Publications by authors named "Andrea Scribante"

101 Publications

Universal Adhesive for Fixed Retainer Bonding: In Vitro Evaluation and Randomized Clinical Trial.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 10;14(6). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Unit of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

This study aims to assess the efficacy of a universal adhesive (Scotchbond Universal, 3M ESPE) (SB) in total-etch mode, compared to a traditional orthodontic primer (Transbond XT Primer, 3M ESPE) (XT Primer), to perform bonding of orthodontic fixed retainers along with the Transbond XT Light Cure Adhesive Paste (3M ESPE). For the in vitro study, a round section wire (Ortosmail Krugg) was bonded using XT Primer for 20 bovine incisors (Group 1) and SB for other 20 (Group 2). Samples were debonded in a universal testing machine applying a tangential force to specimens (crosshead speed of 1 millimeter per minute). Shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were calculated. For the in vivo study, 100 patients needing upper and lower canine-to-canine fixed retainers after orthodontic treatment were randomly assigned to two groups of 50 participants each, i.e., group 1 (retainer bonding with XT Primer) and group 2 (retainer bonding with SB). Over two years, examinations were carried out monthly, and detachments were registered by considering the teeth and arches affected. In vitro, no statistically significant differences in SBS and ARI scores were demonstrated between the two groups, both showing a mean bond strength of about 12 MPa and major frequency of ARI "2" (>50% remnant adhesive on the enamel). Conversely, a significantly lower failure rate over 2 years was assessed clinically for group 2 in both arches. Independently of the adhesive and arch, incisors reported a significantly higher failure rate than canines. Scotchbond Universal used in total-etch mode could be a valid alternative to the traditional orthodontic Transbond XT Primer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14061341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999612PMC
March 2021

Retrosigmoidal placement of an active transcutaneous bone conduction implant: surgical and audiological perspectives in a multicentre study.

Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 2021 Feb;41(1):91-99

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Pavia, Foundation IRCCS Policlinico "San Matteo", Pavia, Italy.

Introduction: The retrosigmoidal (RS) placement of the Bonebridge system (BB) has been advocated for cases of unfavourable anatomical or clinical conditions which contraindicate transmastoid-presigmoidal positioning. However, these disadvantageous conditions, combined with the considerable dimensions of the implant, may represent a challenge, especially for surgeons with no skull base experience. Moreover, the literature reports only limited experience concerning RS implantation of the BB system.

Methods: A multicentre, retrospective study was conducted to analyse the surgical and functional outcomes of a wide population of patients undergoing RS placement of the BB system by means of a surgical technique specifically developed to overcome the intraoperative issues related to this surgery. Twenty patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss and single sided deafness were submitted to RS implantation of the BB system.

Results: Audiological assessment concerning the measurement of the functional and effective gain by pure-tone audiometry (28 dB HL and -12.25 dB HL, respectively) and speech audiometry (24.7 dB HL and -21 dB HL, respectively) was conducted. A high overall subjective improvement of quality of life was recorded with the Glasgow Benefit Inventory questionnaire. No major complications, such as device extrusions or other conditions requiring revision surgery, were reported during the follow-up period (median: 42 months).

Conclusions: In our study, which has one of the largest cohort of patients reported in the literature, RS placement of the BB system was safe and effective. Our functional results showed comparable hearing outcomes with presigmoidal placement. The effective gain, rarely investigated in this field, may be the object of further research to improve our understanding of bone conduction mechanisms exploited by bone conduction hearing implants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14639/0392-100X-N0609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982754PMC
February 2021

The Efficacy of Powered Oscillating Heads vs. Powered Sonic Action Heads Toothbrushes to Maintain Periodontal and Peri-Implant Health: A Narrative Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 4;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Tuscan Stomatologic Institute, Versilia General Hospital, 55041 Lido di Camaiore, Italy.

Objectives: To compare the efficacy of rotating-oscillating heads (ORHs) VS sonic action heads (SAHs) powered toothbrushes on plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation.

Methods: An electronic (MEDLINE, Embase, Inspec, PQ SciTech and BIOSIS) and a complementary manual search were made to detect eligible studies. RCTs meeting the following criteria were included: final timepoint longer than 15 days; year of publication after 2000; patients without orthodontic appliances or severe systemic/psychiatric diseases. Studies comparing two or more different types of sonic/roto-oscillating toothbrushes were excluded. Selection of articles, extraction of data, and assessment of quality were made independently by several reviewers.

Results: 12 trials (1433 participants) were included. The differences between ORHs and SAHs toothbrushes were expressed as weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The heterogeneity of data was evaluated. Concerning Plaque Index, both toothbrushes obtained comparable results. Six trials of up to 3 months and at an unclear risk of bias provided significant outcomes in terms of gingival inflammation in favor of ORHs toothbrush. Evidence resulting from three trials of up to 6 months and at a high/low risk of bias stated SAHs toothbrush superiority in gingival inflammation.

Conclusions: Both ORHs and SAHs toothbrushes improved the outcomes measured from the baseline. In most of the good quality trials included, SAHs toothbrush showed statistical better long-term results. Due to the shortage of investigations, no further accurate conclusions can be outlined with reference to the superiority of a specific powered toothbrush over the other.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915098PMC
February 2021

Probiotic Alternative to Chlorhexidine in Periodontal Therapy: Evaluation of Clinical and Microbiological Parameters.

Microorganisms 2020 Dec 29;9(1). Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Section of Dentistry-Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Periodontitis consists of a progressive destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. Considering that probiotics are being proposed as a support to the gold standard treatment Scaling-and-Root-Planing (SRP), this study aims to assess two new formulations (toothpaste and chewing-gum). 60 patients were randomly assigned to three domiciliary hygiene treatments: Group 1 (SRP + chlorhexidine-based toothpaste) (control), Group 2 (SRP + probiotics-based toothpaste) and Group 3 (SRP + probiotics-based toothpaste + probiotics-based chewing-gum). At baseline (T) and after 3 and 6 months (T-T), periodontal clinical parameters were recorded, along with microbiological ones by means of a commercial kit. As to the former, no significant differences were shown at T or T, neither in controls for any index, nor in the experimental groups for adherent gingiva and gingival recession. Conversely, some significant differences were found in Group 2 and 3 for the other clinical indexes tested. Considering microbiological parameters, no significant differences were detected compared to baseline values for any group, except in Group 2 and 3 at T only for the percentage of the orange complex pathogens and for the copies/microliter of and . Accordingly, although colonization of probiotic bacteria has not been assessed in this study, the probiotics tested represent a valid support to SRP with a benefit on several clinical indexes and on specific periodontopathogens. Despite this promising action, the relationship between the use of probiotics and improvement in clinical parameters is still unclear and deserves to be further explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824624PMC
December 2020

Orthodontic debonding and tooth sensitivity of anterior and posterior teeth.

Angle Orthod 2020 11;90(6):766-773

Objectives: To assess whether orthodontic debonding and onset of tooth sensitivity were related and if anterior and posterior teeth showed different sensitivity.

Materials And Methods: 40 patients were divided into a trial group (group 1, at the end of the multibracket treatment) and a control group (group 2, not under treatment). After the application of compressed air and cold water to mandibular incisors and first molars, participants were asked to report the pain felt for each tooth using a 100-mm visual analogue scale. In group 1, assessment was performed just before debonding (T0), immediately after completion of debonding (T1) and 7 days after (T2). In group 2, values were assessed at the beginning of a follow-up visit (T0), at the end of the same visit (T1) and 7 days after (T2).

Results: Considering overall teeth, statistical analyses showed significantly higher values in the trial group at T1 after both stimuli, especially after cold water, besides a significant difference between T0 and T2 values in the same group. Anterior teeth showed significantly higher VAS scores than posterior after the two thermal stimuli, except after air stimulation in group 1 at T2 and in group 2.

Conclusions: Orthodontic debonding leads to sensitivity to thermal stimuli especially in the anterior teeth, however pain level is restored within 7 days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2319/022620-134.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8028440PMC
November 2020

Bio-Inspired Systems in Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy to Reduce Contaminated Aerosol during COVID-19: A Comprehensive and Bibliometric Review.

J Clin Med 2020 Dec 2;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Unit of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Background: On 30 January 2020, a public health emergency of international concern was declared as a result of the new COVID-19 disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This virus is transmitted by air and, therefore, clinical practices with the production of contaminant aerosols are highly at risk. The purpose of this review was to assess the effectiveness of bio-inspired systems, as adjuvants to nonsurgical periodontal therapy, in order to formulate bio-inspired protocols aimed at restoring optimal condition, reducing bacteremia and aerosols generation.

Methods: A comprehensive and bibliometric review of articles published in English. Research of clinical trials (RCTs) were included with participants with chronic or aggressive periodontal disease, that have compared benefits for nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT).

Results: Seventy-four articles have been included. For probing depth (PPD) there was a statically significant improvement in laser, probiotic, chlorhexidine groups, such as gain in clinical attachment level (CAL). Bleeding on probing (BOP) reduction was statistically significant only for probiotic and chlorhexidine groups. There were changes in microbiological and immunological parameters.

Conclusions: The use of bio-inspired systems in nonsurgical periodontal treatment may be useful in reducing risk of bacteremia and aerosol generation, improving clinical, microbiological and immunological parameters, of fundamental importance in a context of global pandemic, where the reduction of bacterial load in aerosols becomes a pivotal point of clinical practice, but other clinical trials are necessary to achieve statistical validity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761598PMC
December 2020

MRI-induced artifact by a cochlear implant with a novel magnet system: an experimental cadaver study.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Nov 18. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Pavia, Foundation IRCCS Policlinico "San Matteo", Viale Camillo Golgi, 19, 27100, Pavia, Italy.

Purposes: To primarily evaluate MRI-induced effects for Ultra 3D cochlear implantation in human cadavers in terms of artifact generation and MR image quality.

Methods: Three human cadaveric heads were submitted to imaging after unilateral and bilateral cochlear implantation. The 1.5 T MR examination protocol was chosen in accordance with our institutional protocol for the assessment of brain pathology. The maximal signal void size was measured according to each sequence and plane. Two experienced neuro-radiologists and one experienced otoneurosurgeon independently evaluated the MR image quality findings. A 4-point scale was used to describe the diagnostic usefulness of 14 brain structures.

Results: Shape and size of the artifacts were found to be highly related to MRI sequences and acquisition planes. MRI sequences and processing algorithms affected the ability to assess anatomical visibility. Image quality appeared either high or assessable for diagnostic purposes in 9 out of 14 of the ipsilateral structures, in at least one plane. Anatomical structures contralateral to the cochlear implant were highly visible in all conditions. Artifact intrusion clearly improved after application of metal artifact-reduction techniques. In the case of bilateral cochlear implant, a mutual interaction between the two implant magnets produced an additional artifact.

Conclusions: We performed the first cadaver study aimed at systematically evaluating the MRI-induced artifacts produced by a cochlear implant with a novel four bar magnet system. Specific brain structures can be assessable for diagnostic purposes under 1.5 T MRI, with the cochlear implant magnet in place.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-06464-zDOI Listing
November 2020

Orthodontic Treatment and Healthcare Goals: Evaluation of Multibrackets Treatment Results Using PAR Index (Peer Assessment Rating).

Healthcare (Basel) 2020 Nov 10;8(4). Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Unit of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Section of Dentistry-Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Background: The evaluation of orthodontic treatment outcomes using an objective method is important in order to maintain high treatment quality and final healthcare of patients. It allows professionals and university students to raise the level of the therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the orthodontic treatment outcomes in an Italian postgraduate School of Orthodontics using Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) Index.

Methods: A sample of 50 patients treated in a postgraduate program was randomly selected. PAR index was used to assess pre-treatment and post-treatment study casts by two different examiners. The influence of different variables such as gender, treatment method, and need for extraction was statistically analyzed.

Results: The average numerical reduction of PAR between the beginning and the end of the treatment was 18.74 (CI 95% 16.53-20.95), while the percentage reduction was 94.8% (CI 95% 91.91-97.68). All cases improved: 8% of patients resulted in the improved category, while 92% of them were in the greatly improved group.

Conclusions: According to PAR index, the results showed that patients received a high-standard therapy. None of the factors studied influenced significantly the treatment outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711869PMC
November 2020

Exposure of Biomimetic Composite Materials to Acidic Challenges: Influence on Flexural Resistance and Elastic Modulus.

Biomimetics (Basel) 2020 Oct 28;5(4). Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences-Section of Dentistry, University of Pavia, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Acidic conditions of the oral cavity, including soft drinks and cariogenic bacteria, represent a damage for restorative biomimetic composite materials. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of two different acidic challenges on the flexural strength and elastic modulus of five composites: x-tra fil (Group 1, XTF), GrandioSO x-tra (Group 2, GXT), Admira Fusion x-tra (Group 3, AFX), VisCalor bulk (Group 4, VCB), and Enamel Plus HRi (Group 5, EPH). Thirty samples for each group were randomly divided and assigned to three different treatments: storage in distilled water as the controls (subgroups 1a-5a), 3 weeks distilled water + 1 week Coca-Cola (subgroups 1b-5b), and 4 weeks Coca-Cola (subgroups 1c-5c). For each subgroup, the flexural strength and elastic modulus were measured using an Instron universal testing machine, and data were submitted to statistical analysis. Considering subgroups B, no material showed a significant difference in the flexural strength with the controls ( > 0.05), whereas for subgroups C, only GXT and VCB showed significantly lower values ( < 0.05). AFX reported the lowest flexural strength among the materials tested. As regards the elastic modulus, no material showed a significant variation after acidic storages when compared with the respective control ( > 0.05). AFX and EPH reported the lowest elastic modulus compared to the other materials. All composites tested showed adequate flexural properties according to the standards, except for AFX. This biomimetic material, along with EPH, might be indicated for V class (cervical) restorations considering the lowest values of elasticity reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5040056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709636PMC
October 2020

Imaging Software Programs for Reliable Mathematical Measurements in Orthodontics.

Dent J (Basel) 2020 Aug 3;8(3). Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Orthodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt.

Aim: To evaluate the reliability of linear and angular measurements taken using different software programs in orthodontics.

Materials And Methods: A sample of four software programs from different manufacturers, namely MicroDicom viewer, Photoshop CS3, AutoCAD, and Image-Pro, were used for measuring the geometric features of four types of miniscrews from different manufacturers. Each miniscrew type presented a group: Group I, Tomas (Dentaurum, Ispringen, Germany); Group II, HUBIT (HUBIT, Gyeonggi-do, Korea); Group III, AbsoAnchor (Dentos, Daegu, Korea); and Group IV, Creative (Creative, Zhejiang, China). Measurements of apical face angle, thread angle, lead angle, flank, pitch depth, and width were taken on 45 × magnification scanning electron microscope images of the shafts of the miniscrews. One assessor measured the seven geometric features for the four types of miniscrews using the four software programs twice in two sessions separated by a three week interval.

Results: Pairwise comparisons, for each of the four miniscrew groups, showed that the only common result observed was the significant difference ( < 0.001) between measurements of flank taken by the four software programs. When measurements of the four types of miniscrews were pooled into one group, a high degree of intra-rater reliability (ICC range from 0.9 to 1.0) for all the seven geometric features was found with all the four software programs. The paired -test showed insignificant difference (at ≤ 0.05) between the first and second measurements, except for a few measurements including pitch width measured by Image-Pro ( = 0.012), MicroDicom ( = 0.023), and Photoshop ( = 0.001).

Conclusions: Results did not give absolute superiority to one software program over the others and suggested an assessor effect. Assessor estimates could have been affected, among other factors, by the design of the miniscrews and the technical features of the software programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/dj8030081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7558395PMC
August 2020

Copper-Alloy Surfaces and Cleaning Regimens against the Spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Dentistry and Orthopedics. From Fomites to Anti-Infective Nanocoatings.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Jul 22;13(15). Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences-Section of Dentistry, University of Pavia, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

The latest diffusion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has involved the whole world population. Even if huge efforts to control the pandemic have been done, the viral spread is still continuing. COVID-19 is reported as a zoonosis jumped from bats and pangolins to humans. After infection in humans, SARS-CoV-2 is found in the nasopharyngeal and salivary secretions. The virus has also been detected in the blood plasma of infected patients. The viral spread occurs through droplets exhaled from the nose and mouth of the infected people when they breath or talk, or through droplets propelled as a dense cloud by chough or sneeze. The virus can also be delivered as an aerosol from blood plasma, through surgical procedures. Following these ways, the virus can disperse in the air, then reaching and settling on the exposed surfaces. How long the virus will survive on a surface depends on the material the surface is made from. Infection via high-touch surfaces should be prevented. Copper alloy coatings, combined with efficient hygienic/disinfectant procedures and careful surgical practice, could be helpful to health protection in dental practice and can also be adopted in orthopedic traumatology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13153244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7435369PMC
July 2020

Minimally Invasive Diastema Restoration with Prefabricated Sectional Veneers.

Dent J (Basel) 2020 Jun 24;8(2). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Private Practice, DENS Centro Medico Lombardo, 20124 Milan, Italy.

This case report presents a new technique for sectional veneer fabrication and diastema restoration with a prefabricated composite veneer. For the purpose of diastema restoration, a prefabricated sectional veneer provides the same benefits of a traditional ceramic sectional veneer (highly esthetic restoration with no need for tooth preparation) but involves a less technically demanding and time-consuming clinical procedure and a less delicate restoration with a reduced risk of accidental breakage and post-bonding crack formation. The technique presented in this case report bridges the gap between a direct and indirect technique for diastema restoration and introduces a new treatment option to close anterior spacing with a highly esthetic sectional veneer in a predictable and timely manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/dj8020060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7345692PMC
June 2020

Photobiomodulation and Pain Reduction in Patients Requiring Orthodontic Band Application: Randomized Clinical Trial.

Biomed Res Int 2020 25;2020:7460938. Epub 2020 May 25.

Unit of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Section of Dentistry-Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Photobiomodulation (PBM) in managing orthodontic pain intensity over time in patients requiring band application on upper first molars.

Methods: Maxillary first molars were banded. In the trial group, each molar received single-session PBM on two buccal and two palatal points ( = 830 ± 10 nm; 150 mW, 7.5 J/cm; spot of 0.1 cm; 5 sec per point), while the control group received a placebo treatment. All patients were asked to answer five pain rating scales to assess pain intensity at 5 minutes and 1, 12, 24, and 72 hours and completed a survey describing the type of pain and its temporal course in the next 7 days.

Results: 26 patients (mean age 11.8 years) were randomly assigned to a control or a trial group. The trial group showed significantly lower pain intensities ( < 0.05) at 5 min ( = 0.92, SD = 1.32), 1 h ( = 0.77, SD = 1.01), and 12 h ( = 0.77, SD = 1.54) after band application compared to the control group (5 min: = 1.62, SD = 1.26; 1 h: = 1.77, SD = 1.92; and 12 h: = 1.77, SD = 2.17), whereas no difference between groups ( > 0.05) was found at 24 h (trial: = 0.62, SD = 1.71; control: = 1.08, SD = 1.75) and 72 h (trial: = 0.31, SD = 0.75; control: = 0.15, SD = 0.55). Patients in the control group reported more frequently the presence of "compressive pain" (58.8%, < 0.05) from the appliance during the week after the application, while the trial group showed higher frequency of "no pain" (46.2%, < 0.05). However, PBM did not affect the pain onset (trial: = 10.86, SD = 26.97; control: = 5.25, SD = 7.86), peak (trial: = 15.86, SD = 26.29; control: 6.17, SD = 7.96), and end time (trial: 39.57, SD = 31.33; control: = 22.02, SD = 25.42) reported by the two groups ( > 0.05).

Conclusions: PBM might be considered a promising alternative to decrease general pain intensity, although not affecting the typical pain cycle, in terms of the onset, peak, and ending times.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7460938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273483PMC
March 2021

Fear of the Relapse: Effect of Composite Type on Adhesion Efficacy of Upper and Lower Orthodontic Fixed Retainers: In Vitro Investigation and Randomized Clinical Trial.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Apr 21;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Unit of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

The aim of this laboratory and clinical study is to determine the reliability of the flowable nanocomposite Filtek Supreme XTE (FL) for the adhesion of orthodontic retainers, compared to highly filled orthodontic resin Transbond XT (XT). Portions of a round section multistranded wire (Ortosmail Krugg) were bonded to 40 bovine incisors with Scotchbond Universal in total-etch modality. For group one (XT, 20 samples), the orthodontic resin was used, whereas in group two (FL, 20 samples), the flowable one. Specimens were placed into a universal testing machine which applied a shear force on retainers with a crosshead speed of one/minute. Shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were calculated. In the clinical trial, 100 patients requiring a canine-to-canine palatal and lingual retainer were randomly divided into two groups, according to the resin used for bonding procedure: the orthodontic in group one (XT, 50 participants) and the flowable in group two (FL, 50 participants). Monthly visits were carried out over a 24-month follow up to assess any detachment occurring on teeth of both arches. All data were submitted to statistical analysis. In vitro, FL reported a significant lower mean SBS, whereas no significant differences in ARI were reported between the two groups which both showed a major frequency of scores "1" and "2". At the end of the 24-month follow up, FL reported significantly higher failure rates in both arches besides a significantly lower survival rate starting from the sixth month after retainers bonding. According to the results assessed in vitro and clinically, XT would be preferable to FL when performing retainers bonding procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12040963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240513PMC
April 2020

Ozonized Gel Against Four Species: A Pilot Study and Clinical Perspectives.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Apr 8;13(7). Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Clinical-Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, Section of Dentistry, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Ozone therapy can display a wide range of clinical beneficial effects, including antimicrobial, immune-stimulant, analgesic, anti-hypoxic actions. However, there is still a paucity of data regarding the ozone fungicide activity. Oral is the most common fungal infection in the mouth among denture wearers and people with weakened immune systems. In the case of generalized candidiasis or immunocompromised patients, systemic therapy is needed, while localized infections are treated with topic medications. However, many strains are resistant to antifungal drugs. The aim of this preliminary analysis is to evaluate the antimycotic efficacy of a new ozonided oil (GeliO), as a possible terapeutic alternative in local treatments of these infections, compared to chlorhexidine digluconate (Plak gel®). Chlorhexidine is a chemical synthesis disinfectant with a broad-spectrum antiseptic action, active against bacteria and fungi. Antimycotic activity was tested against the following four species: , , , , through an agar diffusion method. No significant differences were found between the growth inhibition zone diameters of the ozonized gel and chlorhexidine. The results indicated that the ozonized gel may help to combat infections. Moreover, useful applications could be used to counteract colonization of endosseous implants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13071731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178640PMC
April 2020

New Resin-Based Bulk-Fill Composites: Evaluation of Micro-Hardness and Depth of Cure as Infection Risk Indexes.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Mar 13;13(6). Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences - Section of Dentistry, University of Pavia, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

The current study evaluated the Vickers hardness number (VHN) and hardness ratio of four bulk-fill composites (VisCalor bulk; Admira Fusion x-tra; x-tra fil; and GrandioSO x-tra-Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany) to assess the risk of bacterial colonization in comparison with standard composite materials. Thirty samples were prepared for each group. The VHN of both the external (top) and internal surface (bottom) was determined with a micro-hardness tester (200 g load for 15 s), and the hardness ratio was also calculated for each sample. Subsequently, storage in an acidic soft drink (Coca-Cola, Coca-Cola Company, Milano, Italy) was performed; for each group, 10 samples were stored for 1 day, while another 10 were stored for 7 days and the remaining 10 were kept in water as controls. A significant reduction in VHN was shown for all the groups when comparing the external versus internal side (P < 0.05), although the hardness ratio was greater than 0.80, resulting in an adequate polymerization. Regarding the acid storage, all the groups showed a significant decrease of VHN when compared with the controls, both after 1 day (P < 0.05) and after 7 days (P < 0.001). All the products showed adequate depth of cure without further risk of bacterial colonization. However, acid exposure negatively affected micro-hardness values, which might promote subsequent colonization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13061308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7143874PMC
March 2020

Glass Fiber Reinforced Composite Orthodontic Retainer: In Vitro Effect of Tooth Brushing on the Surface Wear and Mechanical Properties.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Feb 25;13(5). Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Unit of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Fiber reinforced composites (FRCs) are metal free materials that have many applications in dentistry. In clinical orthodontics, they are used as retainers after active treatment in order to avoid relapse. However, although the modulus of the elasticity of FRCs is low, the rigidity of the material in the form of a relatively thick retainer with a surface cover of a flowable resin composite is known to have higher structural rigidity than stainless steel splints. The aim of the present study is to measure load and bending stress of stainless steel wires, as well as flowable resin composite covered and spot‑bonded FRC retainer materials after tooth brushing. These materials were tested with a three point bending test for three different conditions: no brushing, 26 min of brushing, and 60 min of brushing. SEM images were taken before and after different times of tooth brushing. Results showed that stainless steel was not significantly affected by tooth brushing. On the other hand, a significant reduction of values at maximum load at fracture was reported for both FRC groups, and uncovered FRCs were most affected. Concerning maximum bending stress, no significant reduction by pretreatment conditions was reported for the materials tested. SEM images showed no evident wear for stainless steel. Flowable resin composite covered FRCs showed some signs of composite wear, whereas spot‑bonded FRCs, i.e., without the surface cover of a flowable resin composite, showed signs of wear on the FRC and exposed glass fibers from the FRC's polymer matrix. Because of the significant changes of the reduction of maximum load values and the wear for spot‑bonded FRCs, this technique needs further in vitro and in vivo tests before it can be performed routinely in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13051028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7084318PMC
February 2020

Biomimetic Effect of Nano-Hydroxyapatite in Demineralized Enamel before Orthodontic Bonding of Brackets and Attachments: Visual, Adhesion Strength, and Hardness in In Vitro Tests.

Biomed Res Int 2020 30;2020:6747498. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Unit of Dental Hygiene, Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Dietary habits with high consumption of acidic food can induce in orthodontic patients an increased risk of demineralization lesions around orthodontic brackets and bands. The purpose of the present laboratory study is to assess the visual efficacy of a biomimetic nano-hydroxyapatite remineralizing solution in a hypomineralized enamel surface and its effect on adhesion of fixed orthodontic appliances and on enamel microhardness. Intact teeth were demineralized, and subsequently the areas of demineralization were visually recorded using a 0-100 scale. Subsequently, a remineralizing solution (Biorepair® Repair Shock Treatment) was applied for ten minutes once a day/for one week per month for a total remineralizing treatment of 3 months. Visual effects were recorded. Moreover, bond strength was recorded and adhesive remnant index scores were measured for both orthodontic brackets and composite attachments both before demineralization and after demineralization and application of remineralizing solution. Also, Vickers microhardness was measured. All data were submitted to statistical analysis. The application of remineralizing solution induced a significant reduction of demineralized areas after the first week of application. No significant differences between untreated enamel surfaces and remineralized surfaces were detected after 2 months of remineralizing treatment. Bond strength values were significantly reduced for both brackets and attachments after remineralizing treatment. However, attachments showed higher adhesion values than brackets in both conditions tested. Remineralized enamel showed significantly higher microhardness values than demineralized enamel and lower values than intact enamel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6747498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7013302PMC
November 2020

In Vitro Re-Hardening of Bleached Enamel Using Mineralizing Pastes: Toward Preventing Bacterial Colonization.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Feb 11;13(4). Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of ClinicalSurgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric SciencesSection of Dentistry, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

The search for materials able to remineralize human hard tissues is a modern medical challenge. In this study, the protective effect on the enamel microhardness by a paste based on hydroxyapatite and sodium fluoride (Remin Pro) was evaluated after two different enamel bleaching procedures. Forty sound human incisors were randomly assigned to different treatments: bleaching with an in-office agent (Perfect Bleach Office+); bleaching with an at-home agent (Perfect Bleach); bleaching with the in-office agent followed by the prophylaxis paste; bleaching with the athome agent followed by the prophylaxis paste; no treatment (control). Bleaching was performed at 0, 8, 24 and 32 h, followed by a 3min remineralizing treatment in the subgroups designed to receive it. Specimens underwent a microhardness tester and a mean Vickers Hardness number was considered for each specimen. ANOVA exhibited significant differences among groups. Posthoc Tukey testing showed significant microhardness decrease after the application of both the two bleaching agents. The treatment with prophylaxis paste significantly increased the microhardness values of bleached enamel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13040818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7079603PMC
February 2020

Influence of Different Surface Pretreatments on Shear Bond Strength of an Adhesive Resin Cement to Various Zirconia Ceramics.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Feb 1;13(3). Epub 2020 Feb 1.

Department of Clinical, University of Pavia, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences - Section of Dentistry, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the influence of surface pretreatment on shear bond strength (SBS) of an adhesive resin cement (G-CEM Link Force TM, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) to three different yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) ceramics: (1) Copran Zirconia Monolith HT, COP; (2) Katana ML Zirconia, KAT; and (3) Metoxit Z-CAD HTL Zirconia, MET. In total, 45 cylinders (5 mm in diameter, 1 mm height) for each type of zirconia ceramic were prepared used a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) machine (software CEREC 4.2). Each type of zirconia was subdivided into three groups and each group received a different surface pretreatment; 15 samples were not conditioned as control (groups COP 1, KAT 1, MET 1), 15 samples were air-borne particle abraded with aluminum dioxide particles of 50-μm size at 0.3 MPa for 20 s (groups COP 2, KAT 2, MET 2), and 15 samples were hot-etched with a solution of hydrochloric acid and ferric chloride (groups COP 3, KAT 3, MET 3). After specimen fabrication, the adhesive cement-ceramic interface was analyzed using an SBS test. Subsequently, the adhesive remnant index (ARI) was measured. Data were submitted to statistical analysis. Air-borne particle abraded specimens showed the highest SBS values for COP and KAT groups. For MET, no significant difference was reported between air-borne particle abraded specimens and untreated controls. The lowest values were detected for acid-etched groups. A higher frequency of ARI = "1" and ARI = "2" was reported in control and air-borne particle abraded groups, whereas ARI = "3" was detected in hot-etched groups. No correlation was found between ARI score and shear bond strength. Air-borne particle abrasion is considered the best treatment for Zirconia Copran and Zirconia Katana ML, if it is followed by using dual-curing resin cement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13030652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040603PMC
February 2020

Angelo Chiavaro (1870-1944), the first "American style" Italian dentist.

J Hist Dent 2020 ;68(3):163-168

Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Angelo Chiavaro (1870-1944) took his Medicine Degree at the University of Florence and then moved to the University of Philadelphia; he was the first Italian doctor to enroll and graduate from the Philadelphia Dental School, obtaining in 1899 the diploma of Doctor of Dental Surgery. In 1915, he was the first full professor of Dental Clinics in Rome; in 1923, he established a "National School of Dentistry" in Rome and his aim was to confer the first Italian degree in Dentistry and Dental Prosthetics following a University educational path similar to American schools.
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April 2021

Influence of Dental Composite Viscosity in Attachment Reproduction: An Experimental in Vitro Study.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Dec 2;12(23). Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Head and Neck Department, Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS, Dental Institute, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, 00195 Rome, Italy.

Background: Attachments are composite auxiliaries that are used during a clear aligner orthodontic therapy to achieve difficult tooth movements. Two important factors are the planned configuration and the actual position of these auxiliary elements to obtain the desired force system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of different composite materials in the correct reproduction of attachment shape and position.

Methods: The materials that were considered in the study were a flowable resin, a dental restorative material, and an orthodontic composite. The attachments were created on three models of extracted teeth. Once the impressions were performed, 25 attachments of different shapes were added onto each virtual model to obtain the necessary templates to make the attachments. Each tested material was used to create a set of 25 attachments that were then scanned with an accuracy of 10μm. The resultant STL (stereolithography) files were superimposed onto the ones from the initial virtual plan, through Geomagic software, and the aligned scans were then compared while using a color map. The parameters that were calculated to make a comparison between the created attachments and the ideal ones were the maximum deviation in defect and in excess, the overflow, and the volume's difference. In addition to these measurements comparing the three above-mentioned groups, the difference in volume between all the ideal and realized samples were analyzed. To test for differences among the three groups, a one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used with a Bonferroni post-hoc test. The level of significance was set at < 0.05.

Results: No statistically significant results were found between the three groups regarding the maximum value in defect, the maximum value in excess, and the minimum value as control, while a statistically significant difference was found between the overflow of orthodontic resin when compared to the flowable composite.

Conclusions: The three materials that were used in this study were appropriate for attachment fabrication. The fidelity of attachment reproduction was similar when using the three different composites. The orthodontic composite showed more overflow when compared with the flowable one.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12234001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6926517PMC
December 2019

Effect of Long-Term Brushing on Deflection, Maximum Load, and Wear of Stainless Steel Wires and Conventional and Spot Bonded Fiber-Reinforced Composites.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Nov 30;20(23). Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Unit of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retainers are an aesthetic alternative to conventional Stainless Steel splints. They are generally used with a full bonded technique, but some studies demonstrated that they could be managed with a spot bonding technique to significantly decrease their rigidity. In order to propose this FRC spot bonding technique for clinical use, the aim of this study was to evaluate mechanical properties and surface wear of fibers left uncovered. Tests were made by simulating tooth brushing, comparing FRC spot bonding technique splints with stainless steel and FRC traditional technique splints. Specimens were tested both at 0.1 mm of deflection and at maximum load, showing higher values of rigidity for the FRC full bonded technique. After tooth brushing, no significant reduction in values at 0.1 mm deflection was reported, while we found a similar reduction in these values for the Stainless Steel and FRC spot bonding technique at maximum load, and no significant variation for the FRC full bonded technique. SEM images after tooth brushing showed wear for FRC fibers left uncovered, while no relevant wear signs in metal and conventional FRC fibers were noticed. Results showed that FRC spot bonding technique has advantages in mechanical properties when compared to the FRC traditional full bonding technique, also after tooth brushing. However, the surface wear after tooth brushing in the FRC spot bonding technique is considerable and other tests must be performed before promoting this technique for routine clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20236043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6929004PMC
November 2019

Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Its Effects on Metallic Brackets and Wires: Does It Alter the Temperature and Bonding Efficacy of Orthodontic Devices?

Materials (Basel) 2019 Nov 30;12(23). Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Unit of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Section of Dentistry-Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely used diagnostic technique. Patients wearing orthodontic appliances are often requested to remove their appliances, even when the MRI exam involves anatomical areas far from mouth, in order to avoid heating of the metal and detachment of the appliance. The purpose of the present investigation was to measure and compare temperature changes and orthodontic appliances' adhesion to enamel after different MRIs. A total of 220 orthodontic brackets were bonded on bovine incisors and wires with different materials (stainless steel and nickel titanium). Moreover, various sizes (0.014″ and 0.019″ × 0.025″) were engaged. Appliances were submitted to MRI at two different powers (1.5 T and 3 T). The temperatures of brackets and wires were measured before and after MRI. Subsequently, the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed. After MRI, a significant increase in the temperature was found for both the brackets and wires in some groups, even if the mean temperature increase was clinically insignificant, as the temperature ranged between 0.05 °C and 2.4 °C for brackets and between 0.42 °C and 1.74 °C for wires. The MRI did not condition bracket adhesion in any group. No differences were reported when comparing the 1.5 T with 3 T groups. The ARI Scores were also significantly lower after MRI. The results of the present report show that, under MRI, orthodontic appliances present a low temperature rise and no debonding risk. Therefore, the removal of orthodontic appliance is not recommended routinely, but is suggested only in the case of a void risk or potential interference in image quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12233971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6926903PMC
November 2019

Digital Workflow for Indirect Bonding with 2D Lingual Brackets: A Case Report and Procedure Description.

Case Rep Dent 2019 28;2019:6936049. Epub 2019 Apr 28.

Unit of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry-Section of Dentistry-Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Objective: During orthodontic therapy, accuracy in bonding procedures makes it easier to correct tooth alignment by decreasing the need for midcourse corrections by changing bracket positions. Indirect bonding allows the transfer of the appliance components from model casts to patient's teeth potentially meaning shorter appointments for bracket bonding and rebonding and best comfort during chairside practice. At the same time, there has been a steady increase in requests for invisible lingual orthodontic treatment.

Clinical Considerations: Accordingly, the aim of the present report is to illustrate the workflow to realize a complete digital indirect bonding for lingual brackets (2D, Forestadent). The procedure starts with intraoral digital scans, digital 3D model, and virtual bracket positioning, ending with the realization of a CAD-CAM prototyped transfer tray. A 3D intraoral scanner (True Definition, 3M) is used to create digital scans and digital models. A virtual bracket positioning is performed using software (NemoCast, Dentaurum), and a prototyped transfer tray is created by a CAD-CAM device. 2D lingual brackets were positioned inside the tray, so the appliance was bonded to the dental surface using light curing adhesive resin.

Conclusions: During orthodontic treatment, CAD/CAM technology could help clinicians. Computer-constructed transfer trays can reduce clinician error and improve the everyday workflow in the office.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/6936049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6512033PMC
April 2019

Vickers Micro-Hardness of New Restorative CAD/CAM Dental Materials: Evaluation and Comparison after Exposure to Acidic Drink.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Apr 16;12(8). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Unit of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

CAD/CAM (computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing) for indirect restorative materials has been recently introduced in dentistry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change of the surface micro-hardness of different restorative CAD/CAM materials after exposure to a carbonated acidic drink (Coca-Cola, Coca-Cola Company, Milan, Italy). One hundred and eighty specimens of identical size (2 mm thickness) were obtained by sectioning each tested CAD/CAM block of four materials: a hybrid ceramic (CERASMART™, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), a resin nano ceramic (Lava™ Ultimate, 3M, Monrovia, CA, USA), a nanohybrid composite (Grandio blocs, VOCO GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany), and a zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate glass ceramic (VITA SUPRINITY PC; VITA Zahnfabrik, Bad Sackingen, Germany). Forty-five specimens of each material were tested. Micro-hardness was measured at baseline, after 7 days and after 28 days. The data were analyzed. The micro-hardness of each material varied significantly after immersion in Coca-Cola. The nanohybrid composite had a high initial micro-hardness and the greatest percentage loss after acid exposure. The hybrid ceramic and the resin nano ceramic had similar percentage losses of micro-hardness values even if the second material had higher initial values. The zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate glass ceramic had the highest baseline values and the lowest percentage loss of micro-hardness. The different CAD/CAM materials presented different micro-hardness values before and after acid exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12081246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6515223PMC
April 2019

Flexural Properties and Elastic Modulus of Different Esthetic Restorative Materials: Evaluation after Exposure to Acidic Drink.

Biomed Res Int 2019 4;2019:5109481. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Unit of Restorative Dentistry, Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Acidic beverages, such as soft drinks, can produce erosion of resin composites. The purpose of the present study was to investigate mechanical properties of different esthetic restorative materials after exposure to acidic drink.

Methods: Nine different composites were tested: nanofilled (Filtek Supreme XTE, 3M ESPE), microfilled hybrid (G-ænial, GC Corporation), nanohybrid Ormocer (Admira Fusion, Voco), microfilled (Gradia Direct, GC Corporation), microfilled hybrid (Essentia, GC Corporation), nanoceramic (Ceram.X Universal, Dentsply De Trey), supranano spherical hybrid (Estelite Asteria, Tokuyama Dental Corporation), flowable microfilled hybrid (Gradia Direct Flo, GC Corporation), and bulk fill flowable (SureFil SDR flow, Dentsply De Trey). Thirty specimens of each esthetic restorative material were divided into 3 subgroups (n=10): specimens of subgroup 1 were used as control, specimens of subgroup 2 were immersed in 50 ml of Coca Cola for 1 week, and specimens of subgroup 3 were immersed in 50 ml of Coca Cola for 1 month. Flexural strength and elastic modulus were measured for each material with an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Data were submitted to statistical analysis.

Results: After distilled water immersion, nanofilled composite showed the highest value of both flexural strength and elastic modulus, but its flexural values decreased after acidic drink immersion. No significant differences were reported between distilled water and acidic drink immersion for all other materials tested both for flexural and for elastic modulus values.

Conclusions: Even if nanofilled composite showed highest results, acidic drink immersion significantly reduced flexural values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/5109481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6378791PMC
June 2019

Buccolingual Inclination Control of Upper Central Incisors of Aligners: A Comparison with Conventional and Self-Ligating Brackets.

Biomed Res Int 2018 29;2018:9341821. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Unit of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Italy.

Objective: The upper incisors torque expression is essential for the orthodontic treatment accuracy. Various orthodontic devices are claimed to have different inclination control capacity. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the radiographic buccolingual inclination of upper incisors in patients treated with three different orthodontic techniques.

Material And Methods: Conventional brackets (Victory, 3M), self-ligating appliances (Damon Q, Ormco), and aligners (Invisalign, Align Technology) were tested. Cephalometric data of 25 patients with similar skeletal and dental pretreatment parameters were collected for each technique. Position changes of upper central incisors were assessed with radiographic evaluation before and after therapy. Three different parameters were considered: 11SnaSnp, 11Ocl and I+ TVL. All variables were measured before (T0) and after (T1) treatment and their variation over treatment was assessed.

Results: When evaluating angular measurements, 11SnaSnp and 11Ocl angles showed the highest numeric variation with conventional brackets. Lowest values were reported with aligners. However, the differences among various techniques were not significant for both angles (P>0.05). Also I+ TVL linear value variation did not show significant differences among the different groups tested (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Conventional multibrackets appliance showed the highest incisal position variations over treatment, but the differences among various groups were not significantly different.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/9341821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304479PMC
April 2019

Beniamino De Vecchis (1886-1972) Italian Dentist and Historian.

J Hist Dent 2019 ;67(3):112-115

Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Beniamino De Vecchis (1886-1972) took his Medicine Degree at the University of Naples and then moved to the University of Philadelphia to carry out experimental studies in dental science. He had been Professor of Dentistry at the University of Rome in the second half of twentieth century and was an author of important essays about dentistry and history of dentistry. Moreover, he was the first author of an Italian treatise about orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. In this paper we propose to analyze and evaluate his contributions to dentistry in his country of Italy.
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July 2020

Fiber-Reinforced Composites for Dental Applications.

Biomed Res Int 2018;2018:4734986. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

University of Zurich, Center for Dental and Oral Medicine, Dental Materials Unit, Clinic for Fixed and Removable Prosthodontics and Dental Materials Science, Zurich, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/4734986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6236806PMC
May 2019