Publications by authors named "Andrea Watson"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Functional and genetic markers of niche partitioning among enigmatic members of the human oral microbiome.

Genome Biol 2020 12 16;21(1):292. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Introduction: Microbial residents of the human oral cavity have long been a major focus of microbiology due to their influence on host health and intriguing patterns of site specificity amidst the lack of dispersal limitation. However, the determinants of niche partitioning in this habitat are yet to be fully understood, especially among taxa that belong to recently discovered branches of microbial life.

Results: Here, we assemble metagenomes from tongue and dental plaque samples from multiple individuals and reconstruct 790 non-redundant genomes, 43 of which resolve to TM7, a member of the Candidate Phyla Radiation, forming six monophyletic clades that distinctly associate with either plaque or tongue. Both pangenomic and phylogenomic analyses group tongue-specific clades with other host-associated TM7 genomes. In contrast, plaque-specific TM7 group with environmental TM7 genomes. Besides offering deeper insights into the ecology, evolution, and mobilome of cryptic members of the oral microbiome, our study reveals an intriguing resemblance between dental plaque and non-host environments indicated by the TM7 evolution, suggesting that plaque may have served as a stepping stone for environmental microbes to adapt to host environments for some clades of microbes. Additionally, we report that prophages are widespread among oral-associated TM7, while absent from environmental TM7, suggesting that prophages may have played a role in adaptation of TM7 to the host environment.

Conclusions: Our data illuminate niche partitioning of enigmatic members of the oral cavity, including TM7, SR1, and GN02, and provide genomes for poorly characterized yet prevalent members of this biome, such as uncultivated Flavobacteriaceae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-020-02195-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7739484PMC
December 2020

Hope Shattered, Hope Restored.

Authors:
Andrea M Watson

JAMA Oncol 2021 Jan;7(1):29

Erick Peter Person Children's Cancer Center, Essentia Health Duluth Clinic, Duluth, Minnesota.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.5191DOI Listing
January 2021

Diurnal and dietary impacts on estimating microbial protein flow from urinary purine derivative excretion in beef cattle.

Transl Anim Sci 2020 Jul 20;4(3):txaa140. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of diet composition and time of urine spot sampling on estimates of urinary purine derivative (PD) excretion. In Exp. 1, 116 individually fed crossbred heifers (407 ± 32 kg) were arranged in a randomized block design (82 d). Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial design, with two urine spot sample collection times (0700 and 1700 hours; AM and PM) and three diets: 85% steam-flaked corn (SFC); 85% SFC + 1.5% urea (UREA); or 25% SFC, 30% wet corn gluten feed, and 30% corn bran (BYPROD). In Exp. 2, six ruminally and duodenally fistulated steers (474 ± 37 kg) were arranged in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, with dietary treatments identical to Exp. 1 (63 d). Treatment diets were selected to result in varied amounts of microbial crude protein (MCP) in order to evaluate the accuracy of using estimates of urinary PD excretion to predict MCP. Urine spot samples were collected at 0700, 1200, 1700, and 2200 hours. No urine collection time × diet interactions occurred ( > 0.20) for any variable in either experiment. In Exp. 1, dry matter intake (DMI) was greatest with BYRPOD (10.40 kg/d) and lowest with SFC (7.90 kg/d; < 0.05). Feed efficiencies were greatest for UREA (0.182) and least for SFC (0.141; < 0.05). Urinary PD:creatinine (PD:C) ratio was greatest for BYPROD (1.25) and least for SFC (0.94; < 0.05). Urine spot sampling time had a significant ( < 0.05) impact on PD:C, 1.03 for AM and 1.22 for PM samples. In Exp. 2, DMI was greater ( < 0.05) with BYPROD than with SFC and tended ( = 0.07) to be greater with BYPROD than with UREA. Ruminal pH was greatest for BYPROD (5.94; < 0.05). Flow of MCP was 636, 829, and 1,056 g/d for SFC, UREA, and BYPROD, with BYPROD being greater ( < 0.05) than SFC and tending ( = 0.06) to be greater than UREA. Urinary PD:C was greater ( < 0.05) for BYPROD than SFC and tended ( = 0.09) to be greater for UREA than SFC. Urinary PD:C increased linearly ( < 0.05) with sampling time. Diets formulated to affect DMI and MCP flow resulted in differences in urinary PD excretion, and these results related well with MCP flow estimated from duodenal purines. Collecting spot samples of urine later in the day resulted in greater estimates of urinary PD excretion; purine and PD flows appear to increase with time after one morning feeding per day. This method is well suited to evaluating relative differences between treatments but should not be extrapolated to assume absolute values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tas/txaa140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7433915PMC
July 2020

Impact of a fumaric acid and palm oil additive on beef cattle performance and carcass characteristics in diets containing increasing concentrations of corn silage.

Transl Anim Sci 2020 Apr 8;4(2):txaa043. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE.

A feedlot study was conducted comparing a natural feed additive at varying corn silage (CS) inclusions on receiving and finishing cattle performance. The study utilized 480 crossbred steers (initial shrunk body weight [BW] = 296 kg; SD = 24.1 kg) in 48 pens with 10 steers/pen and 8 pens per treatment. Treatments were designed as a 2 × 3 factorial with 3 inclusions of CS (14%, 47%, 80%; dry matter [DM] basis) with or without (+, -) the inclusion of a feed additive containing fumaric acid and palm oil (FAPO). All treatment diets contained 16% modified distillers grains plus solubles and 4% supplement with dry-rolled corn replacing CS on a DM basis. All steers were fed the 80 CS diet and adapted to 47% and 14% CS over a 10- and 24-d period, respectively. Cattle fed 80 CS were fed for 238 days, 47 CS for 195 days, and 14% CS were fed for 168 days to a common backfat of 1.28 cm ( ≥ 0.59). There were no interactions for CS inclusion and the inclusion of FAPO on final body weight (FBW), DMI, ADG, G:F, hot carcass weight (HCW), LM area, marbling, or calculated yield grade (CYG; ≥ 0.15). There was no significant difference for FBW, DMI, ADG, G:F, HCW, marbling, or CYG for cattle fed with or without FAPO ( ≥ 0.13). However, there was a quadratic response for FBW, ADG, G:F, HCW, marbling, and CYG with increased inclusion of CS ( ≤ 0.04). Inclusion of FAPO had no effect on performance. Feeding CS at greater inclusions decreased daily gain and feed efficiency but increased FBW when fed to an equal fat endpoint. CS gave greater returns ($/animal) when fed at 80% of diet DM. Feeding greater amounts of CS can be an economical way to finish cattle. In this study, FAPO did not affect animal performance, carcass characteristics, or economic return.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tas/txaa043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254485PMC
April 2020

Droplet-based high-throughput cultivation for accurate screening of antibiotic resistant gut microbes.

Elife 2020 06 17;9. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Chicago, United States.

Traditional cultivation approaches in microbiology are labor-intensive, low-throughput, and yield biased sampling of environmental microbes due to ecological and evolutionary factors. New strategies are needed for ample representation of rare taxa and slow-growers that are often outcompeted by fast-growers in cultivation experiments. Here we describe a microfluidic platform that anaerobically isolates and cultivates microbial cells in millions of picoliter droplets and automatically sorts them based on colony density to enhance slow-growing organisms. We applied our strategy to a fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) donor stool using multiple growth media, and found significant increase in taxonomic richness and larger representation of rare and clinically relevant taxa among droplet-grown cells compared to conventional plates. Furthermore, screening the FMT donor stool for antibiotic resistance revealed 21 populations that evaded detection in plate-based assessment of antibiotic resistance. Our method improves cultivation-based surveys of diverse microbiomes to gain deeper insights into microbial functioning and lifestyles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.56998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7351490PMC
June 2020

Treatment of generalized infantile myofibromatosis with sorafenib and imatinib: A case report.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 06 19;67(6):e28288. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Infantile myofibromatosis (IM) is characterized by solitary musculoskeletal nodules presenting during infancy but can manifest as multiple lesions with visceral involvement. Multicentric IM with visceral involvement carries a high risk of mortality and there is no consensus on treatment. We present a case of a patient with multicentric IM and pulmonary involvement who progressed on several chemotherapeutic regimens and subsequently had a complete response to sorafenib and later imatinib. This report describes the novel use of sorafenib and imatinib to treat generalized IM and the role of continued tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy to maintain remission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28288DOI Listing
June 2020

B cell superantigens in the human intestinal microbiota.

Sci Transl Med 2019 08;11(507)

Committee on Immunology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

IgA is prominently secreted at mucosal surfaces and coats a fraction of the commensal microbiota, a process that is critical for intestinal homeostasis. However, the mechanisms of IgA induction and the molecular targets of these antibodies remain poorly understood, particularly in humans. Here, we demonstrate that microbiota from a subset of human individuals encode two protein "superantigens" expressed on the surface of commensal bacteria of the family Lachnospiraceae such as that bind IgA variable regions and stimulate potent IgA responses in mice. These superantigens stimulate B cells expressing human VH3 or murine VH5/6/7 variable regions and subsequently bind their antibodies, allowing these microbial organisms to become highly coated with IgA in vivo. These findings demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for commensal superantigens in host-microbiota interactions. Furthermore, as superantigen-expressing strains show an uneven distribution across human populations, they should be systematically considered in studies evaluating human B cell responses and microbiota during homeostasis and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aau9356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6758550PMC
August 2019

Author Correction: The Wolbachia mobilome in Culex pipiens includes a putative plasmid.

Nat Commun 2019 Jul 12;10(1):3153. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Graduate Program in the Biophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-11234-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6626035PMC
July 2019

Photobiomodulation as an Inflammatory Therapeutic Following Dental Prophylaxis in Canines.

Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg 2019 May;37(5):276-281

Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, California.

The aim of this study was to determine if a single photobiomodulation treatment can reduce oral erythema and edema following routine dental prophylaxis in canines. Photobiomodulation therapy has been documented to accelerate healing time through mitigation of erythema and edema in human and veterinary patients. Canine patients were randomly assigned into three groups: CG (Control,  = 9, mock gingiva treatment without irradiation), LTG (left side treated,  = 8, irradiation of left upper and lower dental arcade), and RTG (right side treated,  = 7, irradiation of right upper and lower dental arcade). Immediately following anesthetized dental prophylaxis, the canines in the RTG and LTG received four points of irradiation (GaAlInP-650 nm, continuous wave, 0.1 W, 0.2 W/cm, 100 sec, 10 J, 20 J/cm). Erythema and edema along the gingival surface of each dental arcade were scored 24 h after treatment by a blinded veterinary evaluator. Analysis of variance and Bonferroni correction were used for data analysis. Using a composite evaluation, there was significantly lower inflammation scores for the RTG ( = 0.017) and LTG ( = 0.025) relative to the CG at the location of the lower right dental arcade. Evaluating erythema individually, a significant reduction was found in the LTG ( = 0.049) when compared with the CG for the lower left dental arcade. Despite the limitations in this study, the canines who received a single photobiomodulation treatment demonstrated some degree of reduction in oral inflammation and erythema following dental prophylaxis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/photob.2018.4614DOI Listing
May 2019

Impact of corn silage moisture at harvest on performance of growing steers with supplemental rumen undegradable protein, finishing steer performance, and nutrient digestibility by lambs.

Transl Anim Sci 2019 Mar 16;3(2):761-774. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE.

Three experiments evaluated delaying corn silage harvest, silage concentration, and source of supplemental protein on performance and nutrient digestibility in growing and finishing diets. Experiment 1 used 180 crossbred yearling steers (body weight [BW] = 428; SD = 39 kg) to evaluate corn silage dry matter (DM) (37% or 43%) and replacing corn with silage (15% or 45% of diet DM) in finishing diets containing 40% modified distillers grains with solubles. Experiment 2 used 60 crossbred steers (BW = 271; SD = 32 kg) to evaluate corn silage harvest DM (37% or 43%) and response to rumen undegradable protein (RUP) supplementation (0.5%, 1.4%, 2.4%, 3.3%, or 4.2% of diet DM) in silage growing diets. Experiment 3 used 9 crossbred lambs (BW = 30.1; SD = 4.1 kg) to evaluate nutrient digestibility of 37% or 43% DM corn silage in silage growing diets fed ad libitum or restricted to 1.5% of BW. In experiment 1, as corn silage concentration increased from 15% to 45%, average daily gain (ADG) and gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) decreased ( ≤ 0.04). Carcass-adjusted final BW and hot carcass weight (HCW) were lower ( ≤ 0.04) for steers fed 45% corn silage compared to 15% when fed for equal days. As DM of corn silage was increased from 37% to 43%, no differences ( ≥ 0.30) in dry matter intake (DMI), ADG, G:F, or HCW were observed. In experiment 2, as DM of corn silage increased from 37% to 43%, ADG and G:F decreased ( ≤ 0.04). Increasing supplemental RUP in the diet increased ( ≤ 0.05) ending BW, DMI, ADG, and G:F linearly as supplemental RUP increased from 0.5% to 4.2%. In experiment 3, there were no differences ( ≥ 0.56) in DM digestibility and organic matter digestibility between silage harvest DM and intake level. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake was reduced ( < 0.01) for lambs fed the delayed harvest corn silage compared to earlier corn silage harvest. As silage harvest was delayed from 37% to 43% DM, NDF digestibility decreased ( < 0.01) from 64.39% to 53.41%. Although increasing corn silage concentration in place of corn in finishing diets reduced ADG and G:F, delayed silage harvest did not affect performance of finishing cattle. Delayed silage harvest in growing cattle resulted in lower ADG and G:F, possibly due to increased starch or maturity leading to decreased NDF digestibility. The addition of RUP to silage-based, growing diets improves performance by supplying more metabolizable protein and suggests RUP of corn silage is limiting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tas/txz011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7200511PMC
March 2019

The Wolbachia mobilome in Culex pipiens includes a putative plasmid.

Nat Commun 2019 03 5;10(1):1051. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Graduate Program in the Biophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Wolbachia is a genus of obligate intracellular bacteria found in nematodes and arthropods worldwide, including insect vectors that transmit dengue, West Nile, and Zika viruses. Wolbachia's unique ability to alter host reproductive behavior through its temperate bacteriophage WO has enabled the development of new vector control strategies. However, our understanding of Wolbachia's mobilome beyond its bacteriophages is incomplete. Here, we reconstruct near-complete Wolbachia genomes from individual ovary metagenomes of four wild Culex pipiens mosquitoes captured in France. In addition to viral genes missing from the Wolbachia reference genome, we identify a putative plasmid (pWCP), consisting of a 9.23-kbp circular element with 14 genes. We validate its presence in additional Culex pipiens mosquitoes using PCR, long-read sequencing, and screening of existing metagenomes. The discovery of this previously unrecognized extrachromosomal element opens additional possibilities for genetic manipulation of Wolbachia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08973-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6401122PMC
March 2019

Evaluation of the effects of biochar on diet digestibility and methane production from growing and finishing steers.

Transl Anim Sci 2019 Mar 26;3(2):775-783. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE.

The objectives of these studies were to evaluate the effects of biochar (0%, 0.8%, or 3% of diet dry matter) on diet digestibility and methane and carbon dioxide production from cattle on growing and finishing diets. The growing diet consisted of 21% brome hay, 20% wheat straw, 30% corn silage, 22% wet distillers grains plus solubles, and 7% supplement. The finishing diet consisted of 53% dry-rolled corn, 15% corn silage, 25% wet distillers grains plus solubles, and 7% supplement. In both trials biochar replaced fine ground corn in the supplement. Six crossbred steers (initial body weight [BW] 529 kg; SD = 16 kg) were used in both the growing and finishing trial. The growing diets were evaluated over 6 periods followed by the finishing trial with 3 periods. Digestibility measures were taken over 4 d after at least 8 d of adaptation to diets followed by 2 d of gas emission measurements using headbox calorimeters. Dry matter intake (DMI) was not affected ( ≥ 0.43; 7.91 kg/d) by biochar inclusion in the growing study and increased quadratically ( = 0.07) in the finishing study with 0.8% biochar inclusion having the greatest DMI (12.9 kg/d). Organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility increased quadratically ( = 0.10) in the growing study whereas OM digestibility tended to linearly decrease ( = 0.13) and NDF digestibility was not affected ( ≥ 0.39) by biochar inclusion in the finishing diet. Digestible energy intake (Mcal/d) was not affected ( ≥ 0.25) by biochar inclusion in the growing or finishing study. Methane production (g/d) tended to decrease quadratically ( = 0.14) in the growing study and was decreased 10.7% for the 0.8% biochar treatment relative to the control. There were no statistical differences in methane production (g/d) in the finishing study ( ≥ 0.32) but cattle on the 0.8% biochar treatment produced numerically less (9.6%) methane than the control. Methane production as g/kg DMI of the 0.8% biochar treatment relative to the control was numerically reduced 9.5% and 18.4% in the growing and finishing studies, respectively ( ≥ 0.13). Carbon dioxide production (g/d and g/kg of intake) quadratically decreased ( ≤ 0.06) in the growing study but was not affected by treatment in the finishing study ( ≥ 0.34). Although biochar is not a U.S. Food and Drug Administration -approved feed for cattle, the initial research shows potential as a methane mitigation strategy in both growing and finishing diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tas/txz027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7200811PMC
March 2019

Corn silage rumen undegradable protein content and response of growing calves to rumen undegradable protein supplement.

Transl Anim Sci 2019 Jan 15;3(1):51-59. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE.

The amount of rumen undegradable protein (RUP) in corn silage and the extent to which it is digested in the small intestine are uncertain. Three studies were conducted to determine RUP content of corn silage, and the effects of supplementing increasing concentrations of RUP on the growing performance of calves fed a corn silage diet. Experiments 1 and 2 used in situ methods to evaluate the RUP content of corn silage. In experiment 1, corn silages harvested at 37% or 42% dry matter (DM) were compared. In experiment 2, dry-rolled corn (89.4% DM) was reconstituted to 75%, 70%, 65%, and 50% DM and ensiled in mini-silos (2,265 cm) for 30, 90, 180, or 270 d to simulate the corn grain within corn silage, dry-rolled corn is more mature than corn grain harvested in corn silage. Experiment 3 used 60 steers (275 kg initial body weight, SD = 18) in an 83-d growing study to evaluate the effects of supplementing 0.4%, 1.7%, 3.0%, 4.2%, or 5.5% RUP (% of diet DM) on performance. In experiment 1, RUP as a % of DM was not different between the two corn silages ( ≥ 0.12), averaging 0.59% for samples refluxed in a neutral detergent solution (NDS) and 1.8% for samples not refluxed in NDS. Dry matter digestibility (DMD) also did not differ ( ≥ 0.19), averaging 67.4%. In experiment 2, as moisture content of the corn grain increased, DMD increased linearly ( < 0.01) and RUP content decreased linearly ( < 0.01). The DMD increased quadratically ( = 0.02), whereas RUP content decreased linearly ( < 0.01) as days of ensiling increased. In experiment 3, there were no differences in DM intake (DMI; ≥ 0.33) among treatments for period 1 (d 1 to 37). However, average daily gain (ADG) and gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) both linearly increased ( < 0.01) as RUP supplement inclusion increased. There were no differences in DMI ( ≥ 0.16), ADG ( ≥ 0.11), or G:F ( ≥ 0.64) in period 2 (d 38 to 83). For the overall growing period (d 1 to 83), a linear increase was observed for ending body weight ( = 0.01), ADG ( < 0.01), and G:F ( < 0.01) as RUP supplement inclusion increased from 0.4% to 5.5% of diet DM. The RUP content of corn silage is lower than previously reported. Data collected suggest the crude protein within corn silage is 13% RUP, and approximately 1/2 is digestible. The moisture content of corn silage at the time of harvest and the amount of time corn silage is stored continually impact protein availability. Supplementing growing calves fed corn silage with RUP will improve performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tas/txz014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7200907PMC
January 2019

The Bomb.

Authors:
Andrea M Watson

J Clin Oncol 2019 04 11;37(10):850-851. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

1 Essentia Health Duluth Clinic, Duluth, MN.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.02087DOI Listing
April 2019

Factors affecting urinary creatinine in heifers and cows.

Transl Anim Sci 2019 Jan 31;3(1):532-540. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE.

A series of total urine collections were conducted to evaluate the effects of age, diet, gestation, and body condition score () on urinary creatinine () and purine derivative () excretion in heifers and cows. For each collection, urine was collected over a 5-d period and composited by animal within day. Daily samples were analyzed for UC and PD concentration and averaged over the 5-d period. All animals were fed in individual stanchions at 2.0% of body weight (). To evaluate the relationship between age and UC excretion, 21 animals ranging from 5 to 80 months of age were fed a forage-based diet supplemented with dried distillers grains (DDG). Creatinine excretion (mg/kg BW) was not correlated with age ( = 0.37). To determine if diet alters UC, 11 heifers were sampled for two urine collection periods. In period 1, heifers were fed a forage-based diet supplemented with DDG. In period 2, heifers were fed a finishing diet (90% concentrate, 10% forage). Creatinine excretion (mg/kg BW) and PD:creatinine () was greater ( = 0.01) for heifers when fed the forage-based diet than when fed the concentrate-based diet. Eleven cows fed a forage-based diet supplemented with DDG were sampled to determine the effect of gestation on urinary metabolites. Gestation did not affect UC ( = 0.42) or PD:C ( = 0.30). To evaluate the relationship between 12th rib fat thickness and metabolite excretion, 40 heifers were fed a common finishing diet. There was no relationship between UC (mg/kg BW; = 0.28) or PD:UC ( = 0.47) and 12th rib fat thickness. To evaluate the relationship between BCS and UC, 11 cows were fed a forage diet supplemented with DDG. There was no relationship between BCS and UC (mg/kg BW; = 0.99) or PD:C ( = 0.84). To evaluate daily and diurnal variation in UC, nine heifers were fed a forage diet supplemented with DDG. Seven of the heifers were fed a finishing diet (90% concentrate, 10% forage) in a second period. Urine was collected every 2 h from 0600 to 1800 hours. When expressed as mg/kg BW, UC excretion was not different across animals fed the forage-based ( = 0.40) or concentrate-based diet ( = 0.18). Stepwise regression indicated that at least 3 d of collection were required to estimate UC. Time within day and day within period effects were observed ( < 0.01) for UC from 2-h interval samples. The UC varies with type of diet and diurnal variation is present. Variation among animals is relatively small.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tas/txz004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7200483PMC
January 2019

Small center, big heart.

Authors:
Andrea M Watson

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2018 09 3;65(9):e27219. Epub 2018 May 3.

Essentia Health Duluth Clinic, Institute of Rural Health, Duluth, Minnesota.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.27219DOI Listing
September 2018

Let It Be Hard.

Authors:
Andrea M Watson

J Clin Oncol 2015 Sep 3;33(25):2821-2. Epub 2015 Aug 3.

From Essentia Health Cancer Center, Duluth, MN.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2015.62.0518DOI Listing
September 2015

Minimally Invasive Adenocarcinoma of the Lung as Second Malignant Neoplasm Following Pediatric Rhabdomyosarcoma.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2016 Feb 14;63(2):344-7. Epub 2015 Jul 14.

Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Masonic Children's Hospital, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Primary pulmonary tumors are extremely rare in the pediatric population; however, sporadic cases of invasive pulmonary adenocarcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm (SMN) have been described in survivors of pediatric cancers. Pediatric patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) have a particularly increased risk of developing a SMN when compared to the general population, though pulmonary adenocarcinoma has not been previously described in a RMS patient. A 12-year-old female previously treated for stage IV pelvic RMS was found to have a left pulmonary nodule on surveillance computed tomography. The nodule was detected 4.25 years after the completion of treatment, which included resection, chemotherapy, and radiation to the abdomen and pelvis. Wedge resection of the pulmonary lesion was performed with negative margins. Histopathological examination revealed minimally invasive adenocarcinoma. Pulmonary adenocarcinoma may rarely present as a SMN in pediatric cancer survivors. The pathogenesis of this association is not yet entirely clear, but may include chemotherapy-induced mutagenesis and/or genetic predisposition. As pulmonary adenocarcinoma may present as a lung lesion radiographically indistinguishable from metastatic RMS, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any pediatric RMS survivor presenting with a new pulmonary nodule, especially in cases with late recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.25642DOI Listing
February 2016

8th GCC: consolidated feedback to US FDA on the 2013 draft FDA guidance on bioanalytical method validation.

Bioanalysis 2014 ;6(22):2957-63

Covance Laboratories, Chantilly, VA, USA.

The 8th GCC Closed Forum for Bioanalysis was held in Baltimore, MD, USA on 5 December 2013, immediately following the 2013 AAPS Workshop (Crystal City V): Quantitative Bioanalytical Methods Validation and Implementation--The 2013 Revised FDA Guidance. This GCC meeting was organized to discuss the contents of the draft revised FDA Guidance on bioanalytical method validation that was published in September 2013 and consolidate the feedback of the GCC members. In attendance were 63 senior-level participants, from seven countries, representing 46 bioanalytical CRO companies/sites. This event represented a unique opportunity for CRO bioanalytical experts to share their opinions and concerns regarding the draft FDA Guidance, and to build unified comments to be provided to the FDA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.14.287DOI Listing
July 2015

Recommendations on incurred sample stability (ISS) by GCC.

Bioanalysis 2014 Sep;6(18):2385-90

Quintiles Bioanalytical & ADME Labs, Ithaca, NY, USA.

The topic of incurred sample stability (ISS) has generated considerable discussion within the bioanalytical community in recent years. The subject was an integral part of the seventh annual Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (WRIB) held in Long Beach, CA, USA, in April 2013, and at the Global CRO Council for Bioanalysis (GCC) meeting preceding it. Discussion at both events focused on the use of incurred samples for ISS purposes in light of results from a recent GCC survey completed by member companies. This paper reports the consensus resulting from these discussions and serves as a useful reference for depicting ISS issues and concerns, summarizing the GCC survey results and providing helpful recommendations on ISS in the context of bioanalytical method development and application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.14.155DOI Listing
September 2014

Characterization of three Chlorella sorokiniana strains in anaerobic digested effluent from cattle manure.

Bioresour Technol 2013 Dec 18;150:377-86. Epub 2013 Oct 18.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 1901 Vine Street, Lincoln, NE 68588, United States.

Chlorella sorokiniana CS-01, UTEX 1230 and UTEX 2714 were maintained in 10% anaerobic digester effluent (ADE) from cattle manure digestion and compared with algal cultivation in Bold's Basal Medium (BBM). Biomass of CS-01 and UTEX 1230 in ADE produced similar or greater than 280mg/L after 21days in BBM, however, UTEX 2714 growth in ADE was suppressed by more than 50% demonstrating a significant species bias to synthetic compared to organic waste-based media. The highest accumulation of protein and starch was exhibited in UTEX 1230 in ADE yielding 34% and 23% ash free dry weight (AFDW), respectively, though fatty acid methyl ester total lipid measured less than 12% AFDW. Results suggest that biomass from UTEX 1230 in ADE may serve as a candidate alga and growth system combination sustainable for animal feed production considering high yields of protein, starch and low lipid accumulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.10.032DOI Listing
December 2013

GLI1 genotypes do not predict basal cell carcinoma risk: a case control study.

Mol Cancer 2009 Nov 30;8:113. Epub 2009 Nov 30.

1Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota - Duluth, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Susceptibility to basal cell carcinoma results from complex interactions between ultraviolet radiation exposure and genetic factors. The GLI1 oncogene is believed to play a role in the genesis of these tumors. We determined whether GLI1 polymorphisms were risk factors for developing basal cell carcinoma, either alone or in combination with patterns of past sun exposure, and whether there were functional differences among different GLI1 haplotypes.

Results: GLI1 genotypes at c.2798 and c.3298 from 201 basal cell carcinoma patients were compared to 201 age and sex-matched controls. Neither genotype nor haplotype frequencies differed between cases and controls. However, the odds of developing basal cell carcinoma on the trunk compared to the head/neck appeared somewhat lower with carriers of the c.3298GC than the CC genotype. There was no evidence for interactions between skin type, childhood sunburning, average adult sun exposure, adult sunbathing, or intermittency of sun exposure and GLI1 haplotype. Additionally, we found no significant differences in transcription activation or cell transforming ability among the four GLI1 haplotypes.

Conclusion: These results suggest that different GLI1 genotypes alone or in combination with past sun exposure patterns as assessed in this study do not affect basal cell carcinoma risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-4598-8-113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2789726PMC
November 2009

Surfactant treatment of an infant with acute idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2008 Jan;9(1):e4-6

Department of Pediatrics, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA.

Objective: To describe the successful use of surfactant for treatment of respiratory distress refractory to conventional mechanical ventilation in a 4-wk-old with pulmonary hemorrhage.

Design: Case report.

Setting: Tertiary care center pediatric intensive care unit.

Patient: Four-week-old infant.

Main Result: Clinical improvement of respiratory distress as evidenced by 50% reduction in oxygenation index and subsequent extubation.

Conclusion: Pulmonary hemorrhage is a rare but potentially fatal condition in children. Previously described therapeutic approaches include high-frequency oscillation ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Infants with pulmonary hemorrhage and respiratory distress may benefit from a trial of surfactant before escalating care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.PCC.0000298755.86878.20DOI Listing
January 2008

Optimal management strategies for rhabdomyosarcoma in children.

Paediatr Drugs 2007 ;9(6):391-400

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Memorial Hospital, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60614, USA.

Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common sarcoma of childhood. Fortunately, the goal of cure is realistic for the majority of patients with localized tumors. However, management of these patients remains challenging. The fact that the tumor arises in a wide variety of primary sites, some of which are associated with specific patterns of local invasion, regional lymph node spread, and therapeutic response, requires physicians to be familiar with site-specific staging and treatment details. In addition, rhabdomyosarcoma requires multimodality therapy that can be associated with significant acute toxicities and long-term effects, particularly when administered to young children. These factors sometimes present a dilemma as to the best approach to optimize the chance of cure, minimize toxicity, and respect quality of life. The purpose of this review is to discuss 'optimal' management of this complicated tumor. Since the tumor is relatively rare, requires highly specialized care, and important management questions remain to be answered, optimal management of rhabdomyosarcoma includes enrollment in clinical trials whenever possible. Appropriate management begins with establishing the correct pathologic diagnosis, histologic subtype, primary site, extent of disease (International Society of Pediatric Oncology [SIOP]-TNM-Union Internationale Contre le Cancer stage or Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group [IRSG] stage), and extent of resection (IRSG group). Cooperative groups throughout North America and Europe have defined risk-adapted treatment based on these factors; this treatment requires a coordinated management plan that includes surgery, chemotherapy, and usually radiotherapy. The surgical approach for rhabdomyosarcoma is to excise the primary tumor whenever possible without causing major functional or cosmetic deficits. Wide excision is difficult in some primary sites and can be complicated by the fact that the tumor grows in a locally infiltrative manner so that complete resection is often neither possible nor medically indicated. Incompletely resected tumors are generally treated with radiotherapy. The cooperative groups reduce the dose of radiation based on the response of the tumor to chemotherapy and delayed primary resection to differing degrees. Response-adjusted radiation administration may reduce the long-term effects of radiotherapy, such as bone growth arrest, muscle atrophy, bladder dysfunction, and induction of second malignant neoplasms; however, it may also be associated with an increased risk of tumor recurrence. All patients with rhabdomyosarcoma require chemotherapy. A backbone of vincristine and dactinomycin with either cyclophosphamide (VAC) or ifosfamide (IVA) has been established. Risk-adapted treatment involves reducing or eliminating the alklyating agent for patients with the most favorable disease characteristics. Clinical trials are ongoing to improve outcomes for higher risk patients; newer agents, such as topotecan or irinotecan, in combination with VAC or use of agents in novel ways are being investigated. Acute and long-term toxicities associated with these chemotherapy regimens include myelosuppression, febrile neutropenia, hepatopathy, infertility, and second malignant neoplasms. A 5-year survival rate >70% has been achieved in recent trials for patients with localized rhabdomyosarcoma. However, the outcome for patients who present with metastatic disease remains poor. In the future, risk-adapted classification of rhabdomyosarcoma will likely be based on biologic features, such as the presence of chromosomal translocations or specific gene expression profiles. It is hoped that newer therapies directed at specific molecular genetic defects will benefit all patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00148581-200709060-00006DOI Listing
February 2008

The mother of challenges. Do parenthood and residency mix?

Authors:
Andrea Watson

Minn Med 2005 Feb;88(2):26-7

Mayo Clinic, USA.

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February 2005

Legionella pneumonia: infection during immunosuppressive therapy for idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004 Jan;23(1):82-4

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Tochester, MN 55905, USA.

We report a case of Legionella pneumonia in a 10-year-old girl with idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis who was chronically immunosuppressed and had exposure to a hot tub. Prompt diagnosis with bronchoalveolar lavage and subsequent antimicrobial therapy resulted in full recovery. Legionellosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of the immunosuppressed child with respiratory illness. High risk patients should avoid exposure to hot tubs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.inf.0000107016.09468.80DOI Listing
January 2004