Publications by authors named "Andreas Katopodis"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The T-cell fingerprint of MALT1 paracaspase revealed by selective inhibition.

Immunol Cell Biol 2018 01 21;96(1):81-99. Epub 2017 Dec 21.

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Campus, Basel, Switzerland.

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1) is essential for immune responses triggered by antigen receptors but the contribution of its paracaspase activity is not fully understood. Here, we studied how MALT1 proteolytic function regulates T-cell activation and fate after engagement of the T-cell receptor pathway. We show that MLT-827, a potent and selective MALT1 paracaspase inhibitor, does not prevent the initial phase of T-cell activation, in contrast to the pan-protein kinase C inhibitor AEB071. However, MLT-827 strongly impacted cell expansion after activation. We demonstrate this is the consequence of profound inhibition of IL-2 production as well as reduced expression of the IL-2 receptor alpha subunit (CD25), resulting from defective canonical NF-κB activation and accelerated mRNA turnover mechanisms. Accordingly, MLT-827 revealed a unique transcriptional fingerprint of MALT1 protease activity, providing evidence for broad control of T-cell signaling pathways. Altogether, this first report with a potent and selective inhibitor elucidates how MALT1 paracaspase activity integrates several T-cell activation pathways and indirectly controls gamma-chain receptor dependent survival, to impact on T-cell expansion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imcb.1018DOI Listing
January 2018

Improved cancer immunotherapy by a CD25-mimobody conferring selectivity to human interleukin-2.

Sci Transl Med 2016 11;8(367):367ra166

Department of Immunology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) immunotherapy is an attractive approach in treating advanced cancer. However, by binding to its IL-2 receptor α (CD25) subunit, IL-2 exerts unwanted effects, including stimulation of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (T) and contribution to vascular leak syndrome. We used a rational approach to develop a monoclonal antibody to human IL-2, termed NARA1, which acts as a high-affinity CD25 mimic, thereby minimizing association of IL-2 with CD25. The structure of the IL-2-NARA1 complex revealed that NARA1 occupies the CD25 epitope of IL-2 and precisely overlaps with CD25. Association of NARA1 with IL-2 occurs with 10-fold higher affinity compared to CD25 and forms IL-2/NARA1 complexes, which, in vivo, preferentially stimulate CD8 T cells while disfavoring CD25 T and improving the benefit-to-adverse effect ratio of IL-2. In two transplantable and one spontaneous metastatic melanoma model, IL-2/NARA1 complex immunotherapy resulted in efficient expansion of tumor-specific and polyclonal CD8 T cells. These CD8 T cells showed robust interferon-γ production and expressed low levels of exhaustion markers programmed cell death protein-1, lymphocyte activation gene-3, and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3. These effects resulted in potent anticancer immune responses and prolonged survival in the tumor models. Collectively, our data demonstrate that NARA1 acts as a CD25-mimobody that confers selectivity and increased potency to IL-2 and warrant further assessment of NARA1 as a therapeutic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aag3187DOI Listing
November 2016

Deficiency of MALT1 paracaspase activity results in unbalanced regulatory and effector T and B cell responses leading to multiorgan inflammation.

J Immunol 2015 Apr 11;194(8):3723-34. Epub 2015 Mar 11.

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, 4056 Basel, Switzerland;

The paracaspase MALT1 plays an important role in immune receptor-driven signaling pathways leading to NF-κB activation. MALT1 promotes signaling by acting as a scaffold, recruiting downstream signaling proteins, as well as by proteolytic cleavage of multiple substrates. However, the relative contributions of these two different activities to T and B cell function are not well understood. To investigate how MALT1 proteolytic activity contributes to overall immune cell regulation, we generated MALT1 protease-deficient mice (Malt1(PD/PD)) and compared their phenotype with that of MALT1 knockout animals (Malt1(-/-)). Malt1(PD/PD) mice displayed defects in multiple cell types including marginal zone B cells, B1 B cells, IL-10-producing B cells, regulatory T cells, and mature T and B cells. In general, immune defects were more pronounced in Malt1(-/-) animals. Both mouse lines showed abrogated B cell responses upon immunization with T-dependent and T-independent Ags. In vitro, inactivation of MALT1 protease activity caused reduced stimulation-induced T cell proliferation, impaired IL-2 and TNF-α production, as well as defective Th17 differentiation. Consequently, Malt1(PD/PD) mice were protected in a Th17-dependent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. Surprisingly, Malt1(PD/PD) animals developed a multiorgan inflammatory pathology, characterized by Th1 and Th2/0 responses and enhanced IgG1 and IgE levels, which was delayed by wild-type regulatory T cell reconstitution. We therefore propose that the pathology characterizing Malt1(PD/PD) animals arises from an immune imbalance featuring pathogenic Th1- and Th2/0-skewed effector responses and reduced immunosuppressive compartments. These data uncover a previously unappreciated key function of MALT1 protease activity in immune homeostasis and underline its relevance in human health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1402254DOI Listing
April 2015

Nuclear orphan receptor NR2F6 directly antagonizes NFAT and RORγt binding to the Il17a promoter.

J Autoimmun 2012 Dec 24;39(4):428-40. Epub 2012 Aug 24.

Department for Pharmacology and Genetics, Medical University Innsbruck, Peter Mayr Str. 1a, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is the signature cytokine produced by Th17 CD4(+) T cells and has been tightly linked to autoimmune pathogenesis. In particular, the transcription factors NFAT and RORγt are known to activate Il17a transcription, although the detailed mechanism of action remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that the nuclear orphan receptor NR2F6 can attenuate the capacity of NFAT to bind to critical regions of the Il17a gene promoter. In addition, because NR2F6 binds to defined hormone response elements (HREs) within the Il17a locus, it interferes with the ability of RORγt to access the DNA. Consistently, NFAT and RORγt binding within the Il17a locus were enhanced in Nr2f6-deficient CD4(+) Th17 cells but decreased in Nr2f6-overexpressing transgenic CD4(+) Th17 cells. Taken together, our findings uncover an example of antagonistic regulation of Il17a transcription through the direct reciprocal actions of NR2F6 versus NFAT and RORγt.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2012.07.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3516707PMC
December 2012

Oxysterols direct immune cell migration via EBI2.

Nature 2011 Jul 27;475(7357):524-7. Epub 2011 Jul 27.

Euroscreen S.A., 6041 Gosselies, Belgium.

Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 2 (EBI2, also known as GPR183) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is required for humoral immune responses; polymorphisms in the receptor have been associated with inflammatory autoimmune diseases. The natural ligand for EBI2 has been unknown. Here we describe the identification of 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol (also called 7α,25-OHC or 5-cholesten-3β,7α,25-triol) as a potent and selective agonist of EBI2. Functional activation of human EBI2 by 7α,25-OHC and closely related oxysterols was verified by monitoring second messenger readouts and saturable, high-affinity radioligand binding. Furthermore, we find that 7α,25-OHC and closely related oxysterols act as chemoattractants for immune cells expressing EBI2 by directing cell migration in vitro and in vivo. A critical enzyme required for the generation of 7α,25-OHC is cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H). Similar to EBI2 receptor knockout mice, mice deficient in CH25H fail to position activated B cells within the spleen to the outer follicle and mount a reduced plasma cell response after an immune challenge. This demonstrates that CH25H generates EBI2 biological activity in vivo and indicates that the EBI2-oxysterol signalling pathway has an important role in the adaptive immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4297623PMC
July 2011

In vivo neutralization of naturally existing antibodies against linear alpha(1,3)-galactosidic carbohydrate epitopes by multivalent antigen presentation: a solution for the first hurdle of pig-to-human xenotransplantation.

Chimia (Aarau) 2010 ;64(1-2):23-8

Novartis Institutes of Biomedical Research (NIBR), Novartis Pharma AG, PO. Box, CH-4002 Basel.

Pig-to-human xenotransplantation of islet cells or of vascularized organs would offer a welcome treatment alternative for the ever-increasing number of patients with end-stage organ failure who are waiting for a suitable allograph. The main hurdle are preexisting antibodies, most of which are specific for 'Linear-B', carbohydrate epitopes terminated by the unbranched Gal-alpha(1,3)Gal disaccharide. These antibodies are responsible for the 'hyper-acute rejection' of the xenograft by complement mediated hemorrhage. For depletion of such antibodies we have developed an artificial injectable antigen, a glycopolymer (GAS914) with a charge neutral poly-lysine backbone (degree of polymerization n = 1000) and 25% of its side chains coupled to Linear-B-trisaccharide. With an average molecular weight of 400 to 500 kD, presenting 250 trisaccharide epitopes per molecule, this multivalent array binds anti-alphaGal antibodies with at least three orders of magnitude higher avidity on a per-saccharide basis than the monomeric epitope. In vivo experiments with non-human primates documented that rather low doses--1 to 5 mg/kg of GAS914 injected i.v.--efficiently reduce the load of anti-Linear-B antibodies quickly by at least 80%. This treatment can be repeated without any sensitization to GAS914. Interestingly, although the antibody levels start raising 12 h after injection, they do not reach pretreatment levels. The polymer is degraded and excreted within hours, with a minute fraction remaining in lymphoid tissue of anti-alphaGal producing animals only, probably binding to and inhibiting antibody-producing B-cells. The results of pig-to-non-human primate xenotransplantations established GAS914 as a relevant therapeutic option for pig-to-human transplantations as well. The synthesis of GAS914 was successfully scaled up to kg amounts needed for first clinical studies. Key was the use of galactosyl transferases and UDP-galactose for the synthesis of the trisaccharide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2533/chimia.2010.23DOI Listing
February 2011

Differential promotion of hematopoietic chimerism and inhibition of alloreactive T cell proliferation by combinations of anti-CD40Ligand, anti-LFA-1, everolimus, and deoxyspergualin.

Transpl Immunol 2008 Nov 31;20(1-2):106-12. Epub 2008 Jul 31.

Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, 4002 Basel, Switzerland.

Allogeneic bone marrow (BM) engraftment for chimerism and transplantation tolerance may be promoted by combinations of costimulation blocking biologics and small molecular weight inhibitors. We showed previously in a mouse model that anti-CD40Ligand (anti-CD40L, CD154) combined with anti-LFA-1 or everolimus (40-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)-rapamycin) resulted in stable chimerism in almost all BM recipients, whereas anti-LFA-1 plus everolimus conferred approximately 50% chimerism stability. Here, we investigated whether this lower incidence could be increased with deoxyspergualin (DSG) in place of or in addition to everolimus. However, DSG and everolimus were similarly synergistic with costimulation blockade for stable hematopoietic chimerism. This correlated with allospecific T cell depletion and inhibition of acute but not chronic skin allograft rejection. Different treatments were also compared for their inhibition of alloreactive T cell proliferation in vivo. While anti-CD40L did not impair T cell proliferation, anti-LFA-1 reduced both CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferation, and combining anti-LFA-1 with everolimus or DSG had an additive inhibitory effect on CD4 T cell proliferation. Thus, despite their strong inhibition of alloreactive T cell proliferation, combinations of anti-LFA-1 with everolimus or DSG did not reach the unique potency of anti-CD40L-based combinations to support stable hematopoietic chimerism in this system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trim.2008.07.002DOI Listing
November 2008

Modulation of T cell homeostasis and alloreactivity under continuous FTY720 exposure.

Int Immunol 2008 May 14;20(5):633-44. Epub 2008 Mar 14.

Department of Autoimmunity and Transplantation, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, 4002 Basel, Switzerland.

The immunomodulator FTY720 inhibits lymph node (LN) and thymic egress, thereby constraining T cell circulation and reducing peripheral T cell numbers. Here, we analyzed in mouse models the as yet scarcely characterized impact of long-term (up to 6 months) FTY720 exposure on T cell homeostasis and possible consequences for alloreactivity. In green fluorescent protein (GFP) hemopoietic chimeras, the turnover of (initially GFP(-)) peripheral T cell pools was markedly delayed under FTY720, while normal homeostatic differences between CD4 and CD8 T cell sub-populations were retained or amplified further. Homeostatic proliferation was enhanced, and within shrinking T cell pools, the proportions of effector memory phenotype CD4 T cells (CD4T(PEM)) increased in spleens and LNs and of central memory phenotype CD8 T cells (CD8T(PCM)) in LNs. By contrast, the fractions of CD8T(PEM) and CD4T(PCM) remained stably small under FTY720. The enrichment for CD4T(PEM) and CD8T(PCM) correlated with larger proportions of IFNgamma-producing T cells upon nonspecific but not allospecific stimulation. Splenic CD4 T cells from FTY720-treated mice proliferated more strongly upon transfer to semi-allogeneic hosts. However, heart allograft survival was not compromised in FTY720 pre-treated recipients. It correlated with reduced intra-graft CD8 T cells, and the longest surviving transplants contained the highest numbers of CD4 T cells. Thus, continuous FTY720 exposure reveals differential homeostatic responses by memory phenotype CD4 and CD8 T cell sub-populations, and it may enhance alloreactive CD4 T cell proliferation and tissue infiltration without accelerating allograft rejection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intimm/dxn023DOI Listing
May 2008

Anti-LFA-1 monotherapy prevents neointimal formation in a murine model of transplant intimal hyperplasia.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2007 Jul;26(7):724-31

Department of Cardiac Surgery, National Heart and Lung Institute, London, UK.

Background: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is the pre-eminent cause of late cardiac allograft failure. It is characterized by a concentric intimal hyperplasia, which we designate transplant intimal hyperplasia (TIH). To date, blockade of the adhesion molecule lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) has been shown to be effective in preventing TIH in experimental models of transplantation, but only when combined with other immunosuppressants. In this study we explored the impact of monotherapy against LFA-1 in a carotid artery allograft model of TIH.

Methods: B10A(2R) (H-2(h2)) mice were used as donors and C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) mice used as recipients. The recipients were treated with a monoclonal antibody against LFA-1alpha (M17/4) or isotype-matched control immunoglobulin. Grafts were harvested after 35 days and analyzed by histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. Blood samples were taken and analyzed by differential cell count and alloantibody levels.

Results: We found that treatment with M17/4 resulted in a significant reduction in TIH compared with controls. Immunostaining revealed that LFA-1alpha blockade inhibited CD45+ leukocyte infiltration, prevented intimal smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, and preserved the medial SMC population. Finally, we demonstrated a reduction in the serum alloantibody titer in the group treated with anti-LFA-1alpha when compared with controls.

Conclusions: We have demonstrated for the first time that LFA-1alpha blockade on its own can prevent development of TIH in an experimental model. The concept of modulating LFA-1alpha-mediated leukocyte migration and T-cell activation may therefore be of relevance to clinical cardiac transplantation and, as such, represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention against clinical CAV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2007.04.007DOI Listing
July 2007

Non-covalent polyvalent ligands by self-assembly of small glycodendrimers: a novel concept for the inhibition of polyvalent carbohydrate-protein interactions in vitro and in vivo.

Chemistry 2005 Dec;12(1):99-117

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Lichtstrasse 35, 4056 Basel, Switzerland.

Polyvalent carbohydrate-protein interactions occur frequently in biology, particularly in recognition events on cellular membranes. Collectively, they can be much stronger than corresponding monovalent interactions, rendering it difficult to control them with individual small molecules. Artificial macromolecules have been used as polyvalent ligands to inhibit polyvalent processes; however, both reproducible synthesis and appropriate characterization of such complex entities is demanding. Herein, we present an alternative concept avoiding conventional macromolecules. Small glycodendrimers which fulfill single molecule entity criteria self-assemble to form non-covalent nanoparticles. These particles-not the individual molecules-function as polyvalent ligands, efficiently inhibiting polyvalent processes both in vitro and in vivo. The synthesis and characterization of these glycodendrimers is described in detail. Furthermore, we report on the characterization of the non-covalent nanoparticles formed and on their biological evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.200500901DOI Listing
December 2005

The effect of soluble complement receptor type 1 on acute humoral xenograft rejection in hDAF-transgenic pig-to-primate life-supporting kidney xenografts.

Xenotransplantation 2005 Jan;12(1):20-9

Transplantation Immunology, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5407, USA.

Background: In pig-to-nonhuman primate solid organ xenotransplantation using organs from donors transgenic for human decay-accelerating factor (hDAF), the main type of rejection is antibody-mediated (acute humoral xenograft rejection, AHXR). This occurs despite the complement-regulatory function of the transgene, neutralization of natural antibodies to Galalpha1-3Gal (Gal) using soluble glycoconjugates, and chronic immunosuppression. As complement components play a major role in graft destruction after antibody binding, we evaluated the efficacy of chronic complement inhibition by soluble complement receptor type 1 (TP10).

Methods: Life-supporting hDAF-transgenic kidney transplantation was performed in cynomolgus monkeys, using cyclophosphamide induction, and maintenance immunosuppression with cyclosporin A, mycophenolate sodium, and tapering steroids. Rejection was treated with bolus steroid injections: if not successful animals were terminated. Three groups were studied: in group 1 (n=4) GAS914 (a soluble glycoconjugate comprising Gal on a poly-L-lysine backbone) was added before and after transplantation; group 2 (n=2) received GAS914 as in group 1 and in addition TP10 before and after transplantation; in group 3 (n=4) GAS914 was only given before transplantation and TP10 as in group 2. Monitoring included the regular assessment of anti-porcine antibodies, complement activity (soluble C5b-9), therapeutic drug monitoring, and graft histology.

Results: Survival in group 1 was 6, 12, 31 and 37 days, respectively, and in all four cases graft histology showed AHXR. The two animals in groups 2 survived 3 and 15 days, respectively, and similarly showed AHXR in graft histology. In group 3 two animals showed AHXR (10 and 37 days survival, respectively), and two others did not show AHXR (20 and 32 days survival, respectively). The diagnosis AHXR included the deposition of complement activation products in the graft, which were present at lower intensity in animals treated with TP10. In all animals GAS914 effectively neutralized circulating anti-Gal antibody. Antibodies were detectable in the circulation of all animals using porcine erythrocytes in a hemolytic assay, although at lower levels than before transplantation. Soluble C5b-9 was not detectable in the circulation of animals receiving TP10, and circulating TP10 concentrations in these animals were in a presumed pharmacologically active range.

Conclusions: The inclusion of TP10 in the immunosuppressive protocol does not clearly lead to improved xenograft survival. Despite effective neutralization of anti-Gal antibodies and effective inhibition of systemic complement activity, AHXR was apparent in four of six animals under chronic TP10 treatment, including deposits of complement activation products in the graft. Apparently, effective systemic complement inhibition by TP10 in combination with local complement regulation by the hDAF transgene product does not necessarily result in effective inhibition of complement activation at locations in the xenograft upon binding of anti-porcine antibodies to the grafted endothelium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3089.2004.00184.xDOI Listing
January 2005

Combinations of anti-LFA-1, everolimus, anti-CD40 ligand, and allogeneic bone marrow induce central transplantation tolerance through hemopoietic chimerism, including protection from chronic heart allograft rejection.

J Immunol 2004 Dec;173(11):7025-36

Autoimmunity and Transplantation, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland.

Central transplantation tolerance through hemopoietic chimerism initially requires inhibition of allogeneic stem cell or bone marrow (BM) rejection, as previously achieved in murine models by combinations of T cell costimulation blockade. We have evaluated LFA-1 blockade as part of regimens to support mixed hemopoietic chimerism development upon fully allogeneic BALB/c BM transfer to nonirradiated busulfan-treated B6 recipient mice. Combining anti-LFA-1 with anti-CD40 ligand (CD40L) induced high incidences and levels of stable multilineage hemopoietic chimerism comparable to chimerism achieved with anti-CD40L and everolimus (40-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)-rapamycin) under conditions where neither Ab alone was effective. The combination of anti-LFA-1 with everolimus also resulted in high levels of chimerism, albeit with a lower incidence of stability. Inhibition of acute allograft rejection critically depended on chimerism stability, even if maintained at very low levels around 1%, as was the case for some recipients without busulfan conditioning. Chimerism stability correlated with a significant donor BM-dependent loss of host-derived Vbeta11(+) T cells 3 mo after BM transplantation (Tx). Combinations of anti-CD40L with anti-LFA-1 or everolimus also prevented acute rejection of skin allografts transplanted before established chimerism, albeit not independently of allospecific BMTx. All skin and heart allografts transplanted to stable chimeras 3 and 5 mo after BMTx, respectively, were protected from acute rejection. Moreover, this included prevention of heart allograft vascular intimal thickening ("chronic rejection").
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.173.11.7025DOI Listing
December 2004

Hyperacute rejection of hDAF-transgenic pig organ xenografts in cynomolgus monkeys: influence of pre-existing anti-pig antibodies and prevention by the alpha GAL glycoconjugate GAS914.

Xenotransplantation 2004 Nov;11(6):517-24

Transplantation Immunology, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5407, USA.

Background: Our introductory pig-to-cynomolgus monkey heart or kidney transplantation using organs from pigs transgenic for human decay-accelerating factor (hDAF), showed a high incidence of hyperacute rejection (HAR), which was ascribed to extraordinary high levels of anti-pig antibodies. We evaluated the efficacy of GAS914, a Gal alpha 1-3Gal trisaccharide linked to a poly-l-lysine backbone, in inhibition of HAR.

Methods: hDAF transgenic heterotopic heart (n = 15) or life-supporting kidney (n = 8) transplantation included induction with cyclophosphamide or anti-thymocyte globulin, and maintenance with cyclosporine or tacrolimus, steroids and mycophenolate sodium/mofetil. Four doses of GAS914 were given before transplantation. Rejection was confirmed by graft histology, and anti-pig antibody levels were determined in various assays.

Results: Four of six heart transplants without GAS914 treatment showed HAR. Nine subsequent transplants with GAS914 pre-treatment, did not show HAR (chi-square, P < 0.05). Two of four kidney transplants without GAS914 treatment ended with HAR. Four subsequent transplants with GAS914 did not show HAR. Animals with HAR showed extremely high antibody levels. Samples just before transplantation showed significantly higher antibody levels in recipients presenting with HAR. In all assays antibody levels were significantly lowered by GAS914 pre-treatment.

Conclusions: HAR of hDAF solid organs could be ascribed to high levels of anti-pig antibodies. It is hypothesized that the hDAF transgene shows a threshold in efficacy, above which an overwhelming attack by antibodies and complement activation cannot be modulated to prevent HAR. HAR does not occur when animals with lower levels are used, or when antibodies are effectively depleted from the circulation by GAS914 treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3089.2004.00173.xDOI Listing
November 2004

Failure to deplete anti-Galalpha1-3Gal antibodies after pig-to-baboon organ xenotransplantation by immunoaffinity columns containing multiple Galalpha1-3Gal oligosaccharides.

Xenotransplantation 2004 Sep;11(5):408-15

Transplantation Division, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Juan Canalejo, La Coruña, Spain.

Background: The impact of anti-Galalpha1-3Gal (alphaGal) antibodies on the acute humoral xenograft rejection (AHXR) of pig organs transplanted in baboons is unclear.

Methods: Twenty-three baboons underwent heterotopic pig heart transplantation (Tx). Groups A (n = 5) and B (n = 6) received non-transgenic and human decay accelerating factor (hDAF) pig hearts, respectively, without any treatment. Groups C (n = 5) and D (n = 7) were transplanted with non-transgenic and hDAF organs, respectively, and the exclusive treatment was repeated extracorporeal immunoadsorptions (EIA) before and after Tx with an alphaGal column containing disaccharide (DI), trisaccharide (TRI) 2 and pentasaccharide (PENTA) oligosaccharides.

Results: In group A, 3 of 5 xenografts underwent hyperacute rejection (HAR). No xenograft from groups B, C and D experienced HAR, most of them failing from AHXR. Immediately after Tx and up to day 2, the level of immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG anti-alphaGal DI, TRI2 and TRI6, and anti-pig hemolytic antibody (APHA) antibodies decreased in all the groups by 80 to 96% compared with the concentration present before Tx. From day 3 to AHXR, a sustained increase of anti-alphaGal IgM DI, TRI2 and TRI6, and APHA occurred in all groups. EIA depleted anti-alphaGal IgM and APHA before Tx, but it did not modify the increase of these antibodies after Tx. Baboon serum samples before Tx, pre-incubated in vitro with 1 mg/ml of DI, TRI2 and TRI6, had an average of 93% reduction of anti-alphaGal IgM antibodies specific against each one of these alphaGal oligosaccharides. In contrast, at AHXR, the average reduction after in vitro pre-incubation with either 1 or 5 mg/ml of DI, TRI2 and TRI6 was 40%.

Conclusions: The EIA reduces anti-alphaGal and APHA antibodies, preventing the HAR of non-transgenic pig hearts transplanted in baboons, as does hDAF expression. However, EIA does not modify the level of anti-alphaGal IgM and APHA antibodies after Tx nor the AHXR of either non-transgenic or hDAF pig organs. The increase in anti-alphaGal IgM after Tx was similar for the different antibodies of the anti-alphaGal polymorphism, and was only partially neutralized in vitro with the specific alphaGal oligosaccharide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3089.2004.00152.xDOI Listing
September 2004

Depletion of anti-Gal antibodies by the intravenous infusion of Gal type 2 and 6 glycoconjugates in baboons.

Xenotransplantation 2003 Jul;10(4):357-67

Transplantation Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, MGH East, Building 149-9019, Boston, MA 02129, USA.

Background: Natural anti-Gal antibodies (NAb) to Gal epitopes play a key role in the rejection of pig cells or organs transplanted into primates. We have investigated the effect on NAb return after extracorporeal immunoadsorption (EIA) of the continuous intravenous (i.v.) infusion of (i) bovine serum albumin conjugated to Gal type 6 oligosaccharides (BSA-Gal) or (ii) a poly l-lysine backbone conjugated to Gal type 2 or 6 oligosaccharides (PLL-Gal).

Methods: Porcine mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) obtained by leukapheresis from MHC-inbred miniature swine (n = 9) were infused intravenously (i.v.) into baboons: Group 1 baboons (n = 4) received whole body and thymic irradiation, splenectomy, antithymocyte globulin, cobra venom factor, cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, anti-CD154mAb, porcine hematopoietic growth factors, and EIA before transplantation of high doses (2 to 4 x 1010 cells/kg) of PBPC; Group 2 baboons (n = 3) received the Group 1 regimen plus a continuous i.v. infusion of BSA-Gal for up to 30 days; Group 3 baboons (n = 5) received the Group 1 regimen plus a continuous i.v. infusion of PLL-Gal type 2 (n = 2) or both PLL-Gal types 2 and 6 (n = 3) for up to 30 days.

Results: Group 1: NAb returned to pre-PBPC levels within 20-30 days, but there was no induction of antibody to Gal or non-Gal determinants; Group 2: NAb was undetectable or at very low level during BSA-Gal therapy. In one baboon, however, IgG to Gal type 2, but not to type 6, returned during BSA-Gal therapy; Group 3: NAb was undetectable or at very low level during PLL-Gal therapy. In two baboons that received PLL-Gal type 2, NAb to Gal type 6, but not to type 2, returned during PLL-Gal treatment. Two of five baboons, however, developed systemic infection. Four of five baboons died within 14 days; autopsy revealed focal hemorrhagic injury to their hearts, lungs, and small intestines, with histologic abnormalities that varied between animals from hemorrhage and/or thrombosis in some organs (heart, lungs, or intestine) to signs of infections (bacteria in intestine, cytomegalovirus in liver).

Conclusions: (i) BSA-Gal and PLL-Gal therapy maintained depletion of NAb. (ii) Some heterogeneity in specificity of NAb was identified, indicating that the infusion of a combination of Gal type 2 and 6 glycoconjugates may be required. (iii) The addition of PLL-Gal to the immunosuppressive regimen was associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality without a clear histopathologic entity underlying the cause of death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-3089.2003.02078.xDOI Listing
July 2003

Improvement in human decay accelerating factor transgenic porcine kidney xenograft rejection with intravenous administration of gas914, a polymeric form of alphaGAL.

Transplantation 2003 Jan;75(1):10-9

Department of Surgery, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The present study was undertaken to determine whether intravenous administration of GAS914, a polymeric form of alphaGal, would minimize porcine kidney xenograft rejection in baboons. Human decay accelerating factor renal xenografts were transplanted into 16 baboon recipients.

Methods: Baseline immunosuppression for all groups included cyclosporine A, cyclophosphamide, SDZ-RAD, and methylprednisolone. Group 1 received only baseline immunosuppression; group 2 animals received low-dose GAS914 with baseline immunosuppression; group 3 animals received high dose GAS914 with high-dose baseline immunosuppression; and animals from group 4 received high-dose GAS914 and low-dose baseline immunosuppression.

Results: None of the animals in this study developed hyperacute rejection. Intravenous administration of GAS914 significantly reduced xenoreactive antibodies as measured by antiporcine hemolytic assays and anti-Gal (immunoglobulin [Ig] G and IgM) antibody assays. Rejection was less severe in the GAS914-treated group. Only 25% (3 of 12) of GAS914-treated animals were killed as a result of rejection, whereas 75% (three of four) of non-GAS914-treated animals were killed because of terminal rejection (P<0.01). Protocol biopsies demonstrated that the degree of acute humoral xenograft rejection (AHXR) was reduced in the GAS914-treated animals compared with non-GAS914-treated animals.

Conclusion: The intravenous administration of GAS914 reduces xenoreactive antibody levels and reduces the degree of porcine kidney xenograft rejection, but does not improve survival. AHXR and drug toxicity remain major barriers to the long-term success of xenotransplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007890-200301150-00003DOI Listing
January 2003

Removal of anti-Galalpha1,3Gal xenoantibodies with an injectable polymer.

J Clin Invest 2002 Dec;110(12):1869-77

Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Transplantation Research, Basel, Switzerland.

Preformed and elicited Ab's against the Galalpha1,3Gal terminating carbohydrate chains (alphaGal Ab's) are the primary cause of hyperacute and acute vascular xenograft rejection in pig-to-primate transplantation. alphaGal Ab's are produced by long-lived Ab-producing cells that are not susceptible to pharmacological immunosuppression. We reasoned that antigen-specific elimination of alphaGal Ab's might be achieved in vivo by systemic administration of nonimmunogenic polyvalent alphaGal structures with high avidity for alphaGal Ab's. We devised GAS914, a soluble trisaccharide-polylysine conjugate of approximately 500 kDa that effectively competes for alphaGal binding by alphaGal IgM (IC(50), 43 nM) and IgG (IC(50), 28 nM) in vitro. Injections of GAS914 in cynomolgus monkeys, at the dose of 1 mg/kg, resulted in the immediate decrease of more than 90% of circulating alphaGal Ab's and serum anti-pig cytotoxicity. In baboons, repeated injections of GAS914 effectively reduced both circulating alphaGal Ab's and cytotoxicity over several months. Studies with [(14)C]GAS914 in rhesus monkeys and Gal(-/-) mice indicate that GAS914 binds to circulating alphaGal Ab's and that the complex is quickly metabolized by the liver and excreted by the kidney. Remarkably, posttreatment alphaGal Ab titers never exceeded pretreatment levels and no sensitization to either alphaGal or the polylysine backbone has been observed. Furthermore there was no apparent acute or chronic toxicity associated with GAS914 treatment in primates. We conclude that GAS914 may be used therapeutically for the specific removal of alphaGal Ab's.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI16526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC151655PMC
December 2002