated with a decreased length of stay (9.39 days without a PAC vs. 8.56 days with PAC;  < 0.001), a decreased cardiopulmonary morbidity (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.96;  < 0.001), and an increased infectious morbidity (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.10-1.49;  < 0.001).

Conclusions: Use of a PAC during adult cardiac surgery is associated with decreased length of stay, reduced cardiopulmonary morbidity, and increased infectious morbidity but no increase in the 30-day in-hospital mortality. This suggests an overall potential benefit associated with PAC-based monitoring in this population.

Trial Registration: The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02964026) on November 15, 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13741-018-0103-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6201566PMC
October 2018

Association between albumin administration and survival in cardiac surgery: a retrospective cohort study.

Can J Anaesth 2018 11 13;65(11):1218-1227. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Purpose: Albumin is widely used during and after on-pump cardiac surgery, although it is unclear whether this therapy improves clinical outcomes.

Methods: This observational study utilized the Cerner Health Facts® database (a large HIPAA-compliant clinical-administrative database maintained by Cerner Inc., USA) to identify a cohort of 6,188 adults that underwent on-pump cardiac surgery for valve and/or coronary artery procedures between January 2001 and March 2013. Of these, 1,095 patients who received 5% albumin with crystalloid solutions and 1,095 patients who received crystalloids alone on the day of or the day following cardiac surgery were selected by propensity-score matching. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. Three secondary outcomes analyzed include acute kidney injury severity, major morbidity composite, and all-cause 30-day readmissions.

Results: In the propensity-score matched cohort, receipt of perioperative 5% albumin was associated with decreased risk of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR], 0.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3 to 0.9; P = 0.02) and lower all-cause 30-day readmission rates (OR, 0.7; 98.3% CI, 0.5 to 0.9; P < 0.01). Albumin therapy was not associated with differences in overall major morbidity (OR, 0.9; 98.3% CI, 0.7 to 1.2; P = 0.39; composite) or acute kidney injury severity (OR, 0.9; 98.3% CI, 0.6 to 1.4; P = 0.53) compared with therapy with crystalloid solutions.

Conclusions: In this large retrospective study, use of 5% albumin solution was associated with significantly decreased odds of in-hospital mortality and all-cause 30-day readmission rate compared with administration of crystalloids alone in adult patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery. These results warrant further studies to examine fluid receipt, including 5% albumin, in surgical populations via randomized-controlled trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12630-018-1181-4DOI Listing
November 2018

Fluids and Organ Dysfunction: A Narrative Review of the Literature and Discussion of 5 Controversial Topics.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2018 10 13;32(5):2054-2066. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Evidence-based clinical decision making is at the forefront of modern cardiothoracic anesthesia practice. Therefore, as a field, cardiac anesthesiologist should strive to ensure that the available evidence is of the highest possible quality. In this narrative review, 5 important topics that the authors believe require additional investigation in cardiothoracic anesthesia and critical care related to fluid therapy and organ dysfunction are outlined briefly. In particular, the authors believe that the areas of pulmonary artery catheter use, restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies, cardiopulmonary bypass prime composition, colloid use in resuscitation and its effects on acute kidney injury, and management of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery hold many unanswered questions and opportunities for continued improvement in the specialty of cardiac anesthesia. This article accompanies a presentation at the 46th Association of Cardiac Anesthesiologists Annual Meeting on October 22, 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2018.03.017DOI Listing
October 2018
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