Publications by authors named "Andreas Nygaard Madsen"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Activation of thyroid hormone receptor-β improved disease activity and metabolism independent of body weight in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 06 6;178(12):2412-2423. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Diabetes Research, Sanofi Research and Development, Frankfurt, Germany.

Background And Purpose: Activation of hepatic thyroid hormone receptor β (THR-β) is associated with systemic lipid lowering, increased bile acid synthesis, and fat oxidation. In patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), treatment with THR-β agonists decreased hepatic steatosis and circulating lipids, and induced resolution of NASH. We chose resmetirom (MGL-3196), a liver-directed, selective THR-β agonist, as a prototype to investigate the effects of THR-β activation in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) and biopsy-confirmed advanced NASH with fibrosis.

Experimental Approach: C57Bl/6J mice were fed a diet high in fat, fructose, and cholesterol for 34 weeks, and only biopsy-confirmed DIO-NASH mice with fibrosis were included. Resmetirom was administered at a daily dose of 3 mg·kg p.o., for 8 weeks. Systemic and hepatic metabolic parameters, histological non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity and fibrosis scores, and liver RNA expression profiles were determined to assess the effect of THR-β activation.

Key Results: Treatment with resmetirom did not influence body weight but led to significant reduction in liver weight, hepatic steatosis, plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, liver and plasma cholesterol, and blood glucose. These metabolic effects translated into significant improvement in NAFLD activity score. Moreover, a lower content of α-smooth muscle actin and down-regulation of genes involved in fibrogenesis indicated a decrease in hepatic fibrosis.

Conclusion And Implications: Our model robustly reflected clinical observations of body weight-independent improvements in systemic and hepatic metabolism including anti-steatotic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.15427DOI Listing
June 2021

Activation of Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Reduces the Onset of Diet-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Mice.

Hepatol Commun 2020 Jul 15;4(7):1056-1072. Epub 2020 May 15.

Sanofi R&D Frankfurt Germany.

The worldwide obesity and type 2 diabetes epidemics have led to an increase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD covers a spectrum of hepatic pathologies ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, characterized by fibrosis and hepatic inflammation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis predisposes to the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we characterized the effect of a pharmacological activator of the intracellular energy sensor adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) on NAFLD progression in a mouse model. The compound stimulated fat oxidation by activating AMPK in both liver and skeletal muscle, as revealed by indirect calorimetry. This translated into an ameliorated hepatic steatosis and reduced fibrosis progression in mice fed a diet high in fat, cholesterol, and fructose for 20 weeks. Feeding mice this diet for 80 weeks caused the onset of HCC. The administration of the AMPK activator for 12 weeks significantly reduced tumor incidence and size. Pharmacological activation of AMPK reduces NAFLD progression to HCC in preclinical models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327225PMC
July 2020

Incretin combination therapy for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2020 08 12;22(8):1328-1338. Epub 2020 Apr 12.

Sanofi Research and Development, Frankfurt, Germany.

Aims: To test specific mono-agonists to the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), glucagon receptor (GCGR) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor (GIPR), individually and in combination, in a mouse model of diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis in order to decipher the contribution of their activities and potential additive effects to improving systemic and hepatic metabolism.

Materials And Methods: We induced NASH by pre-feeding C57BL/6J mice a diet rich in fat, fructose and cholesterol for 36 weeks. This was followed by 8 weeks of treatment with the receptor-specific agonists 1-GCG (20 μg/kg twice daily), 2-GLP1 (3 μg/kg twice daily) or 3-GIP (30 μg/kg twice daily), or the dual (1 + 2) or triple (1 + 2 + 3) combinations thereof. A dual GLP-1R/GCGR agonistic peptide, 4-dual-GLP1/GCGR (30 μg/kg twice daily), and liraglutide (100 μg/kg twice daily) were included as references.

Results: Whereas low-dose 1-GCG or 3-GIP alone did not influence body weight, liver lipids and histology, their combination with 2-GLP1 provided additional weight loss, reduction in liver triglycerides and improvement in histological disease activity score. Notably, 4-dual-GLP-1R/GCGR and the triple combination of selective mono-agonists led to a significantly stronger reduction in the histological non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score compared to high-dose liraglutide, at the same extent of body weight loss.

Conclusions: GCGR and GIPR agonism provide additional, body weight-independent improvements on top of GLP-1R agonism in a murine model of manifest NASH with fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.14035DOI Listing
August 2020

Mastiha (Pistacia lentiscus) Improves Gut Microbiota Diversity, Hepatic Steatosis, and Disease Activity in a Biopsy-Confirmed Mouse Model of Advanced Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis and Fibrosis.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2019 12 23;63(24):e1900927. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research (FISABIO), 46035, Valencia, Spain.

Scope: As a result of the obesity epidemic, the prevalence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing. No drug is approved for the treatment of NASH. In this study, the effect of a nutritional supplement, Mastiha or Chios mastic gum, on metabolic and histological parameters and on the gut microbiome in mice with NASH and fibrosis was investigated.

Methods And Results: Advanced NASH was induced by feeding C57BL/6J mice a diet rich in fat, sucrose, and cholesterol for 41 weeks. After randomization, animals received the NASH-inducing diet with or without 0.2% (w/w) Mastiha for a further 8 weeks. Disease activity was assessed by liver histology and determination of plasma transaminase activities. Fecal microbiota DNA extraction and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing were used to determine the composition of the gut microbiome. Mastiha supplementation led to a significant reduction in circulating alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, improvement in hepatic steatosis and collagen content, and a reduction in NAFLD activity score. Furthermore, it resulted in a partial but significant recovery of gut microbiota diversity and changes in identity and abundance of specific taxa.

Conclusion: This is the first study demonstrating an improvement in disease activity in mice with advanced NASH with fibrosis by a diet containing Mastiha.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201900927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7003480PMC
December 2019

Impaired glucose metabolism and altered gut microbiome despite calorie restriction of ob/ob mice.

Anim Microbiome 2019 Sep 5;1(1):11. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Growing evidence supports the role of gut microbiota in obesity and its related disorders including type 2 diabetes. Ob/ob mice, which are hyperphagic due to leptin deficiency, are commonly used models of obesity and were instrumental in suggesting links between gut microbiota and obesity. Specific changes in their gut microbiota such as decreased microbial diversity and increased Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio have been suggested to contribute to obesity via increased microbiota capacity to harvest energy. However, the differential development of ob/ob mouse gut microbiota compared to wild type microbiota and the role of hyperphagia in their metabolic impairment have not been investigated thoroughly.

Results: We performed a 10-week long study in ob/ob (n = 12) and wild type control (n = 12) mice fed ad libitum. To differentiate effects of leptin deficiency from hyperphagia, we pair-fed an additional group of ob/ob mice (n = 11) based on the food consumption of control mice. Compared to control mice, ob/ob mice fed ad libitum exhibited compromised glucose metabolism and increased body fat percentage. Pair-fed ob/ob mice exhibited even more compromised glucose metabolism and maintained strikingly similar high body fat percentage at the cost of lean body mass. Acclimatization of the microbiota to our facility took up to 5 weeks. Leptin deficiency impacted gut microbial composition, explaining 18.3% of the variance. Pair-feeding also altered several taxa, although the overall community composition at the end of the study was not significantly different. We found 24 microbial taxa associations with leptin deficiency, notably enrichment of members of Lactobacillus and depletion of Akkermansia muciniphila. Microbial metabolic functions related to energy harvest, including glycan degradation, phosphotransferase systems and ABC transporters, were enriched in the ob/ob mice. Taxa previously reported as relevant for obesity were associated with body weight, including Oscillibacter and Alistipes (both negatively correlated) and Prevotella (positively correlated).

Conclusions: Leptin deficiency caused major changes in the mouse gut microbiota composition. Several microbial taxa were associated with body composition. Pair-fed mice maintained a pre-set high proportion of body fat despite reduced calorie intake, and exhibited more compromised glucose metabolism, with major implications for treatment options for genetically obese individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42523-019-0007-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807779PMC
September 2019

The Lysine Demethylase KDM5B Regulates Islet Function and Glucose Homeostasis.

J Diabetes Res 2019 28;2019:5451038. Epub 2019 Jul 28.

Immuno-endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Aims: Posttranslational modifications of histones and transcription factors regulate gene expression and are implicated in beta-cell failure and diabetes. We have recently shown that preserving H3K27 and H3K4 methylation using the lysine demethylase inhibitor GSK-J4 reduces cytokine-induced destruction of beta-cells and improves beta-cell function. Here, we investigate the therapeutic potential of GSK-J4 to prevent diabetes development and examine the importance of H3K4 methylation for islet function.

Materials And Methods: We used two mouse models of diabetes to investigate the therapeutic potential of GSK-J4. To clarify the importance of H3K4 methylation, we characterized a mouse strain with knockout (KO) of the H3K4 demethylase KDM5B.

Results: GSK-J4 administration failed to prevent the development of experimental diabetes induced by multiple low-dose streptozotocin or adoptive transfer of splenocytes from acutely diabetic NOD to NODscid mice. KDM5B-KO mice were growth retarded with altered body composition, had low IGF-1 levels, and exhibited reduced insulin secretion. Interestingly, despite secreting less insulin, KDM5B-KO mice were able to maintain normoglycemia following oral glucose tolerance test, likely via improved insulin sensitivity, as suggested by insulin tolerance testing and phosphorylation of proteins belonging to the insulin signaling pathway. When challenged with high-fat diet, KDM5B-deficient mice displayed similar weight gain and insulin sensitivity as wild-type mice.

Conclusion: Our results show a novel role of KDM5B in metabolism, as KDM5B-KO mice display growth retardation and improved insulin sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/5451038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6701283PMC
January 2020

Translating biased signaling in the ghrelin receptor system into differential in vivo functions.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 10 9;115(43):E10255-E10264. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Laboratory for Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark;

Biased signaling has been suggested as a means of selectively modulating a limited fraction of the signaling pathways for G-protein-coupled receptor family members. Hence, biased ligands may allow modulation of only the desired physiological functions and not elicit undesired effects associated with pharmacological treatments. The ghrelin receptor is a highly sought antiobesity target, since the gut hormone ghrelin in humans has been shown to increase both food intake and fat accumulation. However, it also modulates mood, behavior, growth hormone secretion, and gastric motility. Thus, blocking all pathways of this receptor may give rise to potential side effects. In the present study, we describe a highly promiscuous signaling capacity for the ghrelin receptor. We tested selected ligands for their ability to regulate the various pathways engaged by the receptor. Among those, a biased ligand, YIL781, was found to activate the Gα and Gα pathways selectively without affecting the engagement of β-arrestin or other G proteins. YIL781 was further characterized for its in vivo physiological functions. In combination with the use of mice in which Gα was selectively deleted in the appetite-regulating AgRP neurons, this biased ligand allowed us to demonstrate that selective blockade of Gα, without antagonism at β-arrestin or other G-protein coupling is sufficient to decrease food intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1804003115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205473PMC
October 2018

C4.4A gene ablation is compatible with normal epidermal development and causes modest overt phenotypes.

Sci Rep 2016 05 12;6:25833. Epub 2016 May 12.

The Finsen Laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

C4.4A is a modular glycolipid-anchored Ly6/uPAR/α-neurotoxin multidomain protein that exhibits a prominent membrane-associated expression in stratified squamous epithelia. C4.4A is also expressed in various solid cancer lesions, where high expression levels often are correlated to poor prognosis. Circumstantial evidence suggests a role for C4.4A in cell adhesion, migration, and invasion, but a well-defined biological function is currently unknown. In the present study, we have generated and characterized the first C4.4A-deficient mouse line to gain insight into the functional significance of C4.4A in normal physiology and cancer progression. The unchallenged C4.4A-deficient mice were viable, fertile, born in a normal Mendelian distribution and, surprisingly, displayed normal development of squamous epithelia. The C4.4A-deficient mice were, nonetheless, significantly lighter than littermate controls predominantly due to differences in fat mass. Congenital C4.4A deficiency delayed migration of keratinocytes enclosing incisional skin wounds in male mice. In chemically induced bladder carcinomas, C4.4A deficiency attenuated the incidence of invasive lesions despite having no effect on total tumour burden. This new C4.4A-deficient mouse line provides a useful platform for future studies on functional aspects of C4.4A in tumour cell invasion in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep25833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4864438PMC
May 2016

Impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased CPT1b levels as a contributing factor to fat accumulation in obesity.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2015 Jun 8;308(11):R973-82. Epub 2015 Apr 8.

Laboratory for Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Section for Metabolic Receptology and Enteroendocrinology, The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark;

To characterize mechanisms responsible for fat accumulation we used a selectively bred obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rat model where the rats were fed a Western diet for 76 days. Body composition was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging scans, and as expected, the OP rats developed a higher degree of fat accumulation compared with OR rats. Indirect calorimetry showed that the OP rats had higher respiratory exchange ratio (RER) compared with OR rats, indicating an impaired ability to oxidize fat. The OP rats had lower expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b in intra-abdominal fat, and higher expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 in subcutaneous fat compared with OR rats, which could explain the higher fat accumulation and RER values. Basal metabolic parameters were also examined in juvenile OP and OR rats before and during the introduction of the Western diet. Juvenile OP rats likewise had higher RER values, indicating that this trait may be a primary and contributing factor to their obese phenotype. When the adult obese rats were exposed to the orexigenic and adipogenic hormone ghrelin, we observed increased RER values in both OP and OR rats, while OR rats were more sensitive to the orexigenic effects of ghrelin as well as ghrelin-induced attenuation of activity and energy expenditure. Thus increased fat accumulation characterizing obesity may be caused by impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b levels in the white adipose tissue, whereas ghrelin sensitivity did not seem to be a contributing factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00219.2014DOI Listing
June 2015

Physiological and pathological impact of blood sampling by retro-bulbar sinus puncture and facial vein phlebotomy in laboratory mice.

PLoS One 2014 26;9(11):e113225. Epub 2014 Nov 26.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Retro-bulbar sinus puncture and facial vein phlebotomy are two widely used methods for blood sampling in laboratory mice. However, the animal welfare implications associated with these techniques are currently debated, and the possible physiological and pathological implications of blood sampling using these methods have been sparsely investigated. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess and compare the impacts of blood sampling by retro-bulbar sinus puncture and facial vein phlebotomy. Blood was obtained from either the retro-bulbar sinus or the facial vein from male C57BL/6J mice at two time points, and the samples were analyzed for plasma corticosterone. Body weights were measured at the day of blood sampling and the day after blood sampling, and the food consumption was recorded automatically during the 24 hours post-procedure. At the end of study, cheeks and orbital regions were collected for histopathological analysis to assess the degree of tissue trauma. Mice subjected to facial vein phlebotomy had significantly elevated plasma corticosterone levels at both time points in contrast to mice subjected to retro-bulbar sinus puncture, which did not. Both groups of sampled mice lost weight following blood sampling, but the body weight loss was higher in mice subjected to facial vein phlebotomy. The food consumption was not significantly different between the two groups. At gross necropsy, subcutaneous hematomas were found in both groups and the histopathological analyses revealed extensive tissue trauma after both facial vein phlebotomy and retro-bulbar sinus puncture. This study demonstrates that both blood sampling methods have a considerable impact on the animals' physiological condition, which should be considered whenever blood samples are obtained.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0113225PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4245142PMC
July 2015

Divalent metal transporter 1 regulates iron-mediated ROS and pancreatic β cell fate in response to cytokines.

Cell Metab 2012 Oct 20;16(4):449-61. Epub 2012 Sep 20.

Center for Medical Research Methodology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to target-cell damage in inflammatory and iron-overload diseases. Little is known about iron transport regulation during inflammatory attack. Through a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies, we show that the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β induces divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) expression correlating with increased β cell iron content and ROS production. Iron chelation and siRNA and genetic knockdown of DMT1 expression reduce cytokine-induced ROS formation and cell death. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the absence of cytokines in Dmt1 knockout islets is defective, highlighting a physiological role of iron and ROS in the regulation of insulin secretion. Dmt1 knockout mice are protected against multiple low-dose streptozotocin and high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance, models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Thus, β cells become prone to ROS-mediated inflammatory damage via aberrant cellular iron metabolism, a finding with potential general cellular implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2012.09.001DOI Listing
October 2012

Deficiency of the GPR39 receptor is associated with obesity and altered adipocyte metabolism.

FASEB J 2011 Nov 22;25(11):3803-14. Epub 2011 Jul 22.

Laboratory for Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

GPR39, a constitutively active 7TM receptor important for glucose-induced insulin secretion and maturation of pancreatic β-cell function, is up-regulated in adipose tissue on abstinence from food and chemically induced diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of GPR39 deficiency on body weight and adipocyte metabolism. GPR39-deficient mice were subjected to a high-fat diet and body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, food intake, and energy expenditure were evaluated. The cell biology of adipocyte metabolism was studied on both mRNA and protein levels. A significant increase in body weight corresponding to a 2-fold selective increase in fat mass was observed in GPR39-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet as compared with wild-type littermate controls fed the same diet. The GPR39-deficient animals had similar food intake but displayed almost eliminated diet-induced thermogenesis, measured by the oxygen consumption rate (Vo(2)) on change from normal to high-fat diet. Analysis of the adipose tissue for lipolytic enzymes demonstrated decreased level of phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and a decreased level of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) by 35 and 60%, respectively, after food withdrawal in the GPR39-deficient mice. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), a signaling pathway known to be important for lipolysis, was decreased by 56% in the GPR39-deficient mice. GPR39 deficiency is associated with increased fat accumulation on a high-fat diet, conceivably due to decreased energy expenditure and adipocyte lipolytic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.11-184531DOI Listing
November 2011

Studies on the anorectic effect of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylethanolamine in mice.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2011 Sep 23;1811(9):508-12. Epub 2011 Jun 23.

Department of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine is a precursor phospholipid for anandamide, oleoylethanolamide, and other N-acylethanolamines, and it may in itself have biological functions in cell membranes. Recently, N-palmitoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) has been reported to function as an anorectic hormone secreted from the gut and acting on the brain (Gillum et al., [5]). In the current study, two of our laboratories independently investigated whether NAPE metabolites may be involved in mediating the anorectic action of NAPE i.p. injected in mice. Thus, the anorectic activity of a non-hydrolysable NAPE analogue, having ether bonds instead of ester bonds at sn1 and sn2 was compared with that of NAPE in molar equivalent doses. Furthermore, the anorectic effect of NAPE in NAPE-hydrolysing phospholipase D knockout animals was investigated. As negative controls, the NAPE precursor phosphatidylethanolamine and the related phospholipids phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidic acid were also tested. All compounds except one were found to inhibit food intake, raising the possibility that the effect of NAPE is non-specific.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2011.06.020DOI Listing
September 2011

Dietary fat decreases intestinal levels of the anorectic lipids through a fat sensor.

FASEB J 2011 Feb 19;25(2):765-74. Epub 2010 Oct 19.

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotheraphy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

This study was undertaken to investigate the link between dietary fat content and intestinal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), including oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and linoleoylethanolamide (LEA). Male rats were fed high-fat diets (HFDs) with variable percentages of fat [20-45% of total energy (E%)] for 1-7 d; afterward, the jejunums were isolated, and jejunal NAE levels were measured by liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry. Enzyme activities and mRNA expression levels were measured for two synthesizing enzymes, N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) and glycerophosphodiesterase (GDE1), and one degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). We found a dose-response relation between the quantity/percentage of dietary fat, irrespective of the energy density, and the reduction of intestinal levels of OEA, PEA, and LEA. The reductions were present after 1 d of 45E% HFD. LEA, the major NAE species, was shown to have an anorectic potency slightly less than that of OEA but higher than PEA. Regulation at the enzyme level seems not to explain the changes in NAE levels. The results suggest the presence of a fat sensor, mediating the reduced intestinal NAE levels. The intestinal NAE levels are reduced in a dose- and time-dependent manner in response to dietary fat intake, and this may contribute to the well-known hyperphagic effect of HFDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.10-166595DOI Listing
February 2011

Long-term characterization of the diet-induced obese and diet-resistant rat model: a polygenetic rat model mimicking the human obesity syndrome.

J Endocrinol 2010 Sep 27;206(3):287-96. Epub 2010 May 27.

Rheoscience A/S, Rødovre 2610, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The availability of useful animal models reflecting the human obesity syndrome is crucial in the search for novel compounds for the pharmacological treatment of obesity. In the current study, we have performed an extensive characterization of the obesity syndrome in a polygenetic animal model, namely the selectively bred diet-induced obese (DIO) and diet-resistant (DR) rat strains. We show that they constitute useful models of the human obesity syndrome. DIO and DR rats were fed either a high-energy (HE) or a standard chow (Chow) diet from weaning to 9 months of age. Metabolic characterization including blood biochemistry and glucose homeostasis was examined at 2, 3, 6, and 9 months of age. Furthermore, in 6-month-old HE-fed DIO rats, the anti-obesity effects of liraglutide and sibutramine were examined in a 28-day study. Only HE-fed DIO rats developed visceral obesity, hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia, and showed a worsening of glucose tolerance over time. In line with the hyperlipidemic profile, a severe hepatic fat infiltration was observed in DIO rats at 6 months of age. The effects of liraglutide and sibutramine were tested in 6-month-old DIO rats. Both compounds effectively reduced food intake and body weight in DIO rats. Liraglutide furthermore improved glucose tolerance when compared with sibutramine. Our data highlights the usefulness of a polygenetic animal model for screening of compounds affecting food intake, body weight, and glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, the results underscore the effectiveness of GLP-1 mimetics both as anti-diabetes and anti-obesity agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/JOE-10-0004DOI Listing
September 2010

In vivo characterization of high Basal signaling from the ghrelin receptor.

Endocrinology 2009 Nov 9;150(11):4920-30. Epub 2009 Oct 9.

Laboratory for Molecular Pharmacology, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.

The receptor for the orexigenic peptide, ghrelin, is one of the most constitutively active 7TM receptors known, as demonstrated under in vitro conditions. Change in expression of a constitutively active receptor is associated with change in signaling independent of the endogenous ligand. In the following study, we found that the expression of the ghrelin receptor in the hypothalamus was up-regulated approximately 2-fold in rats both during 48-h fasting and by streptozotocin-induced hyperphagia. In a separate experiment, to probe for the effect of the high basal signaling of the ghrelin receptor in vivo, we used intracerebroventricular administration by osmotic pumps of a peptide [D-Arg(1), D-Phe(5), D-Trp(7,9), Leu(11)]-substance P. This peptide selectively displays inverse agonism at the ghrelin receptor as compared with an inactive control peptide with just a single amino acid substitution. Food intake and body weight were significantly decreased in the group of rats treated with the inverse agonist, as compared with the groups treated with the control peptide or the vehicle. In the hypothalamus, the expression of neuropeptide Y and uncoupling protein 2 was decreased by the inverse agonist. In a hypothalamic cell line that endogenously expresses the ghrelin receptor, we observed high basal activity of the cAMP response element binding protein, an important signaling transduction pathway for appetite regulation. The activation was further increased by ghrelin administration and decreased by administration of the inverse agonist. It is suggested that the high constitutive signaling activity is important for the in vivo function of the ghrelin receptor in the control of food intake and body weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2008-1638DOI Listing
November 2009

PYY(3-36) reduces food intake and body weight and improves insulin sensitivity in rodent models of diet-induced obesity.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2006 Aug 13;291(2):R367-75. Epub 2006 Apr 13.

Rheoscience, Glerupvej 2, 2610 Rødovre, Denmark.

The gut hormone peptide YY (PYY) was recently proposed to comprise an endogenous satiety factor. We have studied acute anorectic functions of PYY(3-36) in mice and rats, as well as metabolic effects of chronic PYY(3-36) administration to diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and rats. A single intraperitoneal injection of PYY(3-36) inhibited food intake in mice, but not in rats. We next investigated the effects of increasing doses (100, 300, and 1,000 microg.kg-1.day-1) of PYY(3-36) administered subcutaneously via osmotic minipumps on food intake and body weight in DIO C57BL/6J mice. Whereas only the highest dose (1,000 microg.kg-1.day-1) of PYY(3-36) significantly reduced food intake over the first 3 days, body weight gain was dose dependently reduced, and on day 28 the group treated with 1,000 microg.kg-1.day-1 PYY(3-36) weighed approximately 10% less than the vehicle-treated group. Mesenteric, epididymal, retroperitoneal, and inguinal fat pad weight was dose dependently reduced. Subcutaneous administration of PYY(3-36) (250 and 1,000 microg.kg-1.day-1) for 28 days reduced body weight and improved glycemic control in glucose-intolerant DIO rats. Neither 250 nor 1,000 microg/kg PYY(3-36) elicited a conditioned taste aversion in male rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00726.2005DOI Listing
August 2006

Cytokine production by virus-specific CD8(+) T cells varies with activation state and localization, but not with TCR avidity.

J Gen Virol 2004 Jun;85(Pt 6):1703-1712

Institute of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The ability of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells to produce cytokines was studied in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. Intracellular staining was used to visualize cytokine-producing CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. Overall, virus-specific CD8(+) T cells produce a similar range of cytokines (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, GM-CSF, RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta) as CD4(+) T cells, but the relative distribution of cytokine-producing subsets is different. Moreover, cytokine-producing CD8(+) T cells were found to dominate numerically at all time-points tested. Co-staining for more than one cytokine revealed that while all cytokine-producing CD8(+) T cells synthesized IFN-gamma, additional cytokines were produced by partly overlapping subsets of this population. The frequency of cells producing more than one cytokine was higher in a tertiary site (peritoneum) and generally increased with transition into the memory phase; however, GM-CSF producing cells were only present transiently. Concerning factors predicted to influence the distribution of cytokine-producing subsets, IFN-gamma and IL-12 did not play a role, nor was extensive virus replication essential. Notably, regarding the heterogeneity in cytokine production by individual cells with similar epitope specificity, variation in TCR avidity was not the cause, since in vivo-activated TCR transgene-expressing cells were as heterogeneous in cytokine expression as polyclonal cells specific for the same epitope.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.79903-0DOI Listing
June 2004

Regulation of T cell migration during viral infection: role of adhesion molecules and chemokines.

Immunol Lett 2003 Jan;85(2):119-27

Institute of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

T cell mediated immunity and in particular CD8+ T cells are pivotal for the control of most viral infections. T cells exclusively exert their antiviral effect through close cellular interaction with relevant virus-infected target cells in vivo. It is therefore imperative that efficient mechanisms exist, which will rapidly direct newly generated effector T cells to sites of viral replication. In the present report we have reviewed our present knowledge concerning the molecular interactions, which are important in targeting of effector CD8+ T cells to sites of viral infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0165-2478(02)00236-5DOI Listing
January 2003
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