Publications by authors named "Andreas B Imhoff"

333 Publications

Arthroscopic rod technique compared to stress ultrasound in the dynamic evaluation of lateral ligament instabilities of the elbow.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2022 Jul 11. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Zentrum Für Ellenbogen- Und Schulter-Therapie (ZEST), Orthopädie Am Stiglmaierplatz, Munich, Germany.

Introduction: The purpose was to compare the arthroscopic rod technique to stress ultrasound in the dynamic assessment of lateral elbow instabilities.

Materials And Methods: Fifteen elbows of eight specimen with a mean age of 66.4 ± 13.3 years were assessed in a prone position following a defined dissection setup. After evaluation of the native status, an arthroscopic dissection of the radial collateral ligament (RCL) or lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL), and finally of entire capsuloligamentous structures was performed. Three raters examined each state (native, RCL or LUCL lesion, complete lesion) with the arthroscopic rod technique in 90° flexion and with stress ultrasound in 30 and 90° flexion. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to assess the interrater reliability as well as test-retest reliability for each testing modality (arthroscopy and ultrasound).

Results: The arthroscopic rod technique showed a superior interrater and test-retest reliability of 0.953 and 0.959 (P < 0.001), respectively, when compared to stress ultrasound with an ICC of 0.4 and 0.611 (P < 0.001). A joint space opening during arthroscopy of > 6 mm humero-ulnar or > 7 mm humero-radial was indicative for a lateral collateral ligament lesion. However, a differentiation between an isolated RCL or LUCL tear was not possible. A lateral joint opening of ≥ 9 mm was only observed in complete tears of the lateral capsuloligamentous complex.

Conclusions: The arthroscopic rod technique showed a superior interrater and test-retest reliability when compared to stress ultrasound. Arthroscopic assessment for radial elbow instability was found to be reliable and reproducible. A joint gapping ≥ 9 mm in the arthroscopic evaluation is a sign for a complete insufficiency of the radial capsuloligamentous complex. However, it is not possible to precisely distinguish between a lesion of the RCL or LUCL by arthroscopy. On the basis of our results, dynamic ultrasound testing may be inappropriate to objectify lateral elbow instability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-022-04491-5DOI Listing
July 2022

The Morphology of the Acromioclavicular Joint Does Not Influence the Postoperative Outcome Following Acute Stabilization-A Case Series of 81 Patients.

Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil 2022 Jun 15;4(3):e835-e842. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Department of Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To specifically evaluate the influence of the acromioclavicular (AC)-joint morphology on the outcome after arthroscopically assisted coracoclavicular (CC) stabilization surgery with suspensory fixation systems and to investigate whether an additional open AC-joint reduction and AC cerclage improves the clinical outcome for patients with certain morphologic AC-joint subtypes.

Methods: Patients with an acute acromioclavicular joint injury, who underwent arthroscopically assisted CC stabilization with suspensory fixation systems with or without concomitant AC cerclage between January 2009 and June 2017 were identified and included in this retrospective cohort analysis. AC-joint morphology was assessed on preoperative radiographs and categorized as "flat" or "non-flat" ("oblique"/"curved") subtypes. After a minimum of 2 years of follow-up, postoperative Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain were collected. A subgroup analysis of clinical outcomes depending on the surgical technique and morphological subtype of the AC joint was performed.

Results: Eighty-one patients (95% male, mean age 35 ± 12 years) could be included at a mean follow-up of 57 ± 14 months. Radiographic assessment of AC-joint morphology showed 24 (30%) cases of flat type, 38 (47%) cases of curved type, and 19 (23%) cases of oblique morphology. Postoperatively, no clinically significant difference could be detected after the treatment of AC joint injury via CC stabilization with or without concomitant AC cerclage (VAS:  = .067; VAS:  = .144, ASES:  = .548; SANE:  = .045). No clinically significant differences were found between the surgical techniques for the flat morphologic subtype (VAS:  = .820; VAS:  = .251; SANE:  = .104; ASES:  = .343) or the non-flat subtype (VAS:  = .021; VAS:  = .488; SANE:  = .243, ASES:  = .843).

Conclusions: In arthroscopically assisted AC stabilization surgery with suspensory fixation systems for acute AC-joint injury, the AC-joint morphology did not influence the postoperative outcome, independent of the surgical technique. No clinical benefit of performing an additional horizontal stabilization could be detected in our collective at mid-term follow-up.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asmr.2021.09.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9210376PMC
June 2022

Distal biceps tendon ruptures occur with the almost extended elbow and supinated forearm - an online video analytic study.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2022 Jun 22;23(1):599. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Sports Orthopaedics, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Background: Distal biceps tendon ruptures can lead to significant restrictions in affected patients. The mechanisms of injury described in scientific literature are based exclusively on case reports and theoretical models. This study aimed to determine the position of the upper extremities and forces involved in tendon rupture through analyzing video recordings.

Methods: The public YouTube.com database was queried for videos capturing a clear view of a distal biceps tendon rupture. Two orthopedic surgeons independently assessed the videos for the activity that led to the rupture, the arm position at the time of injury and the forces imposed on the elbow joint.

Results: Fifty-six video segments of a distal biceps rupture were included (55 male). In 96.4%, the distal biceps tendon ruptured with the forearm supinated and the elbow isometrically extended (non-dynamic muscle engagement) (71.4%) or slightly flexed (24%). The most common shoulder positions were adduction (85.7%) and neutral position with respect to rotation (92.9%). Most frequently a tensile force was enacted on the elbow (92.9%) and the most common activity observed was deadlifting (71.4%).

Conclusion: Distal biceps tendon ruptures were most commonly observed in weightlifting with a slightly flexed or isometrically extended elbow and forearm supination. These observations may provide useful information for sports specific evidence-based injury prevention, particularly in high performing athletes and individuals engaged in resistance training.

Level Of Evidence: Observational study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-022-05546-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9214967PMC
June 2022

Biomechanical Comparison of Lower Trapezius and Latissimus Dorsi Transfer for Irreparable Posterosuperior Rotator Cuff Tears Using a Dynamic Shoulder Model.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2022 Jun 4. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Connecticut, Farmington, CT, USA.

Background: In the setting of irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears (PSRCT) lower trapezius transfer (LTT) may be anatomically better positioned for restoring the muscular force couple when compared to latissimus dorsi transfer (LDT). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of LTT and LDT on glenohumeral kinematics using a dynamic shoulder model.

Methods: Ten fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders (mean age: 56.5±17.2 years) were tested using a dynamic shoulder simulator. Maximum abduction angle (MAA), superior humeral head migration (SHM), and cumulative deltoid forces (CDF) were compared across four conditions: (1) native; (2) irreparable PSRCT; (3) LTT using an Achilles tendon allograft; and (4) LDT. MAA and SHM were measured using 3-dimensional motion tracking. CDF was recorded in real time throughout dynamic abduction motion by load cells connected to actuators.

Results: Compared to the native state, the PSRCT resulted in a significant decrease (Δ-24.1°; P < .001) in MAA, with a subsequent significant increase after LTT (Δ13.1°; P < .001) and LDT (Δ8.9°; P < .001). LTT achieved a significantly greater MAA than the LDT (Δ4.2°; P = .004). Regarding SHM, both LTT (Δ-9.4mm; P < .001) and LDT (Δ-5.0mm; P = .008) demonstrated a significant decrease when compared to the PSRCT state. LTT also achieved significantly less SHM compared to the LDT (Δ-4.4mm; P = .011). Further, only the LTT resulted in a significant decrease in CDF when compared to the PSRCT state (Δ-21.3N; P = .048), while LTT and LDT showed similar CDF (Δ-11.3N; P = .346). However, no technique was able to restore MAA, SHM, and CDF of the native shoulder (P < .001, respectively).

Conclusion: Lower trapezius transfer and latissimus dorsi transfer both achieved a significant increase in glenohumeral abduction along with significantly less superior humeral head migration compared to the PSRCT state. While the lower trapezius transfer required significantly less compensatory deltoid forces compared to the PSRCT state, this was not observed for the latissimus dorsi transfer. Further, the lower trapezius transfer prevented loss of abduction motion and superior head migration more sufficiently. In the challenging treatment of irreparable PSRCTs, transfer of the lower trapezius may restore native glenohumeral kinematics more sufficiently, potentially leading to improved postoperative functional outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2022.05.003DOI Listing
June 2022

Results of Arthroscopic Revision Rotator Cuff Repair for Failed Open or Arthroscopic Repair: A Prospective Multicenter Study on 100 Cases.

Am J Sports Med 2022 07 6;50(8):2203-2210. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Investigation performed at Shouldercare, Engeriedspital, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Retears after rotator cuff repair (RCR) have been associated with poor clinical results. Meaningful data regarding the role of arthroscopic revision RCR are sparse thus far.

Purpose/hypothesis: To investigate results after arthroscopic revision RCR. We hypothesized that (1) arthroscopic revision RCR would lead to improved outcomes, (2) the clinical results would be dependent on tendon integrity and (3) tear pattern, tendon involvement, and repair technique would influence clinical and structural results.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence 4.

Methods: During a 40-month period, 100 patients who underwent arthroscopic revision RCR were prospectively enrolled in this multicenter study. Outcomes were evaluated preoperatively, at 6 months (6M), and at 24 months (24M) using the Constant score (CS), the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), and the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV). Tendon integrity at 2 years was analyzed using magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 13 patients (13%) were lost to follow-up, and 14 patients (14%) had a symptomatic retear before the 24M follow-up.

Results: All clinical scores improved significantly during the study period (CS: preoperative, 44 ± 16; 6M, 58 ± 22; 24M, 69 ± 19 points; OSS: preoperative, 27 ± 8; 6M, 36 ± 11; 24M, 40 ± 9 points; SSV: preoperative, 43% ± 18%; 6M, 66% ± 24%; 24M, 75% ± 22%) ( < .01). At 2 years, a retear rate of 51.8% (43/83) and a surgical revision rate of 12.6% (11/87) were observed. Mean full-thickness tear size decreased from 5.00 ± 1.61 cm to 3.25 ± 1.92 cm ( = .041). Although the Sugaya score improved from 4.5 ± 0.9 to 3.7 ± 1.4 ( = .043), tendon integrity did not correlate with better outcome scores. Previous open RCR, involvement of the subscapularis, chondral lesions of Outerbridge grade ≥2, and medial cuff failure were correlated with poorer SSV scores at 2 years (≤ .047). Patients with traumatic retears had better CS and OSS scores at 2 years (≤ .039).

Conclusion: Although arthroscopic revision RCR improved shoulder function, retears were frequent but usually smaller. Patients with retears, however, did not necessarily have poorer shoulder function. Patient satisfaction at 2 years was lower when primary open RCR was performed, when a subscapularis tear or osteoarthritis was present, and when the rotator cuff retear was located at the musculotendinous junction. Patients with traumatic retears showed better functional improvement after revision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221097410DOI Listing
July 2022

Editorial Commentary: Double-Sling Transfer of Both the Conjoined Tendons and Long Head Biceps Tendon for Glenoid Bone Loss in Patients With Shoulder Instability Shows Biomechanical Benefit in Shoulder Abduction and External Rotation But May Be Insufficient in Mid-Range Arm Positions.

Arthroscopy 2022 05;38(5):1441-1443

Munich, Germany.

Recurrence of shoulder glenohumeral instability is exacerbated in cases of glenoid bone loss. Surgical bone transfer techniques well address the issue. Innovative soft-tissue tendon transfers may fill the defect plus provide a sling effect. Double-sling transfer of both the conjoined tendons and long head biceps tendon for glenoid bone loss in patients with shoulder instability shows biomechanical benefit in shoulder abduction and external rotation. However, as the sling effect is less pronounced in mid-range arm position, the benefit of double-sling transfer may be insufficient. Moreover, the biomechanical models are limited relative to the complexity of clinical glenohumeral function, and obviously limited to time-zero analysis. We should be careful before we abandon bony augmentation procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.12.037DOI Listing
May 2022

Low rate of substantial loss of reduction immediately after hardware removal following acromioclavicular joint stabilization using a suspensory fixation system.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2022 Apr 22. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To evaluate immediate loss of reduction in patients undergoing hardware removal after arthroscopically assisted acromioclavicular (AC) joint stabilization using a high-tensile suture tape suspensory fixation system and to identify risk factors associated with immediate loss of reduction.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-two consecutive patients with a mean age of 36.4 ± 12.6 years (19-56), who underwent hardware removal 18.2 ± 15.0 months following arthroscopically assisted stabilization surgery using a suspensory fixation system for AC joint injury between 01/2012 and 01/2021 were enrolled in this retrospective monocentric study. The coracoclavicular distance (CCD) as well as the clavicular dislocation/acromial thickness (D/A) ratio were measured on anterior-posterior radiographs prior to hardware removal and immediately postoperatively by two independent raters. Loss of reduction, defined as 10% increase in the CCD, was deemed substantial if the CCD increased 6 mm compared to preoperatively. Constitutional and surgical characteristics were assessed in a subgroup analysis to detect risk factors associated with loss of reduction.

Results: Postoperatively, the CCD significantly increased from 12.6 ± 3.7 mm (4.8-19.0) to 14.5 ± 3.3 mm (8.7-20.6 mm) (p < 0.001) while the D/A ratio increased from 0.4 ± 0.3 (- 0.4-0.9) to 0.6 ± 0.3 (1.1-0.1) (p = 0.034) compared to preoperatively. In 10 cases (45%), loss of reduction was identified, while a substantial loss of reduction (> 6 mm) was only observed in one patient (4.5%). A shorter time interval between index stabilization surgery and hardware removal significantly corresponded to immediate loss of reduction (11.0 ± 5.6 vs. 30.0 ± 20.8 months; p = 0.007), as hardware removal within one year following index stabilization was significantly associated with immediate loss of reduction (p = 0.027; relative risk 3.4; odds ratio 11.67).

Conclusions: Substantial loss of reduction after hardware removal of a high-tensile suture tape suspensory fixation system was rare, indicating that the postoperative result of AC stabilization is not categorically at risk when performing this procedure. Even though radiological assessment of the patients showed a statistically significant immediate superior clavicular displacement after this rarely required procedure, with an increased incidence in the first year following stabilization, this may not negatively influence the results of ACJ stabilization in a clinically relevant way.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-022-06978-5DOI Listing
April 2022

Management after acute rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Part 1: ACL reconstruction has a protective effect on secondary meniscus and cartilage lesions.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2022 Apr 20. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department for Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: The aim of this consensus project was to validate which endogenous and exogenous factors contribute to the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis and to what extent ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction can prevent secondary damage to the knee joint. Based on these findings, an algorithm for the management after ACL rupture should be established.

Methods: The consensus project was initiated by the Ligament Injuries Committee of the German Knee Society (Deutsche Kniegesellschaft, DKG). A modified Delphi process was used to answer scientific questions. This process was based on key topic complexes previously formed during an initial face-to-face meeting of the steering group with the expert group. For each key topic, a comprehensive review of available literature was performed by the steering group. The results of the literature review were sent to the rating group with the option to give anonymous comments until a final consensus voting was performed. Consensus was defined a-priori as eighty percent agreement.

Results: Of the 17 final statements, 15 achieved consensus, and 2 have not reached consensus. Results of the consensus were summarized in an algorithm for the management after ACL rupture (infographic/Fig. 2).

Conclusion: This consensus process has shown that the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis is a complex multifactorial process. Exogenous (primary and secondary meniscus lesions) and endogenous factors (varus deformity) play a decisive role. Due to the complex interplay of these factors, an ACL reconstruction cannot always halt post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the knee. However, there is evidence that ACL reconstruction can prevent secondary joint damage such as meniscus lesions and that the success of meniscus repair is higher with simultaneous ACL reconstruction. Therefore, we recommend ACL reconstruction in case of a combined injury of the ACL and a meniscus lesion which is suitable for repair.

Level Of Evidence: Level V.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-022-06960-1DOI Listing
April 2022

High return to sports and return to work rates after anatomic lateral ankle ligament reconstruction with tendon autograft for isolated chronic lateral ankle instability.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2022 Mar 31. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To evaluate clinical outcomes as well as return to sports (RTS) and return to work (RTW) rates following anatomic lateral ankle ligament reconstruction with a tendon autograft for chronic lateral ankle instability (CLAI) in a high-risk population, and to compare these outcome parameters between patients having received a gracilis tendon autograft (GT) and free split peroneus brevis tendon (PBT) autograft.

Methods: Twenty-eight consecutive patients, who were diagnosed with CLAI, presenting with ≥ 1 risk factor (ligamentous hyperlaxity, insufficient substance of native ligament and/or high-demand athlete), who underwent ankle ligament reconstruction with a tendon autograft between January 2011 and December 2018, were included in this retrospective study. At 63.7 ± 28.0 months (24-112), 23 patients with a mean age of 29.7 ± 10.9 years were available for follow-up. The Karlsson Score, the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS), the Tegner Activity Scale and the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain were collected at a minimum follow-up of 24 months. RTS and RTW were evaluated by questionnaire. A subgroup analysis with regard to the graft used for ankle ligament reconstruction (GT versus PBT) was performed.

Results: Patients reported a Karlsson score of 82.1 ± 17.5 (37-100), a FAOS score of 87.8 ± 8.4 (73-99), a median Tegner activity scale of 5.0 (IQR 4-6) and a VAS for pain of 0.5 ± 0.9 (0-4) at rest and of 2.0 ± 2.1 (0-7) during activities at final follow-up. Postoperatively, 96% of patients had returned to sports after 8.3 ± 6.2 months. All patients (100%) had returned to work at 3.5 ± 5.7 (0-24) months, with 87% reporting an equal or improved working ability compared to that preoperatively. Postoperatively, exercise hours per week were significantly reduced compared to preoperatively in patients with a split PBT (n = 12; 13.0 ± 12.9 to 5.6 ± 6.4 h, p = 0.038) autograft as opposed to patients with a GT autograft (n = 11; 13.1 ± 8.7 to 12.4 ± 7.1 h, n.s.). No other group differences were observed.

Conclusion: Good patient-reported outcomes as well as excellent RTS and RTW rates can be achieved in high-risk patients undergoing ankle ligament reconstruction with a tendon autograft for CLAI. These results may be helpful in preoperatively managing patients' expectations regarding sports- and work-related outcomes and provide tangible data on the expectable time frame of the individual return to sports and work trajectory.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-022-06937-0DOI Listing
March 2022

Iatrogenic instability of the acromioclavicular joint leads to ongoing impairment of shoulder function even following secondary surgical stabilization.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2022 Feb 27. Epub 2022 Feb 27.

Department for Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Technical University Munich, Klinikum Rechts Der Isar, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: Iatrogenic instability of the acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) following distal clavicle excision (DCE) represents an infrequent pathology. Revision surgery to restore ACJ stability and alleviate concomitant pain is challenging due to altered anatomic relationships. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the used salvage techniques and postoperative functional and radiological outcomes in retrospectively identify patients with a painful ACJ following DCE. We hypothesized that iatrogenic instability leads to ongoing impairment of shoulder function despite secondary surgical stabilization.

Methods: 9 patients with a painful ACJ after DCE (6 men, 3 women, 43.3 ± 9.4 years) were followed up at a minimum of 36 months after revision surgery. Besides range of motion (ROM), strength and function were evaluated with validated evaluation tools including the Constant score and the DASH score (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire), specific AC Score (SACS), Nottingham Clavicle Score (NCS), Taft score and Acromioclavicular Joint Instability Score (AJI). Additionally, postoperative X-rays were compared to the unaffected side, measuring the coracoclavicular (CC) and acromioclavicular (AC) distance.

Results: At follow-up survey (55.8 ± 18.8 months) all patients but one demonstrated clinical ACJ stability after arthroscopically assisted anatomical ACJ reconstruction with an autologous hamstring graft. Reconstruction techniques were dependent on the direction of instability. The functional results demonstrated moderate shoulder and ACJ scores with a Constant Score of 77.3 ± 15.4, DASH-score of 51.2 ± 23.4, SACS 32.6 ± 23.8, NCS 77.8 ± 14.2, AJI 75 ± 14.7 points and Taft Score 7.6 ± 3.4 points. All patients stated they would undergo the revision surgery again. Mean postoperative CC-distance (8.3 ± 2.8 mm) did not differ significantly from the contralateral side (8.5 ± 1.6 mm) (p > 0,05). However, the mean AC distance was significantly greater with 16.5 ± 5.8 mm compared to the contralateral side (3.5 ± 1.9 mm) (p = 0.012).

Conclusion: Symptomatic iatrogenic ACJ instability following DCE is rare. Arthroscopically assisted revision surgery with an autologous hamstring graft improved ACJ stability in eight out of nine cases (88.9%). However, the functional scores showed ongoing impairment of shoulder function and a relatively high overall complication rate (33.3%). Therefore, this study underlines the importance of precise preoperative indication and planning and, especially, the preservation of ACJ stability when performing AC joint resection procedures.

Level Of Evidence: Case series, LEVEL IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-022-04387-4DOI Listing
February 2022

Patient satisfaction, joint stability and return to sports following simple elbow dislocations: surgical versus non-surgical treatment.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2022 Feb 26. Epub 2022 Feb 26.

Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: While conservative management is commonly promoted for simple elbow dislocations, the importance of primary surgical treatment in these injuries is still undetermined. The objective of this study was to report patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), return to sports (RTS) and joint stability using ultrasound in patients following conservative or surgical treatment after simple elbow dislocation.

Methods: Patients with a minimum follow-up of 24 months after conservative (CT) or surgical treatment (ST) following simple elbow dislocation were included in this retrospective study. To evaluate patients' postoperative outcome and satisfaction, the Elbow Self-Assessment Score (ESAS) was used, and validated scores such as the Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS), the Quick Disability of Arm and Shoulder Score (Quick-DASH) and RTS were assessed. For objective assessment of residual joint instability, a standardized clinical examination as well as a dynamic ultrasound evaluation of the affected and the contralateral elbow was performed.

Results: Forty-four patients (26 women, 18 men) with an average age of 41.5 ± 15.3 years were available for follow-up survey (65.5 ± 30.4 months; range 26-123). 21 patients were treated conservatively and twenty-three patients received surgical treatment. CT and ST resulted in similar outcome with regard to ROM, ESAS (CT: 99.4 ± 1.5; ST: 99.8 ± 0.3), MEPS (CT: 97.3 ± 6.8 points; ST: 98.7 ± 3.3) and Quick-DASH (CT: 7.8 ± 10.4; ST: 6.3 ± 7.9) (n.s.). There was no difference in elbow stability and laxity measured by ultrasound between the study groups and compared to the healthy elbow (n.s.). Two patients of the CT group (10%) complained about persistent subjective elbow instability. RTS was faster after surgical compared to conservative treatment (p = 0.036).

Conclusion: Both, conservative and surgical treatment results in high patient satisfaction and good-to-excellent functional outcome after simple elbow dislocation. Even though ultrasound evaluation showed no significant differences in joint gapping between groups, 10% of conservatively treated patients complained about severe subjective instability. Surgically treated patients returned faster to their preoperatively performed sports. Thus, primary surgical treatment may be beneficial for high demanding patients.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic study, Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-022-04383-8DOI Listing
February 2022

Excellent clinical and radiological outcomes after both open flake refixation and autologous chondrocyte implantation following acute patella dislocation and concomitant flake fractures.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2022 Feb 26. Epub 2022 Feb 26.

Department of Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To investigate clinical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging results of patients undergoing patella stabilization with either open flake refixation (oFR) or autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and concomitant soft tissue patella stabilization after sustaining primary, acute patella dislocation with confirmed chondral and/or osteochondral flake fractures. It was hypothesized that refixation will lead to better results than ACI at mid-term follow-up.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify all patients undergoing oFR or ACI after sustaining (osteo-)chondral flake fractures and concomitant soft tissue patella stabilization following primary, acute patella dislocation between 01/2012 and 09/2018 at the author's institution. Patients were excluded if they were aged < 14 years or > 30 and had previous knee surgeries at the index knee. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Tegner activity score, Kujala score, subjective IKDC score, and the KOOS score at a minimum follow-up of 24 months postoperatively. MR images were assessed using the Magnetic Resonance Observation of Cartilage Repair Tissue (MOCART) 2.0 knee score. Thirty patients were included in the study, with 16 patients assorted to the oFR group and 14 patients to the ACI group (Follow-up 81%).

Results: Demographic data did not show significant group differences (oFR: 6 females, 10 males; age 26.9 ± 5.6 years, FU: 57 months (27-97 months); ACI: 9 females, 5 males; age 25.5 ± 4.9 years, FU: 51 months (29-91 months); n.s.). Defect location was similar in both groups (oFR: 12 × patella/4 × lateral femoral condyle; ACI: 12/2; n.s.). Both groups showed excellent clinical outcomes, with no statistically significant difference between both the groups (oFR group vs. ACI group: Tegner: 5.1 ± 1.8 vs. 5.1 ± 1.4; Kujala: 86.1 ± 12.6 vs. 84.9 ± 9.1; IKDC: 83.8 ± 15.0 vs. 83.6 ± 11.3; KOOS: 83.3 ± 14.0 vs. 83.6 ± 12.0; n.s.). One patient in each group suffered a patella re-dislocation and needed revision surgery. The MOCART 2.0 score showed good results for the oFR group (68.2 ± 11.1) and the ACI group (61.1 ± 16.9) while no significant differences were noted between both the groups. The inter-rater reliability was excellent (0.847).

Conclusion: Open refixation of (osteo-)chondral fragments in patients after sustaining acute patella dislocation with (osteo)-chondral flake fractures led to good clinical and radiological results at a minimum follow of 24 months, showing that it is a good surgical option in the treatment algorithm. However, if open refixation is not possible, ACI may be an excellent fallback option in these younger patients with equally good clinical and radiological outcomes, but requiring a second minimally invasive surgery.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-022-06899-3DOI Listing
February 2022

[Replacement, transfer or allograft surgery for massive rotator cuff tears].

Authors:
Andreas B Imhoff

Oper Orthop Traumatol 2022 Feb 9;34(1):2-3. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Abteilung und Poliklinik für Sportorthopädie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, München, Deutschland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00064-021-00761-4DOI Listing
February 2022

Midterm outcome and strength assessment after quadriceps tendon refixation with suture anchors.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2022 Feb 9. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: Quadriceps tendon ruptures (QTR) occur predominantly in middle-aged patients through violent eccentric contraction that occurs either when trying to regain balance or during a fall on the hyperflexed knee. The aim of this study was to quantify midterm postoperative results, including strength potential measured via standardized strength tests following acute (< six weeks) quadriceps tendon refixation using suture anchors.

Methods: All consecutive patients with QTR who underwent surgical suture anchor refixation between 2012 and 2019 at a single institution with a minimum follow-up of 12 months were retrospectively evaluated. Outcome measures included Tegner Activity Scale (TAS), Lysholm score, International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee form (IKDC), Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscales, return to work rates, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain. Additionally, a standardized clinical examination and an isometric strength assessment of knee extension and flexion were performed.

Results: A total of 17 patients (median age 61.0 [25-75% IQR 50.5-72.5]) were available for final assessment at a mean follow-up of 47.1 ± SD 25.4 months. The majority of patients were male (82.4%) and most injuries occurred due to a fall on the hyperflexed knee (76.5%). The average time interval between trauma and surgery was 12.7 ± 7.5 days. Patients achieved a moderate level of activity postoperatively with a median TAS of 4 (3-5.5) and reported good to excellent outcome scores (Lysholm score: 97 (86.5-100); IKDC: 80.7 ± 13.5; KOOS subscales: pain 97.2 (93.1-100), symptoms 92.9 (82.5-100), activities of daily living 97.1 (93.4-100), sport and recreation function 80 (40-97.5) and knee-related quality of life 87.5 (62.5-100). All patients were able to fully return to work and reported little pain [VAS: 0 (0-0)]. No postoperative complications were reported. Strength measurements revealed a significant deficit of knee extension strength in comparison to the contralateral side (p = 0.011).

Conclusion: Suture anchor refixation of acute QTR leads to good functional results and high patient satisfaction without major complications. Isometric knee extension strength, however, may not be fully restored compared to the unaffected side.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-022-03218-xDOI Listing
February 2022

Pectoralis major and pectoralis minor transfer for irreparable subscapularis tendon tears.

Oper Orthop Traumatol 2022 Feb 3;34(1):45-54. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Department of Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Objective: Irreparable rotator cuff injuries in young patients with moderate to high levels of physical activity remain a challenging pathology for shoulder surgeons. Irreparable anterior rotator cuff injuries require treatment that seeks to restore the dynamic anterior forces of the glenohumeral joint. Among surgical treatment options, transfer of the pectoralis major and minor muscle, have shown good functional outcomes. This technique attempts to reproduce the vector of the subscapular muscle in cases with irreparable tear. Restoration of the dynamic external and internal couple forces to maintain the humeral head in the center of rotation.

Indications: Pectoralis major transfer (PMa): Irreparable subscapularis tendon (SSC) tear in active patients without osteoarthritis. Pectoralis minor transfer (PMi): Irreparable superior SSC tear with concomitant irreparable supraspinatus tendon (SSP) tear in active patients with no osteoarthritis.

Contraindications: Primary osteoarthritis Samilson grade C, cuff tear arthropathy Hamada III-V, infection, axillary nerve palsy, older patients with low physical demand, combination with irreparable SSP/infraspinatus tendon (ISP) tear for PMa or combination with irreparable ISP tear for PMi.

Surgical Technique: General anesthesia and beach-chair position with the arm freely mobile in an arm holder. Deltopectoral approach. Exposure of the humeral head and confirmation of the irreparability of the subscapularis tendon. PMa: Detachment of the tendon to be transferred from the humeral insertion, blunt anatomic dissection medially. Exposure of the conjoined tendon and coracoid process. PMi: Detachment of the tendon with an osteotomy at the coracoid process. Passing the PMa or PMi tendon under the conjoined tendon. The PMa tendon is fixed in a 2-row configuration, the PMi in a single row with suture anchors to the lesser tuberosity.

Postoperative Management: Shoulder abduction sling (30°) for 6 weeks. Assisted range-of-motion (ROM) exercises with abduction/adduction 60-0-0°, internal/external rotation free-0-0° for 6 weeks. Free active ROM exercises after 6 weeks, muscle strengthening after 12 weeks.

Results: The pectoralis major and minor transfer shows an improvement in strength and range of motion in young active patients and an improved Constant score (CS) in long-term follow-up examinations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00064-021-00760-5DOI Listing
February 2022

Influence of sportive activity on functional and radiographic outcomes following reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: a comparative study.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2022 Jan 29. Epub 2022 Jan 29.

Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Background: The purpose of the present study was to compare the functional and radiographic outcomes following reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) in a senior athletic and non-athletic population.

Material And Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, patients who underwent RTSA between 06/2013 and 04/2018 at a single institution were included. Minimum follow-up was 2 years. A standardized questionnaire was utilized for assessment of patients' pre- and postoperative physical fitness and sportive activity. Patients who resumed at least one sport were assigned to the athletic group, while patients who ceased participating in sports were assigned to the non-athletic group. Postoperative clinical outcome measures included the Constant score (CS), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Simple Shoulder Test (SST), and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. Active shoulder range of motion (ROM) and abduction strength were assessed. Radiographic evaluation was based on a standardized core set of parameters for radiographic monitoring of patients following shoulder arthroplasty.

Results: Sixty-one of 71 patients (85.9%; mean age: 72.1 ± 6.6 years) were available for clinical and radiographic follow-up at a mean of 47.1 ± 18.1 months. Thirty-four patients (55.7%) were assigned to the athletic group and 27 patients (44.3%) to the non-athletic group. The athletic group demonstrated significantly better results for CS (P = 0.002), ASES score (P = 0.001), SST (P = 0.001), VAS (P = 0.022), active external rotation (P = 0.045) and abduction strength (P = 0.016) compared to the non-athletic group. The overall rate of return to sport was 78.0% at an average of 5.3 ± 3.6 months postoperatively. Incomplete radiolucent lines (RLL) around the humeral component were found significantly more frequently in the athletic group compared to the non-athletic group (P = 0.019), whereas the occurrence of complete RLLs around the implant components was similar (P = 0.382). Scapular notching was observed in 18 patients (52.9%) of the athletic group and 12 patients (44.9%) of the non-athletic group (P = 0.51). The overall rate for revision surgery was 8.2%, while postoperative complications were encountered in 3.3% of cases.

Conclusion: At mid-term follow-up, the athletic population demonstrated significantly better clinical results following RTSA without a higher rate of implant loosening and scapular notching when compared to non-athletic patients. However, incomplete radiolucency around the humeral component was observed significantly more often in the athletic group.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-022-04344-1DOI Listing
January 2022

Injury Patterns, Risk Factors, and Return to Sport in Brazilian Jiu Jitsu: A Cross-sectional Survey of 1140 Athletes.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Dec 20;9(12):23259671211062568. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background: Brazilian jiu jitsu (BJJ) is a growing martial art that focuses on grappling techniques.

Purpose: To quantify the 3-year incidence of BJJ-related injuries and detect common injury patterns as well as risk factors among those practicing BJJ. It was hypothesized that there would be a high incidence of injuries, they would be caused by submissions in sparring situations, and they would occur predominantly at the extremities.

Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.

Methods: Active BJJ athletes were invited to take an English-language online survey developed by orthopaedic surgeons together with BJJ athletes and a sports scientist. Data were recorded regarding athlete demographics, sporting activity level, injuries within the past 3 years that caused at least a 2-week time loss, injury mechanisms, and return to sport.

Results: Overall, 1140 responses were received from 62 different countries; 88.9% of all athletes were male, and 63.9% were regular competitors. Within the investigated cohort, 1052 injuries were recorded in 784 athletes, for an injury incidence of 308 per 1000 athletes per year. The lower extremity (45.7%) and upper extremity (30.2%) were predominant sites of injury, with injuries to the knee (27.1%) being the most common. The most frequent knee injuries were meniscal injuries (n = 65), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears (n = 36), and medial collateral ligament injuries (n = 36). ACL tears were especially associated with long time frames for return to sport. Most injuries occurred during sparring (77.6%) and were caused by submissions (29.7%) and takedowns (26.4%). Competing regularly ( = .003), older age ( < .001), and higher belt rank ( = .003) were significant risk factors for injury.

Conclusion: Injury incidence was high among BJJ athletes surveyed, with 2 out of 3 athletes reporting at least 1 injury within a 3-year period that caused a 2-week absence from training. Most injuries occurred during sparring, and we believe that a high potential for injury reduction lies in drawing awareness to common injury patterns and sites in athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671211062568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8721390PMC
December 2021

Significant Improvement in Shoulder Function and Pain in Patients Following Biologic Augmentation of Revision Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Using an Autologous Fibrin Scaffold and Bone Marrow Aspirate Derived From the Proximal Humerus.

Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil 2021 Dec 30;3(6):e1819-e1825. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To clinically evaluate patients who underwent a biologic augmentation technique in revision arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using an autologous fibrin scaffold and concentrated stem cells isolated from bone marrow aspirate (BMA) obtained from the proximal humerus.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from patients who underwent biologic augmentation of revision arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using an autologous fibrin scaffold and BMA obtained from the proximal humerus between 2014 and 2015. Minimum follow-up was 12 months. Outcome measures were collected preoperatively and postoperatively including range of motion as well as American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder Form, Simple Shoulder Test, single assessment numeric evaluation, and visual analog score. In addition, BMA samples of each patient were assessed for the number of nucleated cells and colony-forming units. Regression analysis was performed to investigate whether the number of nucleated cells and colony-forming units had an influence on outcome and failure.

Results: Ten patients who underwent biologic augmentation of revision arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using an autologous fibrin scaffold and concentrated BMA obtained from the proximal humerus between 2014 and 2015 were included. The mean follow-up time was 30.7 (range: 12-49) months. Four patients were revised at final follow-up. Postoperative clinical scores improved significantly: American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (28.1 ± 5.4 to 60.9 ± 9.0;  < .01), single assessment numeric evaluation (6.6 ± 2.3 to 65.1 ± 10.9; < .01), visual analog scale (7.2 ± 0.9 to 3.1 ± 0.9; < .01), and Simple Shoulder Test (1.6 ± 0.5 to 10.3 ± 5.7; < .01). Postoperative range of motion increased significantly with regard to flexion (97.0 ± 13.6 to 151.0 ± 12.2; < .01) and abduction (88.0 ± 14.0 to 134.0 ± 15.1;  = .038) but not with external rotation (38.0 ± 5.7 to 50.5 ± 6.5;  = .16). Less pain was correlated to an increased number of nucleated cells ( = .026); however, there was no correlation between failure rate and number of nucleated cells ( = .430).

Conclusions: Patients who underwent biologic augmentation of revision arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using an autologous fibrin scaffold and concentrated BMA demonstrated a significant improvement in shoulder function along with reduction of pain. However, the overall revision rate for this procedure was 40%.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asmr.2021.08.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8689277PMC
December 2021

Improved Clinical Outcome and High Rate of Return to Low-Impact Sport and Work After Knee Double Level Osteotomy for Bifocal Varus Malalignment.

Arthroscopy 2022 06 15;38(6):1944-1953. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Orthopaedic Clinic Paulinenhilfe, Diakonie-Hospital, Stuttgart, Germany; Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Purpose: To evaluate return to sport (RTS) and work (RTW), as well as clinical outcomes following double level osteotomy (DLO) via combined medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy and lateral closing wedge distal femoral osteotomy for bifocal symptomatic varus malalignment, and to compare these outcome parameters between patients undergoing a single surgery and those undergoing a two-stage procedure.

Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent DLO for symptomatic varus malalignment between 12/2007 and 03/2018 were enrolled. Patients converted to arthroplasty (n = 3) during follow-up were excluded. Outcome measures included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Lysholm score, Tegner Activity Scale, and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, which were collected preoperatively and at a minimum of 24 months postoperatively. RTS and RTW were evaluated by questionnaire. Outcome measures were compared between DLO performed in a single- versus a two-stage surgery.

Results: Thirty-two patients (mean age: 44.2 ± 12.6 years), who underwent DLO for varus malalignment (10.1° ± 2.9°) were included at a mean follow-up of 56.9 ± 35.3 months (range: 24-148). Compared to preoperatively, these patients significantly improved in IKDC (50.4 ± 13.9 to 66.1 ± 15.4; P < .001), WOMAC (29.7 ± 19.2 to 11.8 ± 13.5; P < .001) and Lysholm (53.6 ± 23.6 to 73.1 ± 23.6; P = .002) scores at final follow-up. For the WOMAC score, 78% of the patients included reached the minimally important clinical difference, along with a significant reduction of the VAS for pain (5.0 ± 3.0 to 2.5 ± 2.4; P < .001). Postoperatively, 96% of patients returned to sport after 7.7 ± 4.8 months, but at a lower frequency (P = .010) and to fewer disciplines (P = .005) with a shift to low-impact sports. 90% of the patients returned to work at a mean 5.9 ± 9.4 months, with 79% reporting a similar or superior working ability. Patients undergoing a two-stage procedure recovered to full physical working ability at a significantly longer duration, as compared to a single-stage procedure (9.8 ± 3.8 vs 9.0 ± 13.1 months; P = .047).

Conclusion: The majority of patients undergoing DLO for symptomatic varus malalignment, who were not converted to arthroplasty, experienced clinically significant functional improvement at mid-term follow-up. Return to sport and work rates in these patients were high; however, a shift to lower-impact sports disciplines was observed. Similar clinical outcomes can be expected when performing DLO in a single surgery or a two-stage procedure.

Level Of Evidence: Retrospective case series; Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.12.004DOI Listing
June 2022

Biceps Brachii Alterations Following the Latarjet Procedure: A Prospective Multicenter Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Nov 23;10(23). Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To prospectively investigate the postoperative forearm supination and elbow flexion strength of both upper extremities and popeye deformity in patients who underwent a mini-open Latarjet procedure for anterior shoulder instability.

Methods: Patients who underwent a mini-open Latarjet procedure at two specialized shoulder centers were prospectively evaluated preoperatively (T0) and at least 6 months (T1) after surgery. Subjects were tested for elbow flexion and forearm supination strength of both upper extremities using an isometric dynamometer and customized torque dynamometer. Clinical outcome was assessed by the Constant Score (CS), American Shoulder and Elbow Score (ASES) and Simple Shoulder test (SST). Popeye deformity was defined as a distalization of the greatest circumference of the biceps muscle belly towards the lateral epicondyle of the elbow.

Results: A total of 20 patients with a mean age of 27 ± 6 years were included in the study. At a mean follow-up of 10 ± 3 months, the elbow flexion strength was restored to the preoperative state ( = 0.240). Forearm supination strength significantly decreased at final follow-up, to 88 % in the surgical arm ( = 0.015) vs. 90 % in the non-surgical arm ( = 0.023). There was no statistical difference when comparing both arms concerning elbow flexion strength ( = 0.510) and forearm supination strength ( = 0.495). No significant popeye deformity was observed in both arms ( = 0.111 vs. = 0.508). Clinical outcome scores improved significantly from 73 ± 18 to 82 ± 13 ( = 0.014) for CS and 76 ± 22 to 89 ± 12 ( = 0.008) for ASES score preoperatively to final follow-up. No difference in the SST was documented ( = 0.10).

Conclusion: The Latarjet procedure showed to preserve elbow flexion strength and provided comparable forearm supination strength compared to the uninjured arm with reliable clinical outcome in this study population. However, a decrease of forearm supination strength in both arms was persistent at a mean of 10 months postoperatively. No popeye deformity was noted in the postoperative examinations.

Level Of Evidence: Case series, Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10235487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8658084PMC
November 2021

Patients return to sports and to work after successful treatment of septic arthritis following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2022 Jun 6;30(6):1871-1879. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To determine specific return to sports (RTS) and return to work (RTW) rates of patients with septic arthritis following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), and to assess for factors associated with a diminished postoperative return to physical activity after successful eradication of the infection.

Methods: In this study, patients who were treated for postoperative septic arthritis of the knee following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction between 2006 and 2018 were evaluated at a minimum follow-up (FU) of 2 years. Patients' outcomes were retrospectively analyzed using standardized patient-reported outcome scores including the Lysholm score and the subjective IKDC score, as well as return to sports and return to work questionnaires to assess for the types, number, and frequency of sports performed pre- and postoperatively and to evaluate for potential occupational changes due to septic arthritis following ACLR. To assess for the signifiance of the graft at follow-up, outcomes were compared between patients with a functioning graft at FU and those without, as well as between patients with initial graft retention and those with graft removal and consecutive revision ACLR.

Results: Out of 44 patients eligible for inclusion, 38 (86%) patients at a mean age of 36.2 ± 10.3 years were enrolled in this study. At a mean follow-up of 60.3 ± 39.9 months, the Lysholm score and the subjective IKDC score reached 80.0 ± 15.1 and 78.2 ± 16.6 points, respectively. The presence of a graft at FU yielded statistically superior results only on the IKDC score (p = 0.014). There were no statistically significant differences on the Lysholm score (n.s.) or on the IKDC score (n.s.) between patients with initial graft retention and those with initial removal who had undergone revision ACLR. All of the included 38 patients were able to return to sports at a median time of 8 (6-16) months after their last surgical intervention. Among patients who performed pivoting sports prior to their injury, 23 (62.2%) returned to at least one pivoting sport postoperatively. Overall, ten patients (26.3%) returned to all their previous sports at their previous frequency. The presence of a graft at FU resulted in a significantly higher RTS rate (p = 0.010). Comparing patients with initial graft retention and those with graft removal and consecutive revision ACLR, there was no statistically significant difference concerning the RTS rate (n.s.). Thirty-one patients (83.8%) were able to return to their previous work.

Conclusion: Successful eradication of septic arthritis following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction allows for a postoperative return to sports and a return to work particularly among patients with ACL-sufficient knees. However, the patients' expectations should be managed carefully, as overall return rates at the pre-injury frequency are relatively low.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-021-06819-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9159288PMC
June 2022

Increased Glenohumeral Joint Loads Due to a Supraspinatus Tear Can Be Reversed With Rotator Cuff Repair: A Biomechanical Investigation.

Arthroscopy 2022 05 18;38(5):1422-1432. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Germany; Department of Shoulder Surgery, ATOS Clinic, Cologne, Germany.

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of an isolated full-thickness supraspinatus (SSP) tear on glenohumeral kinematics and contact mechanics, as well as to quantify improvement following rotator cuff repair (RCR).

Methods: Ten fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders (mean age: 63.1 ± 4.6 years) were tested using a dynamic shoulder simulator. A pressure-mapping sensor was placed between the humeral head and the glenoid. Each specimen underwent the following three conditions: 1) native, 2) isolated full-thickness SSP tear, and 3) RCR. Maximum abduction angle (MAA) and superior humeral head migration (SHM) were measured using 3D motion tracking software. Cumulative deltoid force (CDF) and glenohumeral contact mechanics, including contact area (GCA) and contact pressure (GCP), were assessed at the resting position, as well as at 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° of glenohumeral abduction.

Results: Compared to native, the SSP tear resulted in a significant decrease in MAA (Δ-8.3°; P < .001) along with a SHM of 6.4 ± 3.8 mm, while significantly increasing CDF (Δ20.5 N; P = .008), GCP (Δ63.1 kPa; P < .001), and peak GCP (Δ278.6 kPa; P < .001), as well as decreasing GCA (Δ-45.8 mm; P < .001) at each degree of abduction. RCR reduced SHM to 1.2 ± 2.5 mm, while restoring native MAA, CDF (Δ1.8 N), GCA (Δ4.5 mm), GCP (Δ-4.5 kPa) and peak GCP (Δ19.9 kPa) at each degree of abduction (P > .999, respectively).

Conclusion: In a dynamic biomechanical cadaveric model, increased glenohumeral joint loads due to a full-thickness SSP tear can be reversed with RCR. More specifically, RCR restored native glenohumeral contact area and contact pressure, while preventing superior humeral head migration and decreasing compensatory deltoid forces.

Clinical Relevance: These time 0 observations indicate that undergoing rotator cuff repair may prevent the development of degenerative changes by significantly reducing glenohumeral joint loads and ensuring sufficiently stable joint kinematics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.10.036DOI Listing
May 2022

Center of pressure (COP) measurement in patients with confirmed successful outcomes following shoulder surgery show significant sensorimotor deficits.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2022 Jun 6;30(6):2060-2066. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

Department of Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To determine the sensorimotor and clinical function of patients with confirmed successful outcome after either undergoing acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) stabilization, Bankart repair (BR), or rotator cuff repair (RC), and to compare these measures to the contralateral, healthy side without history of previous injuries or surgeries of the upper extremity. It was hypothesized that patients of each interventional group would have inferior sensorimotor function of the shoulder joint compared to the contralateral, healthy side, while presenting with successful clinical and functional outcomes.

Methods: Three intervention groups including ten patients who had confirmed successful clinical and functional outcomes after either undergoing ACJ stabilization, BR, or RC were evaluated postoperatively at an average follow-up of 31.7 ± 11.6 months. Additionally, a healthy control group (CG) of ten patients was included. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Constant-Murley (CM) and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) Score. Pain was evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Sensorimotor function was assessed by determining the center of pressure (COP) of the shoulder joint in a one-handed support task in supine position on a validated pressure plate.

Results: Each interventional group demonstrated excellent clinical outcome scores including the CM Score (ACJ 83.3 ± 11.8; BR 89.0 ± 10.3; RC 81.4 ± 8.8), ASES Score (ACJ 95.5 ± 7.0; BR 92.5 ± 9.6; RC 96.5 ± 5.2), and VAS (ACJ 0.5 ± 0.9; BR 0.5 ± 0.8; RC 0.5 ± 0.8). Overall, the CG showed no significant side-to-side difference in COP, whereas the ACJ-group and the BR-group demonstrated significantly increased COP compared to the healthy side (ACJ 103 cm vs. 98 cm, p = 0.049; BR: 116 cm vs. 102 cm, p = 0.006). The RC-group revealed no significant side-to-side difference (120 cm vs. 108 cm, n.s.).

Conclusion: Centre of pressure measurement detected sensorimotor functional deficits following surgical treatment of the shoulder joint in patients with confirmed successful clinical and functional outcomes. This may indicate that specific postoperative training and rehabilitation protocols should be established for patients who underwent surgery of the upper extremity. These results underline that sensorimotor training should be an important component of postoperative rehabilitation and physiotherapeutic activities to improve postoperative function and joint control.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-021-06751-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9165257PMC
June 2022

Anterior cruciate ligament autograft maturation on sequential postoperative MRI is not correlated with clinical outcome and anterior knee stability.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Nov 5. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Department for Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal intensity is correlated to structural postoperative changes of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) autograft. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ACL autograft maturation process via MRI over 2 years postoperatively, compare it to a native ACL signal and correlate the results with clinical outcome, return to preinjury sports levels, and knee laxity measurements.

Methods: ACL autograft signal intensity was measured in 17 male patients (age, 28.3 ± 7.0 years) who underwent ACL reconstruction with hamstring autograft at 6 weeks, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24 months postoperatively by 3 Tesla MRI. Controls with an intact ACL served as control group (22 males, 8 females; age, 26.7 ± 6.8 years). An ACL/PCL ratio (APR) and ACL/muscle ratio (AMR) was calculated to normalize signals to soft tissue signal. APR and AMR were compared across time and to native ACL signal. Clinical outcome scores (IKDC, Lysholm), return to preinjury sports levels (Tegner activity scale), and knee laxity measurement (KT-1000) were obtained and correlated to APR and AMR at the respective time points.

Results: The APR and AMR of the ACL graft changed significantly from the lowest values at 6 weeks to reach the highest intensity after 6 months (p < 0.001). Then, the APR and AMR were significantly different from a native ACL 6 months after surgery (p < 0.01) but approached the APR and AMR of the native ACL at 1- and 2 years after surgery (p < 0.05). The APR changed significantly during the first 2 years postoperatively in the proximal (p < 0.001), mid-substance (p < 0.001), and distal (p < 0.01) intraarticular portion of the ACL autograft. A hypo-intense ACL MRI signal was associated with return to the preinjury sports level (p < 0.05). No correlation was found between ACL MRI graft signal and clinical outcome scores or KT-1000 measurements.

Conclusion: ACL grafts undergo a continuous maturation process in the first 2 years after surgery. The ACL graft signals became hyper-intense 6 months postoperatively and approximated the signal of a native intact ACL at 12- and 24 months. Patients with a hypo-intense ACL graft signal at 2 years follow-up were more likely to return to preinjury sports levels. The results of the present study provide a template for monitoring the normal ACL maturation process via MRI in case of prolonged clinical symptoms. However, subjective outcome and clinical examination of knee laxity remain important to assess the treatment success and to allow to return to sports.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-021-06777-4DOI Listing
November 2021

Minimum 10-Year Clinical Outcomes After Arthroscopic 270° Labral Repair in Traumatic Shoulder Instability Involving Anterior, Inferior, and Posterior Labral Injury.

Am J Sports Med 2021 12 1;49(14):3937-3944. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Connecticut, Mansfield, Connecticut, USA.

Background: Current literature reports highly satisfactory short- and midterm clinical outcomes in patients with arthroscopic 270° labral tear repairs. However, data remain limited on long-term clinical outcomes and complication and redislocation rates in patients with traumatic shoulder instability involving anterior, inferior, and posterior labral injury.

Purpose: To investigate, at a minimum follow-up of 10 years, the clinical outcomes, complications, and recurrent instability in patients with 270° labral tears involving the anterior, inferior, and posterior labrum treated with arthroscopic stabilization using suture anchors.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: A retrospective outcomes study was completed for all patients with a minimum 10-year follow-up who underwent arthroscopic 270° labral tear repairs with suture anchors by a single surgeon. Outcome measures included pre- and postoperative Rowe score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Simple Shoulder Test, visual analog scale for pain, and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE). Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) scores were collected postoperatively. Complication data were collected, including continued instability, subluxation or dislocation events, and revision surgery. Failure was defined as any cause of revision surgery.

Results: In total, 21 patients (mean ± SD age, 27.1 ± 9.6 years) with 270° labral repairs were contacted at a minimum 10-year follow-up. All outcome measures showed statistically significant improvements as compared with those preoperatively: Rowe (53.9 ± 11.4 to 88.7 ± 8.9; = .005), ASES (72.9 ± 18.4 to 91.8 ± 10.8; = .004), Simple Shoulder Test (8.7 ± 2.4 to 11.2 ± 1.0; = .013), visual analog scale (2.5 ± 2.6 to 0.5 ± 1.1; = .037), and SANE (24.0 ± 15.2 to 91.5 ± 8.3; = .043). The mean postoperative WOSI score at minimum follow-up was 256.3 ± 220.6. Three patients had postoperative complications, including a traumatic subluxation, continued instability, and a traumatic dislocation, 2 of which required revision surgery (14.2% failure rate).

Conclusion: Arthroscopic repairs of 270° labral tears involving the anterior, inferior, and posterior labrum have highly satisfactory clinical outcomes at 10 years, with complication and redislocation rates similar to those reported at 2 years. This suggests that repairs of extensile labral tears are effective in restoring and maintaining mechanical stability of the glenohumeral joint in the long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211053632DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8649457PMC
December 2021

Midterm outcome and strength assessment after proximal rectus femoris refixation in athletes.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: Proximal rectus femoris avulsions (PRFA) are relatively rare injuries that occur predominantly among young soccer players. The aim of this study was to evaluate midterm postoperative results including strength potential via standardized strength measurements after proximal rectus femoris tendon refixation. It was hypothesized that the majority of competitive athletes return to competition (RTC) after refixation of the rectus femoris tendon without significant strength or functional deficits compared to the contralateral side.

Methods: Patients with an acute (< 6 weeks) PRFA who underwent surgical refixation between 2012 and 2019 with a minimum follow-up of 12 months were evaluated. The outcome measures compiled were the median Tegner Activity Scale (TAS) and mean RTC time frames, Harris Hip Score (HHS), Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS) subscales, International Hip Outcome Tool-33 (iHOT-33), and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain. In addition, a standardized isometric strength assessment of knee flexion, knee extension, and hip flexion was performed to evaluate the functional result of the injured limb in comparison to the uninjured side.

Results: Out of 20 patients, 16 (80%) patients were available for final assessment at a mean follow-up of 44.8 ± SD 28.9 months. All patients were male with 87.5% sustaining injuries while playing soccer. The average time interval between trauma and surgery was 18.4 ± 8.5 days. RTC was possible for 14 out of 15 previously competitive athletes (93.3%) at a mean 10.5 ± 3.4 months after trauma. Patients achieved a high level of activity postoperatively with a median (interquartile range) TAS of 9 (7-9) and reported good to excellent outcome scores (HHS: 100 (96-100); HAGOS: symptoms 94.6 (89.3-100), pain 97.5 (92.5-100), function in daily living 100 (95-100), function in sport and recreation 98.4 (87.5-100), participation in physical activities 100 (87.5-100), quality of life 83.1 ± 15.6; iHot-33: 95.1 (81.6-99.8)). No postoperative complications were reported. Range of motion, isometric knee flexion and extension, as well as hip flexion strength levels were not statistically different between the affected and contralateral legs. The majority of patients were "very satisfied" (56.3%) or "satisfied" (37.5%) with the postoperative result and reported little pain (VAS 0 (0-0.5)).

Conclusion: Surgical treatment of acute PRFA yields excellent postoperative results in a young and highly active cohort. Hip flexion and knee extension strength was restored fully without major surgical complications.

Level Of Evidence: Retrospective cohort study; III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-021-04189-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8522542PMC
October 2021

Autologous chondrocyte implantation combined with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: similar short-term results in comparison with isolated cartilage repair in ligament intact joints.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Oct 9. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: Both acute ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) as well as chronic ACL insufficiency show a high association with focal cartilage defects of the knee. However, the results after combined ACL reconstruction and cartilage repair are not well investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the short-term outcomes after autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) in combination with ACL reconstruction and to compare the results with patients who underwent isolated ACI in ligament intact knees.

Methods: All patients who were registered in the German Cartilage Registry with ACI for focal cartilage defects in the knee joint in combination with ACL reconstruction and who completed the 24 month follow-up were included in the study group. A matched-pair procedure according to gender, defect location, defect size, and age was used to create a control group of patients with isolated ACI in ACL intact joints. The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the numeric analog scale for pain (NAS) were used to assess the preoperative state as well as the clinical outcomes 12 and 24 months after surgery.

Results: A total of 34 patients were included in both the study group (age mean 33.3 ± SD 8.8 years) and the control group (33.6 ± 8.4 years) with a median defect size of 466 (25%-75% IQR 375-600) mm and 425 (IQR 375-600) mm, respectively. In comparison with the preoperative state (median 67, IQR 52-75), the study group showed a significant increase of the total KOOS after 12 months (78, IQR 70-86; p = 0.014) and after 24 months (81, IQR 70-84; p = 0.001). The NAS for pain did not change significantly in the postoperative course. In comparison with the control group there was no significant difference for the total KOOS neither preoperative (control group median 67, IQR 52-73) nor at any postoperative time point (12 months: 82, IQR 67-93; 24 months: 81, IQR 71-91).

Conclusion: The clinical short-term outcomes after ACI at the knee joint in combination with ACL reconstruction are good and similar to the results after isolated ACI in ligament intact knees.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-021-06764-9DOI Listing
October 2021

Arthroscopic one-step matrix-assisted bone marrow stimulation for the treatment of osteochondral defects of the talus.

Oper Orthop Traumatol 2022 Aug 5;34(4):295-302. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department for Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Objective: All arthroscopic one-step treatment of osteochondral defects of the talus with matrix-assisted bone marrow stimulation with a cell-free hyaluronic acid 3D matrix.

Indications: Symptomatic osteochondral defects of the talus (1-2 cm, ICRS III-IV).

Contraindications: Large non-shouldered osteochondral defects (2 cm) of the talus, arthritis, kissing lesions of the distal tibia, metabolic arthropathies, non-reconstructable defects, hindfoot malalignment, chronic inflammatory systemic disorders.

Surgical Technique: Arthroscopic examination of the ankle joint and visualization of the osteochondral defect of the talus to confirm the indication via standard portals. First, debridement of the osteochondral defect with arthroscopic curette or shaver, removal of loose fragments, resection of the sclerotic bone via shaver and measurement of the defect size. Second, multiple perforation of the subchondral plate to recruit mesenchymal stem cells from the underlying bone marrow by an microfracturing awl to stimulate the differentiation of fibrocartilaginous repair tissue in the defect zone. Then, the cell-free hyaluronic acid 3D matrix is placed into the defect via arthroscopic forceps and modulated by a probe to avoid detachment of the matrix by ankle joint movement.

Postoperative Management: Postoperative management includes movement restrictions for pro- and supination but free passive dorsal extension and plantar flexion. No weight-bearing is allowed for 6 weeks.

Results: Twenty-three patients (male: 11/women: 12) with a mean age of 33 years (range: 18-56) and a minimum follow-up of 24 months were included in this retrospective two-center study. The mean values for Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) were 79 (range 33-93), for Tegner score 3 (range: 1-5) and the Visual analog scale (VAS) pain 1 (range: 0-3) and VAS function 2 (range: 0-5). At follow-up, MRI was available in 17 of 23 patients. MRI results showed a mean Magnetic Resonance Observation of Cartilage Repair Tissue (MOCART) score of 81 (range: 65-90). Complications were not observed during the follow-up period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00064-021-00737-4DOI Listing
August 2022

The unstable shoulder: what soft tissue, bony anatomy and biomechanics can teach us.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 12 24;29(12):3899-3901. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Klinikum Rechts Der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-021-06743-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8595183PMC
December 2021
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