Publications by authors named "Andrea Tintori"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evidence Supporting Predation of 4-m Marine Reptile by Triassic Megapredator.

iScience 2020 Jul 29:101347. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

The Geoscience Museum, Hebei GEO University, No. 136 East Huai'an Road, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050031, People's Republic of China.

Air-breathing marine predators have been essential components of the marine ecosystem since the Triassic. Many of them are considered the apex predators but without direct evidence-dietary inferences are usually based on circumstantial evidence, such as tooth shape. Here we report a fossil that likely represents the oldest evidence for predation on megafauna, i.e., animals equal to or larger than humans, by marine tetrapods-a thalattosaur (∼4 m in total length) in the stomach of a Middle Triassic ichthyosaur (∼5 m). The predator has grasping teeth yet swallowed the body trunk of the prey in one to several pieces. There were many more Mesozoic marine reptiles with similar grasping teeth, so megafaunal predation was likely more widespread than presently conceived. Megafaunal predation probably started nearly simultaneously in multiple lineages of marine reptiles in the Illyrian (about 242-243 million years ago).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7520894PMC
July 2020

Repeated evolution of durophagy during ichthyosaur radiation after mass extinction indicated by hidden dentition.

Sci Rep 2020 05 8;10(1):7798. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Research, Anhui Geological Museum, Jiahe Road 999, Hefei, Anhui, 230031, China.

Marine tetrapods quickly diversified and were established as marine top predators after the end-Permian Mass extinction (EPME). Ichthyosaurs were the forerunner of this rapid radiation but the main drivers of the diversification are poorly understood. Cartorhynchus lenticarpus is a basal ichthyosauriform with the least degree of aquatic adaptation, holding a key to identifying such a driver. The unique specimen appeared edentulous based on what was exposed but a CT scanning revealed that the species indeed had rounded teeth that are nearly perpendicular to the jaw rami, and thus completely concealed in lateral view. There are three dental rows per jaw ramus, and the root lacks infoldings of the dentine typical of ichthyopterygians. The well-developed and worn molariform dentition with three tooth rows supports the previous inference that the specimen is not of a juvenile. The premaxilla and the corresponding part of the dentary are edentulous. Molariform dentition evolved three to five times independently within Ichthyosauriformes in the Early and Middle Triassic. Convergent exploitation of hard-shelled invertebrates by different subclades of ichthyosauriforms likely fueled the rapid taxonomic diversification of the group after EPME.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64854-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7210957PMC
May 2020

Recalibration of the insect evolutionary time scale using Monte San Giorgio fossils suggests survival of key lineages through the End-Permian Extinction.

Proc Biol Sci 2019 10 9;286(1912):20191854. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Sydney, Australia.

Insects are a highly diverse group of organisms and constitute more than half of all known animal species. They have evolved an extraordinary range of traits, from flight and complete metamorphosis to complex polyphenisms and advanced eusociality. Although the rich insect fossil record has helped to chart the appearance of many phenotypic innovations, data are scarce for a number of key periods. One such period is that following the End-Permian Extinction, recognized as the most catastrophic of all extinction events. We recently discovered several 240-million-year-old insect fossils in the Mount San Giorgio Lagerstätte (Switzerland-Italy) that are remarkable for their state of preservation (including internal organs and soft tissues), and because they extend the records of their respective taxa by up to 200 million years. By using these fossils as calibrations in a phylogenomic dating analysis, we present a revised time scale for insect evolution. Our date estimates for several major lineages, including the hyperdiverse crown groups of Lepidoptera, Hemiptera: Heteroptera and Diptera, are substantially older than their currently accepted post-Permian origins. We found that major evolutionary innovations, including flight and metamorphosis, appeared considerably earlier than previously thought. These results have numerous implications for understanding the evolution of insects and their resilience in the face of extreme events such as the End-Permian Extinction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.1854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6790769PMC
October 2019

The new ichthyosauriform (Reptilia, Ichthyosauromorpha) from Majiashan, Chaohu, Anhui Province, China.

PeerJ 2019 9;7:e7561. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Department of Research, Anhui Geological Museum, Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China.

A new species of ichthyosauriform is recognized based on 20 specimens, including nearly complete skeletons, and named . A part of the specimens was previously identified as and is herein reassigned to the new species. The new species differs from existing species of in a suite of features, such as the bifurcation of the caudal peak neural spine and a short femur relative to trunk length. The specimens include both complete and partially disarticulated skulls, allowing rigorous scrutiny of cranial sutures. For example, the squamosal does not participate in the margin of the upper temporal fenestra despite previous interpretations. Also, the frontal unequivocally forms a part of the anterior margin of the upper temporal fenestra, forming the most medial part of the anterior terrace. The skull of the holotype largely retains three-dimensionality with the scleral rings approximately in situ, revealing that the eyeball was uncovered in two different directions, that is, laterally and slightly dorsally through the main part of the orbit, and dorsally through the medial extension of the orbit into the skull roof. This skull construction is likely a basal feature of Ichthyosauromorpha. Phylogenetic analyses place the new species as a sister taxon of .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.7561DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6741286PMC
September 2019

Early Triassic marine reptile representing the oldest record of unusually small eyes in reptiles indicating non-visual prey detection.

Sci Rep 2019 01 24;9(1):152. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Center of Integrative Research, The Field Museum, Chicago, IL, 60605-2496, USA.

The end-Permian mass extinction (EPME) led to reorganization of marine predatory communities, through introduction of air-breathing top predators, such as marine reptiles. We report two new specimens of one such marine reptile, Eretmorhipis carrolldongi, from the Lower Triassic of Hubei, China, revealing superficial convergence with the modern duckbilled platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), a monotreme mammal. Apparent similarities include exceptionally small eyes relative to the body, snout ending with crura with a large internasal space, housing a bone reminiscent of os paradoxum, a mysterious bone of platypus, and external grooves along the crura. The specimens also have a rigid body with triangular bony blades protruding from the back. The small eyes likely played reduced roles during foraging in this animal, as with extant amniotes (group containing mammals and reptiles) with similarly small eyes. Mechanoreceptors on the bill of the animal were probably used for prey detection instead. The specimens represent the oldest record of amniotes with extremely reduced visual capacity, utilizing non-visual cues for prey detection. The discovery reveals that the ecological diversity of marine predators was already high in the late Early Triassic, and challenges the traditional view that the ecological diversification of marine reptiles was delayed following the EPME.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37754-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6345829PMC
January 2019

Separating sexual dimorphism from other morphological variation in a specimen complex of fossil marine reptiles (Reptilia, Ichthyosauriformes, Chaohusaurus).

Sci Rep 2018 10 8;8(1):14978. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Research, Anhui Geological Museum, Jiahe Road 999, Hefei, Anhui, 230031, People's Republic of China.

The Early Triassic Chaohu Fauna from Anhui Province, China, contains the oldest record of Mesozoic marine reptiles, such as Cartorhynchus and Sclerocormus. Most specimens from the fauna belong to the ichthyosauriform Chaohusaurus, more specifically resembling C. chaoxianensis. However, a wide range of morphological variation exists within about 40 skeletons that have been prepared, likely reflecting mixed signals from both sexual and taxonomic differences. We test whether the sexual and taxonomic signals are separable based on quantification, aided by the knowledge of sexual dimorphism in extant marine tetrapods. There are two different suites of dimorphism that divide the specimens differently from each other yet consistently within each suite, resulting in four morphotypes in combination, likely representing two sexes of two taxa. Presumed males have larger 'organ of prehension' sensu Darwin, specifically limbs in the present case, for a given body length. This sexing criterion is supported by the only specimen of a gravid female, which belongs to the morphotype with short limbs. Males also have larger skulls for the trunk length compared to females. This study demonstrates that sexual and taxonomic signals are separable in fossil reptiles, with a sufficient sample size and careful analyses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-33302-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6175944PMC
October 2018

Pre- versus post-mass extinction divergence of Mesozoic marine reptiles dictated by time-scale dependence of evolutionary rates.

Proc Biol Sci 2017 May;284(1854)

Department of Research, Anhui Geological Museum, Jiahe Road 999, Hefei, Anhui 230031, People's Republic of China.

The fossil record of a major clade often starts after a mass extinction even though evolutionary rates, molecular or morphological, suggest its pre-extinction emergence (e.g. squamates, placentals and teleosts). The discrepancy is larger for older clades, and the presence of a time-scale-dependent methodological bias has been suggested, yet it has been difficult to avoid the bias using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. This paradox raises the question of whether ecological vacancies, such as those after mass extinctions, prompt the radiations. We addressed this problem by using a unique temporal characteristic of the morphological data and a high-resolution stratigraphic record, for the oldest clade of Mesozoic marine reptiles, Ichthyosauromorpha. The evolutionary rate was fastest during the first few million years of ichthyosauromorph evolution and became progressively slower over time, eventually becoming six times slower. Using the later slower rates, estimates of divergence time become excessively older. The fast, initial rate suggests the emergence of ichthyosauromorphs after the end-Permian mass extinction, matching an independent result from high-resolution stratigraphic confidence intervals. These reptiles probably invaded the sea as a new ecosystem was formed after the end-Permian mass extinction. Lack of information on early evolution biased Bayesian clock rates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2017.0241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5443947PMC
May 2017

Central nervous system and muscular bundles preserved in a 240 million year old giant bristletail (Archaeognatha: Machilidae).

Sci Rep 2017 04 7;7:46016. Epub 2017 Apr 7.

Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra "Ardito Desio" - Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Mangiagalli 34, I-20133 Milano, Italy.

Among the incomparably diverse group of insects no cases of central nervous system (CNS) preservation have been so far described in compression fossils. A third of the fossil insects collected from a 240-239 million year old (Ma) level at Monte San Giorgio UNESCO World Heritage (Switzerland-Italy) underwent phosphatization, resulting in the extraordinary preservation of soft tissues. Here we describe Gigamachilis triassicus gen. et sp. nov. (Archaeognatha: Machiloidea: Machilidae) that, with an estimated total length of ~80 millimeters, represents the largest apterygote insect ever recorded. The holotype preserves: (i) components of the CNS represented by four abdominal ganglia, optic lobes with neuropils and compound retina; (ii) muscular bundles. Moreover, G. triassicus, possessing morphological features that prompt its assignment to the extant archaeognathan ingroup Machilidae, places the origin of modern lineages to Middle Triassic. Interestingly, at Monte San Giorgio, in the same stratigraphic unit the modern morphology of G. triassicus co-occurs with the ancient one represented by Dasyleptus triassicus (Archaeognatha: †Monura). Comparing these two types of body organization we provide a new reconstruction of the possible character evolution leading towards modern archaeognathan forms, suggesting the acquisition of novel features in a lineage of apterygote insects during the Permian or the Lower Triassic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep46016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5384076PMC
April 2017

Eccentricity and obliquity paced carbon cycling in the Early Triassic and implications for post-extinction ecosystem recovery.

Sci Rep 2016 06 13;6:27793. Epub 2016 Jun 13.

Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Mangiagalli 34-20133 Milano, Italy.

The timing of marine ecosystem recovery following the End Permian Mass Extinction (EPME) remains poorly constrained given the lack of radiometric ages. Here we develop a high-resolution carbonate carbon isotope (δ(13)Ccarb) record for 3.20 million years of the Olenekian in South China that defines the astronomical time-scale for the critical interval of major evolutionary and oceanic events in the Spathian. δ(13)Ccarb documents eccentricity modulation of carbon cycling through the period and a strong obliquity signal. A shift in phasing between short and long eccentricity modulation, and amplification of obliquity, is nearly coincident with a 2% decrease in seawater δ(13)CDIC, the last of a longer-term stepped decrease through the Spathian. The mid-Spathian shift in seawater δ(13)CDIC to typical thermocline values is interpreted to record a major oceanic reorganization with global climate amelioration. Coincidence of the phasing shift with the first occurrence of marine reptiles (248.81 Ma), suggests that their invasion into the sea and the onset of a complex ecosystem were facilitated by restoration of deep ocean ventilation linked mechanistically to a change in the response of the oceanic carbon reservoir to astronomical forcing. Together these records place the first constraints on the duration of the post-extinction recovery to 3.35 myr.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep27793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4904238PMC
June 2016

A large aberrant stem ichthyosauriform indicating early rise and demise of ichthyosauromorphs in the wake of the end-Permian extinction.

Sci Rep 2016 05 23;6:26232. Epub 2016 May 23.

Department of Research, Anhui Geological Museum, Jiahe Road 999, Hefei, Anhui 230031, People's Republic of China.

Contrary to the fast radiation of most metazoans after the end-Permian mass extinction, it is believed that early marine reptiles evolved slowly during the same time interval. However, emerging discoveries of Early Triassic marine reptiles are questioning this traditional view. Here we present an aberrant basal ichthyosauriform with a hitherto unknown body design that suggests a fast radiation of early marine reptiles. The new species is larger than coeval marine reptiles and has an extremely small head and a long tail without a fluke. Its heavily-built body bears flattened and overlapping gastral elements reminiscent of hupehsuchians. A phylogenetic analysis places the new species at the base of ichthyosauriforms, as the sister taxon of Cartorhynchus with which it shares a short snout with rostrally extended nasals. It now appears that ichthyosauriforms evolved rapidly within the first one million years of their evolution, in the Spathian (Early Triassic), and their true diversity has yet to be fully uncovered. Early ichthyosauromorphs quickly became extinct near the Early-Middle Triassic boundary, during the last large environmental perturbation after the end-Permian extinction involving redox fluctuations, sea level changes and volcanism. Marine reptile faunas shifted from ichthyosauromorph-dominated to sauropterygian-dominated composition after the perturbation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep26232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4876504PMC
May 2016

Setting the record straight for fossil flying fishes versus non-flying ones: a comment on Xu et al. (2015).

Authors:
Andrea Tintori

Biol Lett 2015 Nov;11(11)

Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2015.0179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4685532PMC
November 2015

Adult sex ratio, sexual dimorphism and sexual selection in a Mesozoic reptile.

Proc Biol Sci 2015 Sep;282(1815)

Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Mangiagalli, Milan 34-20133, Italy.

The evolutionary history of sexual selection in the geologic past is poorly documented based on quantification, largely because of difficulty in sexing fossil specimens. Even such essential ecological parameters as adult sex ratio (ASR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) are rarely quantified, despite their implications for sexual selection. To enable their estimation, we propose a method for unbiased sex identification based on sexual shape dimorphism, using size-independent principal components of phenotypic data. We applied the method to test sexual selection in Keichousaurus hui, a Middle Triassic (about 237 Ma) sauropterygian with an unusually large sample size for a fossil reptile. Keichousaurus hui exhibited SSD biased towards males, as in the majority of extant reptiles, to a minor degree (sexual dimorphism index -0.087). The ASR is about 60% females, suggesting higher mortality of males over females. Both values support sexual selection of males in this species. The method may be applied to other fossil species. We also used the Gompertz allometric equation to study the sexual shape dimorphism of K. hui and found that two sexes had largely homogeneous phenotypes at birth except in the humeral width, contrary to previous suggestions derived from the standard allometric equation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2015.1658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4614760PMC
September 2015

Lunge feeding in early marine reptiles and fast evolution of marine tetrapod feeding guilds.

Sci Rep 2015 Mar 10;5:8900. Epub 2015 Mar 10.

Center of Integrative Research, The Field Museum, Chicago. IL 60605-2496, U.S.A.

Traditional wisdom holds that biotic recovery from the end-Permian extinction was slow and gradual, and was not complete until the Middle Triassic. Here, we report that the evolution of marine predator feeding guilds, and their trophic structure, proceeded faster. Marine reptile lineages with unique feeding adaptations emerged during the Early Triassic (about 248 million years ago), including the enigmatic Hupehsuchus that possessed an unusually slender mandible. A new specimen of this genus reveals a well-preserved palate and mandible, which suggest that it was a rare lunge feeder as also occurs in rorqual whales and pelicans. The diversity of feeding strategies among Triassic marine tetrapods reached their peak in the Early Triassic, soon after their first appearance in the fossil record. The diet of these early marine tetrapods most likely included soft-bodied animals that are not preserved as fossils. Early marine tetrapods most likely introduced a new trophic mechanism to redistribute nutrients to the top 10 m of the sea, where the primary productivity is highest. Therefore, a simple recovery to a Permian-like trophic structure does not explain the biotic changes seen after the Early Triassic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep08900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4354009PMC
March 2015

A basal ichthyosauriform with a short snout from the Lower Triassic of China.

Nature 2015 Jan 5;517(7535):485-8. Epub 2014 Nov 5.

Department of Research, Anhui Geological Museum, Jiahe Road 999, Hefei, Anhui 230031, China.

The incompleteness of the fossil record obscures the origin of many of the more derived clades of vertebrates. One such group is the Ichthyopterygia, a clade of obligatory marine reptiles that appeared in the Early Triassic epoch, without any known intermediates. Here we describe a basal ichthyosauriform from the upper Lower Triassic (about 248 million years ago) of China, whose primitive skeleton indicates possible amphibious habits. It is smaller than ichthyopterygians and had unusually large flippers that probably allowed limited terrestrial locomotion. It also retained characteristics of terrestrial diapsid reptiles, including a short snout and body trunk. Unlike more-derived ichthyosauriforms, it was probably a suction feeder. The new species supports the sister-group relationships between ichthyosauriforms and Hupehsuchia, the two forming the Ichthyosauromorpha. Basal ichthyosauromorphs are known exclusively from south China, suggesting that the clade originated in the region, which formed a warm and humid tropical archipelago in the Early Triassic. The oldest unequivocal record of a sauropterygian is also from the same stratigraphic unit of the region.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13866DOI Listing
January 2015

Terrestrial origin of viviparity in mesozoic marine reptiles indicated by early triassic embryonic fossils.

PLoS One 2014 12;9(2):e88640. Epub 2014 Feb 12.

Department of Research, Anhui Geological Museum, Hefei, Anhui Province, People's Republic of China.

Viviparity in Mesozoic marine reptiles has traditionally been considered an aquatic adaptation. We report a new fossil specimen that strongly contradicts this traditional interpretation. The new specimen contains the oldest fossil embryos of Mesozoic marine reptile that are about 10 million years older than previous such records. The fossil belongs to Chaohusaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyopterygia), which is the oldest of Mesozoic marine reptiles (ca. 248 million years ago, Early Triassic). This exceptional specimen captures an articulated embryo in birth position, with its skull just emerged from the maternal pelvis. Its headfirst birth posture, which is unlikely to be a breech condition, strongly indicates a terrestrial origin of viviparity, in contrast to the traditional view. The tail-first birth posture in derived ichthyopterygians, convergent with the conditions in whales and sea cows, therefore is a secondary feature. The unequivocally marine origin of viviparity is so far not known among amniotes, a subset of vertebrate animals comprising mammals and reptiles, including birds. Therefore, obligate marine amniotes appear to have evolved almost exclusively from viviparous land ancestors. Viviparous land reptiles most likely appeared much earlier than currently thought, at least as early as the recovery phase from the end-Permian mass extinction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0088640PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3922983PMC
January 2015

Triassic actinopterygian fishes: the recovery after the end-Permian crisis.

Integr Zool 2014 Aug;9(4):394-411

Department of Earth Sciences 'A. Desio', Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy.

In the last 15 years, the discovery of several new actinopterygian fish faunas from the Early and Middle Triassic of the Tethys, cast new light on the timing, speed and range of their recovery after the end-Permian crisis. In addition to several new taxa having been described, the stratigraphical and geographical record of many others have been greatly extended. In fact, most of the new fossiliferous sites are in southern China, thus at the Eastern end of the Tethys, and furthermore a few are somewhat older (Chaohu, Panxian, Luoping) than the major classical Western Tethys sites (Monte San Giorgio). Following these new finds, it is possible to have a better definition of the Triassic recovery stages. Indeed, after a quite short phase till the end of the Smithian (Olenekian, Early Triassic) in which a rather consistent fauna was present all around the Pangea coasts, a major radiation occurred in the Early-Middle Anisian after the new Middle Triassic fish fauna already appeared in the late Early Triassic, thus occuring well before what was previously supposed from the Alps localities. Furthermore, the new assemblages from southern China point to an early broader differentiation among the basal neopterygians rather than in the 'subholosteans', the group that was then dominant in the Western Tethys since the Late Anisian. It stands that during the Norian a new basal neopterygian radiation gave rise to several new branches that dominated the remaining part of the Mesozoic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12077DOI Listing
August 2014

The endocannabinoid anandamide neither impairs in vitro T-cell function nor induces regulatory T-cell generation.

Anticancer Res 2008 Nov-Dec;28(6A):3743-8

Division of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Pediatrica Università Milano-Bicocca, Ospedale San Gerardo, Monza, Italy.

Background: The cannabinoids have been proposed in the treatment of cancer. Generally, the cannabinoids are believed to be useful only in the palliative therapy of cancer-related symptoms, namely pain, anorexia and cachexia. However, preliminary experiments would also suggest an inhibitory effect of cannabinoids on cancer growth, whereas their influence on anticancer immunity is still controversial. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AEA) on T-cell phenotype and function.

Materials And Methods: The in vitro effects of AEA were evaluated at different concentrations on lymphocyte proliferation, cytotoxicity and differentiation, and in particular on T-regulator generation.

Results: AEA did not modify lymphocyte proliferation, neither under basal conditions, nor after IL-2 stimulation. Moreover, AEA did not induce the generation of regulatory T-lymphocytes nor the production of the immunosuppressive cytokine, IL-IO.

Conclusion: The direct antitumor activity of AEA together with the absence of negative effects on T-cell functions might provide new insights into the potential use of cannabinoid agents in cancer immunotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
March 2009