Publications by authors named "Andrew Berchuck"

296 Publications

Pleiotropy-guided transcriptome imputation from normal and tumor tissues identifies candidate susceptibility genes for breast and ovarian cancer.

HGG Adv 2021 Jul 16;2(3). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Virus, Lifestyle, and Genes, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Familial, sequencing, and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and genetic correlation analyses have progressively unraveled the shared or pleiotropic germline genetics of breast and ovarian cancer. In this study, we aimed to leverage this shared germline genetics to improve the power of transcriptome-wide association studies (TWASs) to identify candidate breast cancer and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes. We built gene expression prediction models using the PrediXcan method in 681 breast and 295 ovarian tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas and 211 breast and 99 ovarian normal tissue samples from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project and integrated these with GWAS meta-analysis data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (122,977 cases/105,974 controls) and the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (22,406 cases/40,941 controls). The integration was achieved through application of a pleiotropy-guided conditional/conjunction false discovery rate (FDR) approach in the setting of a TWASs. This identified 14 candidate breast cancer susceptibility genes spanning 11 genomic regions and 8 candidate ovarian cancer susceptibility genes spanning 5 genomic regions at conjunction FDR < 0.05 that were >1 Mb away from known breast and/or ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We also identified 38 candidate breast cancer susceptibility genes and 17 candidate ovarian cancer susceptibility genes at conjunction FDR < 0.05 at known breast and/or ovarian susceptibility loci. The 22 genes identified by our cross-cancer analysis represent promising candidates that further elucidate the role of the transcriptome in mediating germline breast and ovarian cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xhgg.2021.100042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8312632PMC
July 2021

Molecular Classification to Prognosticate Response in Medically Managed Endometrial Cancers and Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 7;13(11). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether molecular classification prognosticates treatment response in women with endometrial cancers and endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) treated with levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS).

Methods: Patients treated with LNG-IUS for endometrial cancer or EIN from 2013 to 2018 were evaluated. Using immunohistochemistry and single gene sequencing of , patients were classified into four groups as per the Proactive Molecular Risk Classifier for Endometrial cancer (ProMisE): -mutated, mismatch repair-deficient (MMRd), p53 wild type (p53wt), and p53-abnormal (p53abn). Groups were assessed relative to the primary outcome of progression or receipt of definitive treatment.

Results: Fifty-eight subjects with endometrioid endometrial cancer or EIN treated with LNG-IUS were included. Of these, 22 subjects (37.9%) had endometrial cancer and 36 subjects (62.1%) had EIN. Per the ProMisE algorithm, 44 patients (75.9%) were classified as p53wt, 6 (10.3%) as MMRd, 4 (6.9%) as p53abn, and 4 (6.9%) as -mutated. Of the 58 patients, 11 (19.0%) progressed or opted for definitive therapy. Median time to progression or definitive therapy was 7.5 months, with p53abn tumors having the shortest time to progression or definitive therapy.

Conclusions: Molecular classification of endometrial cancer and EIN prior to management with LNG-IUS is feasible and may predict patients at risk of progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201008PMC
June 2021

Identification of a Locus Near Associated With Progression-Free Survival in Ovarian Cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Gynecologic Oncology Center, Kiel, Germany.

Background: Many loci have been found to be associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, although there is considerable variation in progression-free survival (PFS), no loci have been found to be associated with outcome at genome-wide levels of significance.

Methods: We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PFS in 2,352 women with EOC who had undergone cytoreductive surgery and standard carboplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy.

Results: We found seven SNPs at 12q24.33 associated with PFS ( < 5 × 10), the top SNP being rs10794418 (HR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.15-1.34; = 1.47 × 10). High expression of a nearby gene, , is associated with shorter PFS in EOC, and with poor prognosis in other cancers. SNP rs10794418 is also associated with expression of in ovarian tumors, with the allele associated with shorter PFS being associated with higher expression, and chromatin interactions were detected between the promoter and associated SNPs in serous and endometrioid EOC cell lines. ULK1 knockout ovarian cancer cell lines showed significantly increased sensitivity to carboplatin .

Conclusions: The locus at 12q24.33 represents one of the first genome-wide significant loci for survival for any cancer. is a plausible candidate for the target of this association.

Impact: This finding provides insight into genetic markers associated with EOC outcome and potential treatment options..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1817DOI Listing
June 2021

Cardiovascular medications and survival in people with ovarian cancer: A population-based cohort study from British Columbia, Canada.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 Aug 3;162(2):461-468. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

Objectives: Research examining survival among people with ovarian cancer following use of statins or β-blockers has been conflicting. Many studies to date have suffered from immortal time bias and/or had limited power. To address these limitations, we used time-dependent analyses to study the association between statin or β-blocker use among all people diagnosed with an epithelial ovarian cancer in British Columbia, Canada between 1997 and 2015.

Methods: Population-based administrative data were linked for 4207 people with ovarian cancer. Statin or β-blocker use was examined using time-dependent variables for any use, cumulative duration of use and by user-group according to whether use was initiated before or after their ovarian cancer diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models were run to estimate the association between statin or β-blocker use and survival.

Results: Any postdiagnosis use of statins was associated with better ovarian cancer survival in the full cohort (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.76, 95% CI 0.64, 0.89) and among women with serous cancers (aHR = 0.80, 95%CI 0.67-0.96). This was primarily driven by new use post-diagnosis (aHR = 0.67, 95%CI, 0.51-0.89), but there was a trend towards better survival among those who continued use from before diagnosis (aHR 0.83, 95%CI, 0.68-1.00). There was no statistically significant association between β-blocker use and survival.

Conclusion: Postdiagnosis statin use was associated with improved survival among people with ovarian cancer. Given the consistency of this finding in the literature, we recommend a randomized clinical trial of statin use in people with ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2021.05.021DOI Listing
August 2021

Epigenetic Regulation of Claudin-1 in the Development of Ovarian Cancer Recurrence and Drug Resistance.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:620873. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States.

Over 21,000 women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer (OC) in the United States each year and over half that number succumb to this disease annually, often due to recurrent disease. A deeper understanding of the molecular events associated with recurrent disease is needed to identify potential targets. Using genome-scale DNA methylation and gene expression data for 16 matched primary-recurrent advanced stage serous epithelial OCs, we discovered that Claudin-1 (1), a tight junction protein, shows a stronger correlation between expression and methylation in recurrent versus primary OC at multiple CpG sites (R= -0.47 to -0.64 versus R= -0.32 to -0.57, respectively). An independent dataset showed that this correlation is stronger in tumors from short-term (<3y) survivors than in tumors from long-term (>7y) survivors (R= -0.41 to -0.46 versus R= 0.06 to -0.19, respectively). The presence of this inverse correlation in short-term survivors and recurrent tumors suggests an important role for this relationship and potential predictive value for disease prognosis. expression increased following pharmacologic inhibition of DNA methyltransferase activity (p< 0.001), thus validating the role of methylation in gene inhibition. knockdown enhanced chemosensitivity and suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and wound healing (p< 0.05). Stable knockdown resulted in reduced xenograft tumor growth but did not reach significance. Our results indicate that the relationship between methylation and expression plays an important role in OC aggressiveness and recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.620873DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019902PMC
March 2021

Endometrial Adenocarcinomas With No Specific Molecular Profile: Morphologic Features and Molecular Alterations of "Copy-number Low" Tumors.

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (V.T.M., J.W.) Department of Pathology (R.M., J.W., A.H.H., S.M.B., R.C.B., K.C.S), Duke University Medical Center Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center (A.P., R.W., A.B., R.A.P.) Duke Cancer Institute Biostatistics (G.B.), Durham, North Carolina Foundation Medicine Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts (J.A.E.).

The study evaluated morphologic patterns, mutational profiles, and β-catenin immunohistochemistry (IHC) in copy-number low (CNL) endometrial adenocarcinomas (EAs). CNL EAs (n=19) with next-generation or whole genome sequencing results and available tissue for IHC were identified from our institutional database. Clinical data and histologic slides were reviewed. IHC for β-catenin was performed and correlated with mutation status. Images of digital slides of CNL EAs from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database (n=90) were blindly reviewed by 4 pathologists, and morphology was correlated with mutation status. Categorical variables were analyzed using the Fisher exact test, and agreement was assessed using Fleiss κ. CTNNB1 mutations were present in 63% (12/19) of CNL EAs. β-catenin nuclear localization was present in 83% of CTNNB1-mutated tumors (10/12) and in 0% (0/7) of CTNNB1-wildtype tumors (sensitivity 0.83, specificity 1.00). Squamous differentiation (SD) was present in 47% (9/19) and was more often observed in CTNNB1-mutated tumors (P=0.02). Mucinous differentiation (MD) was associated with KRAS mutations (P<0.01). Digital image review of TCGA CNL EAs revealed that pathologist agreement on SD was strong (κ=0.82), whereas agreement on MD was weak (κ=0.48). Pathologists identified SD in 22% (20/90), which was significantly associated with the presence of CTNNB1 mutations (P<0.01). CNL EAs demonstrate several morphologies with divergent molecular profiles. SD was significantly associated with CTNNB1 mutations and nuclear localization of β-catenin in these tumors. Nuclear expression of β-catenin is a sensitive and specific IHC marker for CTNNB1 mutations in CNL EAs. CNL EAs with KRAS mutations often displayed MD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PGP.0000000000000747DOI Listing
March 2021

Depot-Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Use Is Associated with Decreased Risk of Ovarian Cancer: The Mounting Evidence of a Protective Role of Progestins.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 May 22;30(5):927-935. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Background: Combined oral contraceptive use is associated with a decreased risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (ovarian cancer). There is suggestive evidence of an inverse association between progestin-only contraceptive use and ovarian cancer risk, but previous studies have been underpowered.

Methods: The current study used primary data from 7,977 women with ovarian cancer and 11,820 control women in seven case-control studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to evaluate the association between use of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), an injectable progestin-only contraceptive, and ovarian cancer risk. Logistic models were fit to determine the association between ever use of DMPA and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. A systematic review of the association between DMPA use and ovarian cancer risk was conducted.

Results: Ever use of DMPA was associated with a 35% decreased risk of ovarian cancer overall (OR, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.85). There was a statistically significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing duration of use ( < 0.001). The systematic review yielded six studies, four of which showed an inverse association and two showed increased risk.

Conclusions: DMPA use appears to be associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer in a duration-dependent manner based on the preponderance of evidence. Further study of the mechanism through which DMPA use is associated with ovarian cancer is warranted.

Impact: The results of this study are of particular interest given the rise in popularity of progestin-releasing intrauterine devices that have a substantially lower progestin dose than that in DMPA, but may have a stronger local effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1355DOI Listing
May 2021

Ovarian Cancer, Version 2.2020, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 02 2;19(2):191-226. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Case Comprehensive Cancer Center/University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center and Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute.

Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancer in the United States and is the country's fifth most common cause of cancer mortality in women. A major challenge in treating ovarian cancer is that most patients have advanced disease at initial diagnosis. These NCCN Guidelines discuss cancers originating in the ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum, as these are all managed in a similar manner. Most of the recommendations are based on data from patients with the most common subtypes─high-grade serous and grade 2/3 endometrioid. The NCCN Guidelines also include recommendations specifically for patients with less common ovarian cancers, which in the guidelines include the following: carcinosarcoma, clear cell carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, low-grade serous, grade 1 endometrioid, borderline epithelial, malignant sex cord-stromal, and malignant germ cell tumors. This manuscript focuses on certain aspects of primary treatment, including primary surgery, adjuvant therapy, and maintenance therapy options (including PARP inhibitors) after completion of first-line chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2021.0007DOI Listing
February 2021

A comprehensive re-assessment of the association between vitamin D and cancer susceptibility using Mendelian randomization.

Nat Commun 2021 01 11;12(1):246. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Statistical Genetics Group, Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, 300 Herston Road, Brisbane, QLD, 4006, Australia.

Previous Mendelian randomization (MR) studies on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and cancer have typically adopted a handful of variants and found no relationship between 25(OH)D and cancer; however, issues of horizontal pleiotropy cannot be reliably addressed. Using a larger set of variants associated with 25(OH)D (74 SNPs, up from 6 previously), we perform a unified MR analysis to re-evaluate the relationship between 25(OH)D and ten cancers. Our findings are broadly consistent with previous MR studies indicating no relationship, apart from ovarian cancers (OR 0.89; 95% C.I: 0.82 to 0.96 per 1 SD change in 25(OH)D concentration) and basal cell carcinoma (OR 1.16; 95% C.I.: 1.04 to 1.28). However, after adjustment for pigmentation related variables in a multivariable MR framework, the BCC findings were attenuated. Here we report that lower 25(OH)D is unlikely to be a causal risk factor for most cancers, with our study providing more precise confidence intervals than previously possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20368-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801600PMC
January 2021

Results and Clinical Utilization of Foundation Medicine Molecular Tumor Profiling in Uterine and Ovarian Cancers.

Target Oncol 2021 01 5;16(1):109-118. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Duke University, 201 Trent Drive, 203 Baker House, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.

Background: Recent advances in next-generation sequencing have allowed for an increase in molecular tumor profiling.

Objective: We sought to assess the actionability and clinical utilization of molecular tumor profiling results obtained via Foundation Medicine tumor sequencing tests in uterine and ovarian cancers.

Patients And Methods: We performed a single-institution retrospective chart review to obtain demographic and clinical information in patients with uterine and ovarian cancer whose tumors were submitted to Foundation Medicine for molecular tumor profiling over a 7-year period. Alterations identified on testing were stratified according to the OncoKB database actionability algorithm. Descriptive statistics were primarily used to analyze the data.

Results: Tumors from 185 women with gynecologic cancer were submitted for molecular tumor profiling between 2013 and 2019. The majority of tests (144/185; 78%) were ordered after a diagnosis of recurrence. In 60 (32%), no actionable molecular alteration was identified. Thirteen (7%) identified an alteration that directed to a US Food and Drug Administration-approved therapy in that tumor type, while 112 (61%) had alterations with investigational or hypothetical treatment implications. In patients with any actionable finding, treatment was initiated in 27 (15%) based on these results.

Conclusions: The majority of uterine and ovarian cancers (93%) did not have molecular alterations with corresponding Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments. Even in patients with a potentially actionable alteration, gynecologic oncologists were more likely to choose an alternative therapy. Further investigation is warranted to determine which patients with uterine and ovarian cancer are most likely to benefit from molecular tumor profiling and the ideal timing of testing. The potential to identify effective therapeutic options in a minority of patients needs to be balanced with the current limited clinical applicability of these results in most cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11523-020-00785-zDOI Listing
January 2021

Surgical management of ovarian carcinosarcoma with inferior vena cava extension into the right atrium.

J Surg Case Rep 2020 Dec 26;2020(12):rjaa530. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Gynecological carcinosarcomas are aggressive tumors with rare occurrence and high rates of metastases. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with vaginal bleeding and abdominal distension who was found to have a large ovarian carcinosarcoma invading the gonadal vein and inferior vena cava (IVC) and extending into right atrium (RA). She underwent gynecologic tumor resection, IVC cavotomy and en bloc resection of tumor/thrombus through the RA. Use of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography helped assess extent and mobility of mass in the RA to guide surgical approach. This case posed unique challenges with regard to management of induction, hemodynamics and coagulopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jscr/rjaa530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7765710PMC
December 2020

Cross-Cancer Genome-Wide Association Study of Endometrial Cancer and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Identifies Genetic Risk Regions Associated with Risk of Both Cancers.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 01 3;30(1):217-228. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer have identified 16 and 27 risk regions, respectively, four of which overlap between the two cancers. We aimed to identify joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci by performing a meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from these two cancers.

Methods: Using LDScore regression, we explored the genetic correlation between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. To identify loci associated with the risk of both cancers, we implemented a pipeline of statistical genetic analyses (i.e., inverse-variance meta-analysis, colocalization, and M-values) and performed analyses stratified by subtype. Candidate target genes were then prioritized using functional genomic data.

Results: Genetic correlation analysis revealed significant genetic correlation between the two cancers ( = 0.43, = 2.66 × 10). We found seven loci associated with risk for both cancers ( < 2.4 × 10). In addition, four novel subgenome-wide regions at 7p22.2, 7q22.1, 9p12, and 11q13.3 were identified ( < 5 × 10). Promoter-associated HiChIP chromatin loops from immortalized endometrium and ovarian cell lines and expression quantitative trait loci data highlighted candidate target genes for further investigation.

Conclusions: Using cross-cancer GWAS meta-analysis, we have identified several joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci and candidate target genes for future functional analysis.

Impact: Our research highlights the shared genetic relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Further studies in larger sample sets are required to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0739DOI Listing
January 2021

Targeting Dormant Ovarian Cancer Cells and in an Mouse Model of Platinum Resistance.

Mol Cancer Ther 2021 01 9;20(1):85-95. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Spheroids exhibit drug resistance and slow proliferation, suggesting involvement in cancer recurrence. The protein kinase C inhibitor UCN-01 (7-hydroxystaurosporine) has shown higher efficacy against slow proliferating and/or quiescent ovarian cancer cells. In this study, tumorigenic potential was assessed using anchorage-independent growth assays and spheroid-forming capacity, which was determined with ovarian cancer cell lines as well as primary ovarian cancers. Of 12 cell lines with increased anchorage-independent growth, 8 formed spheroids under serum-free culture conditions. Spheroids showed reduced proliferation ( < 0.0001) and Ki-67 immunostaining (8% vs. 87%) relative to monolayer cells. Spheroid formation was associated with increased expression of mitochondrial pathway genes ( ≤ 0.001) from Affymetrix HT U133A gene expression data. UCN-01, a kinase inhibitor/mitochondrial uncoupler that has been shown to lead to Puma-induced mitochondrial apoptosis as well as ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin, demonstrated effectiveness against spheroids, whereas spheroids were refractory to cisplatin and paclitaxel. By live imaging, ovarian cancer xenograft tumors were reduced after primary treatment with carboplatin. Continued treatment with carboplatin was accompanied by an increase in tumor signal, whereas there was little or no increase in tumor signal observed with subsequent treatment with UCN-01 or oltipraz. Taken together, our findings suggest that genes involved in mitochondrial function in spheroids may be an important therapeutic target in preventing disease recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-20-0119DOI Listing
January 2021

Evaluating the role of alcohol consumption in breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility using population-based cohort studies and two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses.

Int J Cancer 2021 03 13;148(6):1338-1350. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Alcohol consumption is correlated positively with risk for breast cancer in observational studies, but observational studies are subject to reverse causation and confounding. The association with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unclear. We performed both observational Cox regression and two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses using data from various European cohort studies (observational) and publicly available cancer consortia (MR). These estimates were compared to World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) findings. In our observational analyses, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for a one standard drink/day increase was 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.04, 1.08) for breast cancer and 1.00 (0.92, 1.08) for EOC, both of which were consistent with previous WCRF findings. MR ORs per genetically predicted one standard drink/day increase estimated via 34 SNPs using MR-PRESSO were 1.00 (0.93, 1.08) for breast cancer and 0.95 (0.85, 1.06) for EOC. Stratification by EOC subtype or estrogen receptor status in breast cancers made no meaningful difference to the results. For breast cancer, the CIs for the genetically derived estimates include the point-estimate from observational studies so are not inconsistent with a small increase in risk. Our data provide additional evidence that alcohol intake is unlikely to have anything other than a very small effect on risk of EOC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33308DOI Listing
March 2021

Offspring sex and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: a multinational pooled analysis of 12 case-control studies.

Eur J Epidemiol 2020 Nov 21;35(11):1025-1042. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Population Health Department, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, QLD, 4006, Australia.

While childbearing protects against risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), few studies have explored the impact on maternal EOC risk of sex of offspring, which may affect the maternal environment during pregnancy. We performed a pooled analysis among parous participants from 12 case-controls studies comprising 6872 EOC patients and 9101 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression for case-control associations and polytomous logistic regression for histotype-specific associations, all adjusted for potential confounders. In general, no associations were found between offspring sex and EOC risk. However, compared to bearing only female offspring, bearing one or more male offspring was associated with increased risk of mucinous EOC (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.01-2.07), which appeared to be limited to women reporting menarche before age 13 compared to later menarche (OR = 1.71 vs 0.99; P-interaction = 0.02). Bearing increasing numbers of male offspring was associated with greater risks of mucinous tumors (OR = 1.31, 1.84, 2.31, for 1, 2 and 3 or more male offspring, respectively; trend-p = 0.005). Stratifying by hormonally-associated conditions suggested that compared to bearing all female offspring, bearing a male offspring was associated with lower risk of endometrioid cancer among women with a history of adult acne, hirsutism, or polycystic ovary syndrome (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.28-0.83) but with higher risk among women without any of those conditions (OR = 1.64 95% CI = 1.14-2.34; P-interaction = 0.003). Offspring sex influences the childbearing-EOC risk relationship for specific histotypes and conditions. These findings support the differing etiologic origins of EOC histotypes and highlight the importance of EOC histotype-specific epidemiologic studies. These findings also suggest the need to better understand how pregnancy affects EOC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-020-00682-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7981786PMC
November 2020

Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing "PARP inhibitors-for-all" to the biomarker-directed use of PARP inhibitor maintenance therapy for newly diagnosed advanced stage ovarian cancer.

Gynecol Oncol 2020 11 27;159(2):483-490. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States of America; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States of America.

Objectives: Clinical trials evaluating universal PARP inhibitor (PARPi) frontline maintenance therapy for advanced stage ovarian cancer have reported progression-free survival (PFS) benefit. It is unclear whether PARPi maintenance therapy will universally enhance value (clinical benefits relative to cost of delivery). We compared a "PARPi-for-all" to a biomarker-directed frontline maintenance therapy approach as a value-based care strategy.

Methods: The cost of two frontline PARPi maintenance strategies, PARPi-for-all and biomarker-directed maintenance, was compared using modified Markov decision models simulating the study designs of the PRIMA, VELIA, and, PAOLA-1 trials. Outcomes of interest included overall costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) reported in US dollars per quality adjusted progression-free life-year (QA-PFY) gained.

Results: PARPi-for-all was more costly and provided greater PFS benefit than a biomarker-directed strategy for each trial. The mean cost per patient for the PARPi-for-all strategy was $166,269, $286,715, and $366,506 for the PRIMA, VELIA, and PAOLA-1 models, respectively. For the biomarker-directed strategy, the mean cost per patient was $98,188, $167,334, and $260,671 for the PRIMA, VELIA, and PAOLA-1 models. ICERs of PARPi-for-all compared to biomarker-directed maintenance were: $593,250/QA-PFY (PRIMA), $1,512,495/QA-PFY (VELIA), and $3,347,915/QA-PFY (PAOLA-1). At current drug pricing, there is no PFS improvement in a biomarker negative cohort that would make PARPi-for-all cost-effective compared to biomarker-directed maintenance.

Conclusions: This study highlights the high costs of universal PARPi maintenance treatment, compared with a biomarker-directed PARPi strategy. Maintenance therapy in the front-line setting should be reserved for those with germline or somatic HRD mutations until the cost of therapy is significantly reduced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.08.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086124PMC
November 2020

Management of high, moderate, and low penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility mutations: an assessment of current risk reduction practices.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2020 10 23;30(10):1583-1588. Epub 2020 Aug 23.

Northwell Health Cancer Institute, Lake Success, New York, USA.

Objective: Limited information exists regarding risk reduction strategies for women with moderate and low penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility mutations. We sought to assess current risk reduction practice patterns for carriers of these mutations through a survey of members of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

Methods: Society of Gynecologic Oncology members were emailed a survey consisting of two vignettes: (1) a 35-year-old premenopausal woman; (2) a 55-year-old postmenopausal woman with comorbidities. Each vignette contained sub-scenarios in which the patient had either a (relative risk (RR)=30-60), (RR=5.0), or (RR=1.5-2.0) mutation. Respondents were queried about their preferred management approach. Summary statistics were performed to describe results of the survey. We used χ testing for statistical analyses, comparing results according to mutation type and demographic information.

Results: A total of 193 (15%) of 1284 Society of Gynecologic Oncology members responded. For the premenopausal woman, 99%, 80%, and 40% would perform a risk reducing salpingo-oophorectomy prior to menopause in the setting of a , and mutation, respectively. For the postmenopausal woman, 98%, 85%, and 42% would proceed with risk reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in the setting of a and mutation, respectively. Response distribution for carriers of and mutations were different from in both vignettes (p<0.001).

Conclusions: Respondents were more likely to perform risk reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, in the setting of a and mutation, earlier and more frequently in the setting of a mutation. However, there was a lack of consensus about management of the moderate and low penetrance mutations, suggesting that more data regarding age specific risks and appropriate risk reduction strategies for these alterations are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2020-001536DOI Listing
October 2020

Expanding Our Understanding of Ovarian Cancer Risk: The Role of Incomplete Pregnancies.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Mar;113(3):301-308

Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cancer Prevention and Genetics Program, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Parity is associated with decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer; however, the relationship between incomplete pregnancies and invasive ovarian cancer risk is unclear. This relationship was examined using 15 case-control studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Histotype-specific associations, which have not been examined previously with large sample sizes, were also evaluated.

Methods: A pooled analysis of 10 470 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 16 942 controls was conducted. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between incomplete pregnancies and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were estimated using logistic regression. All models were conditioned on OCAC study, race and ethnicity, age, and education level and adjusted for number of complete pregnancies, oral contraceptive use, and history of breastfeeding. The same approach was used for histotype-specific analyses.

Results: Ever having an incomplete pregnancy was associated with a 16% reduction in ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.89). There was a trend of decreasing risk with increasing number of incomplete pregnancies (2-sided Ptrend < .001). An inverse association was observed for all major histotypes; it was strongest for clear cell ovarian cancer.

Conclusions: Incomplete pregnancies are associated with a reduced risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Pregnancy, including incomplete pregnancy, was associated with a greater reduction in risk of clear cell ovarian cancer, but the result was broadly consistent across histotypes. Future work should focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying this reduced risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936053PMC
March 2021

Menopausal hormone therapy prior to the diagnosis of ovarian cancer is associated with improved survival.

Gynecol Oncol 2020 09 6;158(3):702-709. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Virus, Lifestyle and Genes, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Gynaecology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Purpose: Prior studies of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and ovarian cancer survival have been limited by lack of hormone regimen detail and insufficient sample sizes. To address these limitations, a comprehensive analysis of 6419 post-menopausal women with pathologically confirmed ovarian carcinoma was conducted to examine the association between MHT use prior to diagnosis and survival.

Methods: Data from 15 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium were included. MHT use was examined by type (estrogen-only (ET) or estrogen+progestin (EPT)), duration, and recency of use relative to diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between hormone therapy use and survival. Logistic regression and mediation analysis was used to explore the relationship between MHT use and residual disease following debulking surgery.

Results: Use of ET or EPT for at least five years prior to diagnosis was associated with better ovarian cancer survival (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.87). Among women with advanced stage, high-grade serous carcinoma, those who used MHT were less likely to have any macroscopic residual disease at the time of primary debulking surgery (p for trend <0.01 for duration of MHT use). Residual disease mediated some (17%) of the relationship between MHT and survival.

Conclusions: Pre-diagnosis MHT use for 5+ years was a favorable prognostic factor for women with ovarian cancer. This large study is consistent with prior smaller studies, and further work is needed to understand the underlying mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.06.481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7487048PMC
September 2020

Assessment of polygenic architecture and risk prediction based on common variants across fourteen cancers.

Nat Commun 2020 07 3;11(1):3353. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the identification of hundreds of susceptibility loci across cancers, but the impact of further studies remains uncertain. Here we analyse summary-level data from GWAS of European ancestry across fourteen cancer sites to estimate the number of common susceptibility variants (polygenicity) and underlying effect-size distribution. All cancers show a high degree of polygenicity, involving at a minimum of thousands of loci. We project that sample sizes required to explain 80% of GWAS heritability vary from 60,000 cases for testicular to over 1,000,000 cases for lung cancer. The maximum relative risk achievable for subjects at the 99th risk percentile of underlying polygenic risk scores (PRS), compared to average risk, ranges from 12 for testicular to 2.5 for ovarian cancer. We show that PRS have potential for risk stratification for cancers of breast, colon and prostate, but less so for others because of modest heritability and lower incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16483-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335068PMC
July 2020

Development and Validation of the Gene Expression Predictor of High-grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma Molecular SubTYPE (PrOTYPE).

Clin Cancer Res 2020 10 17;26(20):5411-5423. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Purpose: Gene expression-based molecular subtypes of high-grade serous tubo-ovarian cancer (HGSOC), demonstrated across multiple studies, may provide improved stratification for molecularly targeted trials. However, evaluation of clinical utility has been hindered by nonstandardized methods, which are not applicable in a clinical setting. We sought to generate a clinical grade minimal gene set assay for classification of individual tumor specimens into HGSOC subtypes and confirm previously reported subtype-associated features.

Experimental Design: Adopting two independent approaches, we derived and internally validated algorithms for subtype prediction using published gene expression data from 1,650 tumors. We applied resulting models to NanoString data on 3,829 HGSOCs from the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium. We further developed, confirmed, and validated a reduced, minimal gene set predictor, with methods suitable for a single-patient setting.

Results: Gene expression data were used to derive the predictor of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma molecular subtype (PrOTYPE) assay. We established a standard as a consensus of two parallel approaches. PrOTYPE subtypes are significantly associated with age, stage, residual disease, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and outcome. The locked-down clinical grade PrOTYPE test includes a model with 55 genes that predicted gene expression subtype with >95% accuracy that was maintained in all analytic and biological validations.

Conclusions: We validated the PrOTYPE assay following the Institute of Medicine guidelines for the development of omics-based tests. This fully defined and locked-down clinical grade assay will enable trial design with molecular subtype stratification and allow for objective assessment of the predictive value of HGSOC molecular subtypes in precision medicine applications..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-0103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7572656PMC
October 2020

Population-based targeted sequencing of 54 candidate genes identifies as a susceptibility gene for high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

J Med Genet 2021 May 16;58(5):305-313. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Hereditary Cancer Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain.

Purpose: The known epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility genes account for less than 50% of the heritable risk of ovarian cancer suggesting that other susceptibility genes exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution to ovarian cancer susceptibility of rare deleterious germline variants in a set of candidate genes.

Methods: We sequenced the coding region of 54 candidate genes in 6385 invasive EOC cases and 6115 controls of broad European ancestry. Genes with an increased frequency of putative deleterious variants in cases versus controls were further examined in an independent set of 14 135 EOC cases and 28 655 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium and the UK Biobank. For each gene, we estimated the EOC risks and evaluated associations between germline variant status and clinical characteristics.

Results: The ORs associated for high-grade serous ovarian cancer were 3.01 for (95% CI 1.59 to 5.68; p=0.00068), 1.99 for (95% CI 1.15 to 3.43; p=0.014) and 4.07 for (95% CI 1.34 to 12.4; p=0.013). Deleterious mutations in were associated with a reduced risk of disease (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.00, p=0.049). However, based on the Bayes false discovery probability, only the association for in high-grade serous ovarian cancer is likely to represent a true positive.

Conclusions: We have found strong evidence that carriers of deleterious mutations are at increased risk of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Whether the magnitude of risk is sufficiently high to warrant the inclusion of in cancer gene panels for ovarian cancer risk testing is unclear; much larger sample sizes will be needed to provide sufficiently precise estimates for clinical counselling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2019-106739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086250PMC
May 2021

Estrogen Plus Progestin Hormone Therapy and Ovarian Cancer: A Complicated Relationship Explored.

Epidemiology 2020 05;31(3):402-408

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: Menopausal estrogen-alone therapy is a risk factor for endometrial and ovarian cancers. When a progestin is included with the estrogen daily (continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy), there is no increased risk of endometrial cancer. However, the effect of continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy on risk of ovarian cancer is less clear.

Methods: We pooled primary data from five population-based case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, including 1509 postmenopausal ovarian cancer cases and 2295 postmenopausal controls. Information on previous menopausal hormonal therapy use, as well as ovarian cancer risk factors, was collected using in-person interviews. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between use of continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy and risk of ovarian cancer by duration and recency of use and disease histotype.

Results: Ever postmenopausal use of continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy was not associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer overall (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.72, 1.0). A decreased risk was observed for mucinous ovarian cancer (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.18, 0.91). The other main ovarian cancer histotypes did not show an association (endometrioid: OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.57, 1.3, clear cell: OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.40, 1.2; serous: OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.80, 1.2).

Conclusions: Given that estrogen-alone therapy has been shown to be associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that adding a progestin each day ameliorates the carcinogenic effects of estrogen on the cells of origin for all histotypes of ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000001175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7584395PMC
May 2020

Identification of novel epithelial ovarian cancer loci in women of African ancestry.

Int J Cancer 2020 06 8;146(11):2987-2998. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Women of African ancestry have lower incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) yet worse survival compared to women of European ancestry. We conducted a genome-wide association study in African ancestry women with 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC) and 1,235 controls. We identified four novel loci with suggestive evidence of association with EOC (p < 1 × 10 ), including rs4525119 (intronic to AKR1C3), rs7643459 (intronic to LOC101927394), rs4286604 (12 kb 3' of UGT2A2) and rs142091544 (5 kb 5' of WWC1). For HGSOC, we identified six loci with suggestive evidence of association including rs37792 (132 kb 5' of follistatin [FST]), rs57403204 (81 kb 3' of MAGEC1), rs79079890 (LOC105376360 intronic), rs66459581 (5 kb 5' of PRPSAP1), rs116046250 (GABRG3 intronic) and rs192876988 (32 kb 3' of GK2). Among the identified variants, two are near genes known to regulate hormones and diseases of the ovary (AKR1C3 and FST), and two are linked to cancer (AKR1C3 and MAGEC1). In follow-up studies of the 10 identified variants, the GK2 region SNP, rs192876988, showed an inverse association with EOC in European ancestry women (p = 0.002), increased risk of ER positive breast cancer in African ancestry women (p = 0.027) and decreased expression of GK2 in HGSOC tissue from African ancestry women (p = 0.004). A European ancestry-derived polygenic risk score showed positive associations with EOC and HGSOC in women of African ancestry suggesting shared genetic architecture. Our investigation presents evidence of variants for EOC shared among European and African ancestry women and identifies novel EOC risk loci in women of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32653DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523187PMC
June 2020

Patient preferences for attributes of primary surgical debulking versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy for treatment of newly diagnosed ovarian cancer.

Cancer 2019 12 27;125(24):4399-4406. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: Randomized trials have reported conflicting findings on survival for advanced-stage ovarian cancer treated with primary debulking surgery (PDS) versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy with interval debulking; surgical complications and mortality are higher with PDS. We assessed women's preferences for tradeoffs related to this important clinical decision.

Methods: Ovarian cancer patients were recruited to complete a discrete-choice experiment (DCE) consisting of 8 choice tasks presenting experimentally designed treatment alternatives in terms of treatment order, extent of surgery including risk of ostomy, chance of death from surgical complications (1%-10%), readmission for surgical complications (5%-50%), progression-free survival (1-3 years), and overall survival (3-5 years). Random-parameters logit regression was applied to model participants' choices as a function of attribute levels.

Results: A total of 101 ovarian cancer survivors completed the DCE survey; of these participants, 30% were receiving chemotherapy at the time, and 33% had prior recurrence. Overall survival was of greatest importance to participants (36/100), followed by risk of readmission due to complications (23/100), progression-free survival (19/100), surgical mortality (16/100), extent of surgery (4/100), and order of surgery and chemotherapy (2/100). Overall, the participants would tolerate a 15-percentage point increase in risk of major complications (95% confidence interval [CI], 3%-29%) or a 4-percentage point increase in the risk of surgical mortality (95% CI, 2%-13%) in order to increase their expected overall survival from 3 to 3.5 years.

Conclusions: Patients would accept a moderately higher risk of perioperative complications and surgical mortality in exchange for substantial gains in survival. These quantitative findings provide clinicians with a framework to discuss preferences with patients and to incorporate preferences into clinical trial design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32447DOI Listing
December 2019

NCCN Guidelines Insights: Ovarian Cancer, Version 1.2019.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2019 08;17(8):896-909

Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center; and.

Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancer in the United States, with less than half of patients living >5 years from diagnosis. A major challenge in treating ovarian cancer is that most patients have advanced disease at initial diagnosis. The best outcomes are observed in patients whose primary treatment includes complete resection of all visible disease plus combination platinum-based chemotherapy. Research efforts are focused on primary neoadjuvant treatments that may improve resectability, as well as systemic therapies providing improved long-term survival. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on recent updates to neoadjuvant chemotherapy recommendations, including the addition of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and the role of PARP inhibitors and bevacizumab as maintenance therapy options in select patients who have completed primary chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2019.0039DOI Listing
August 2019

Association between genetically predicted polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian cancer: a Mendelian randomization study.

Int J Epidemiol 2019 06;48(3):822-830

Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder with an estimated prevalence of 4-21% in reproductive aged women. Recently, the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) reported a decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer among women with self-reported PCOS. However, given the limitations of self-reported PCOS, the validity of these observed associations remains uncertain. Therefore, we sought to use Mendelian randomization with genetic markers as a proxy for PCOS, to examine the association between PCOS and ovarian cancer.

Methods: Utilizing 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with PCOS we assessed the association between genetically predicted PCOS and ovarian cancer risk, overall and by histotype, using summary statistics from a previously conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ovarian cancer among European ancestry women within the OCAC (22 406 with invasive disease, 3103 with borderline disease and 40 941 controls).

Results: An inverse association was observed between genetically predicted PCOS and invasive ovarian cancer risk: odds ratio (OR)=0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.85-0.99; P = 0.03]. When results were examined by histotype, the strongest inverse association was observed between genetically predicted PCOS and endometrioid tumors (OR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.65-0.92; P = 0.003). Adjustment for individual-level body mass index, oral contraceptive use and parity did not materially change the associations.

Conclusion: Our study provides evidence for a relationship between PCOS and reduced ovarian cancer risk, overall and among specific histotypes of invasive ovarian cancer. These results lend support to our previous observational study results. Future studies are needed to understand mechanisms underlying this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyz113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6659359PMC
June 2019

Associations between lymphovascular space invasion, nodal recurrence, and survival in patients with surgical stage I endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma.

World J Surg Oncol 2019 May 10;17(1):80. Epub 2019 May 10.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Objective: To investigate the predictive value of lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) for nodal recurrence and overall survival (OS) in patients with stage I endometrioid endometrial cancer (EC) following surgical staging that included adequate lymph node sampling.

Methods: Retrospective analyses of patients undergoing surgical staging for FIGO stage I endometrioid EC between 1998 and 2015 were performed using an institutional database and the National Cancer Database (NCDB). Using the institutional database, logistic regression modeling identified predictors of nodal recurrence; Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to predict progression-free survival (PFS). Utilizing NCDB, Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to predict OS. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR). Survival curves were compared using the log-rank test.

Results: Among 275 institutional cases, LVSI was present in 48 (17.5%). There were 11 nodal recurrences: 18.8% (9/48) of cases with LVSI had a nodal recurrence compared to 0.88% (2/227) of those without LVSI. In multivariate analysis of institutional data, LVSI was the only significant predictor of nodal recurrence (p = 0.002). Among 28,076 NCDB cases, LVSI was present in 3766 (13.5%). In multivariate analysis of NCDB, grade 3, LVSI, and depth of invasion (all p <  0.001) were prognostic for OS after adjusting for adjuvant radiation.

Conclusion: LVSI is an independent prognostic factor for nodal recurrence in stage I endometrial cancer with lymph node assessment. LVSI is associated with lower OS in NCDB. Given these findings, adjuvant therapy could be considered in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12957-019-1620-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6511118PMC
May 2019

Going to extremes: determinants of extraordinary response and survival in patients with cancer.

Nat Rev Cancer 2019 06;19(6):339-348

Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Research into factors affecting treatment response or survival in patients with cancer frequently involves cohorts that span the most common range of clinical outcomes, as such patients are most readily available for study. However, attention has turned to highly unusual patients who have exceptionally favourable or atypically poor responses to treatment and/or overall survival, with the expectation that patients at the extremes may provide insights that could ultimately improve the outcome of individuals with more typical disease trajectories. While clinicians can often recount surprising patients whose clinical journey was very unusual, given known clinical characteristics and prognostic indicators, there is a lack of consensus among researchers on how best to define exceptional patients, and little has been proposed for the optimal design of studies to identify factors that dictate unusual outcome. In this Opinion article, we review different approaches to identifying exceptional patients with cancer and possible study designs to investigate extraordinary clinical outcomes. We discuss pitfalls with finding these rare patients, including challenges associated with accrual of patients across different treatment centres and time periods. We describe recent molecular and immunological factors that have been identified as contributing to unusual patient outcome and make recommendations for future studies on these intriguing patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41568-019-0145-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255796PMC
June 2019
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