Publications by authors named "Andrea Pulvirenti"

35 Publications

Domestic Use Simulation and Secondary Shelf Life Assessment of Industrial .

Foods 2021 Aug 21;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia, Italy.

The secondary shelf life (SSL) is defined as the time after package opening during which the food product retains a required level of quality. The SSL, indicated in labels as "best if used within days after opening", could lead to domestic food waste if not correctly evaluated. In this context, the SSL of two brands of industrial shelf-stable pesto products (with an indicated SSL of 5 days) was studied through a domestic use simulation performed in five households under two scenarios simulating real opening and storage conditions. The quality of pesto after opening was assessed through microbiological and sensory analyses, determination of instrumental colour parameters, pH and volatiles profiling. For both pesto sauces tested, a SSL ≥ 20 days was proven. Irrespective of the intensity of use (scenarios 1 and 2), the pesto was microbiologically stable: the maximum count for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TMB) observed during 20 days of storage was 9.64 ± 1.7 × 10 CFU/g, starting from a commercially stable product. Colour parameters L* and ΔE did not change significantly during storage ( > 0.05), while the a* and BI values significantly changed ( < 0.05) during the first 5 days, and then stabilized during the rest of the household storage. Nevertheless, the slight colour modifications were not perceived by the sensory panel. Moreover, sensory assessors were not able to discern pesto samples stored for up to 20 days after first opening, from a just-opened reference sample, proving that the sensory appreciation of pesto was not influenced by the time after opening. The results of this study suggest the possibility to significantly extend or even omit the SSL indications for industrial pesto sauces. The objective assessment of SSL could have impressive practical outcomes both for the industry and the end user. The elongation of the SSL on the food label might increase food sustainability, thanks to the potential reduction of food wastes, thus giving added value to the commercial products. In addition, the end user could benefit the increase of the useful period for the food consumption after first opening, with significant domestic food waste reduction, reduced household stock turnover and consequent cost savings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10081948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8391206PMC
August 2021

Yeasts and Lactic Acid Bacteria for Production: An Assessment of Candidate Strains.

Microorganisms 2021 May 19;9(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia, Italy.

The recovery of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involved in sourdough fermentation is the first step in the selection of starters with suitable technological aptitude and capable of producing desired aromas and/or aromatic precursors. In this work, two sourdoughs samples (MA and MB) and the derived doughs (samples A and B) were collected from a bakery during artisanal Panettone manufacture. Yeasts and bacteria were isolated at different fermentation steps on selective agar media. A total of 77 isolates were obtained and characterized. Representative strains of yeasts and LAB were identified by sequencing the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA and the 16S rRNA genes, respectively. Moreover, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced in the collected samples were detected and correlated to the species found in the same samples. The results highlighted the occurrence of in both samples A and B, while strains were detected only in samples B. Among LAB, was the main species detected in both sourdoughs. Furthermore, strains belonging to the species , , , , and were assessed in the dough samples.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160612PMC
May 2021

Suitability Assessment of PLA Bottles for High-Pressure Processing of Apple Juice.

Foods 2021 Feb 2;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia, Italy.

The aim of the present study is to assess the use of polylactic acid (PLA) bottles as an alternative to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ones for high-pressure processing (HPP) of apple juice. The treatment of PLA bottles at 600 MPa for 3 min did not cause alterations in the packaging shape and content, confirming the suitability of PLA bottles to withstand HPP conditions as well as PET bottles. Quantification of total mesophilic bacterial and fungal load suggested HPP treatment can be effectively applied as an alternative to pasteurization for apple juice packed in PLA bottles since it guarantees microbial stability during at least 28 days of refrigerated storage. The headspace gas level did not change significantly during 28 days of refrigerated storage, irrespective of the bottle material. Color parameters (L*, a*, and b*) of the HPP-treated juice were similar to those of the fresh juice. Irrespective of the packaging type, the total color variation significantly changed during storage, showing an exponential increase in the first 14 days, followed by a steady state until the end of observations. Overall, PLA bottles proved to offer comparable performances to PET both in terms of mechanical resistance and quality maintenance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10020295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912795PMC
February 2021

Acrylamide assessment of wheat bread incorporating chia seeds ( L.) by LC-MS/MS.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2021 Mar 22;38(3):388-395. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Della Sicilia, Palermo, Italy.

We examined the acrylamide content in samples of wheat bread with chia seeds added at different concentrations (2%, 5%, 7%, 10%) and cooked at predefined conditions (20 min at 200°C) by a validated LC-MS/M method after QuEChERS extraction. The acrylamide contents of the bread samples with added chia seeds were compared with control wheat bread samples. The highest acrylamide values were found in bread with 5% chia seeds, showing a mean value of 156.5 ± 115.4 µg/kg, followed by bread with 10% chia seeds (150.2 ± 103.8 µg/kg). About 6% of the bread samples with added chia seeds reached acrylamide levels above the benchmark level set by the EU Regulation. No significant differences in acrylamide values were found between control samples and bread with different percentages of chia seeds ( > .05). The results obtained provide a first report on the possible contribution of chia to the increase of acrylamide formation in bread.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2020.1853823DOI Listing
March 2021

Development of a Rapid and Eco-Friendly UHPLC Analytical Method for the Detection of Histamine in Fish Products.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 10 13;17(20). Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia 'A. Mirri', via Gino Marinuzzi, 3, 90129 Palermo, Italy.

We developed, validated, and confirmed with proficiency tests a fast ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (UHPLC-DAD) method to determine histamine in fish and fishery products. The proposed method consists of two successive solid-liquid extractions: one with a dilute solution of perchloric acid (6%) and the second only with water. The instrumental analysis with UHPLC provides a very fast run time (only 6 min) with a retention time of approximately 4 min, a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 7.2 mg kg, a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.2 mg kg, a recovery around 100%, a relative standard deviation (RSD%) between 0.5 and 1.4, and an r of calibration curve equal to 0.9995. The method detected optimal values of the validation parameters and required a limited number of reagents in comparison to other methods reported in the literature. Furthermore, the method could detect histamine in a very short time compared with other methods. This method, in addition to being validated, precise, specific, and accurate, avoids wasting time, money, and resources, and limits the use of organic solvents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7602054PMC
October 2020

Antimicrobial peptide cocktail activity in minced turkey meat.

Food Microbiol 2020 Dec 21;92:103580. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, 76100, Israel. Electronic address:

Meat products contain valuable nutrients that are important for human health and development but are also highly susceptible to colonization by microorganisms. This can lead to spoilage and serious foodborne illnesses. Natural antimicrobial peptides, produced by many organisms as part of their innate immune system to fight microbial infections, have great potential as food preservatives. In this study, we explored the effect of ternary antimicrobial random peptide mixtures (RPMs) on food spoilage bacteria in minced turkey meat. Amendment of RPMs to meat led to significant reductions in bacterial abundance in experimental tests, and RPMs worked synergistically with nitrite to reduce bacterial loads. Using high-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing, we characterized the effect of RPMs and nitrite on meat microbial community structure before and during incubation under refrigerated conditions. Our findings reveal strong antimicrobial activity for RPMs against spoilage bacteria in meat, including Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas putida. These results demonstrate the potential of RPMs as a safer preservative for reducing spoilage in meat and other food products.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2020.103580DOI Listing
December 2020

High hydroxycinnamic acids contents in fennel honey produced in Southern Italy.

Nat Prod Res 2020 Feb 5:1-6. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia "A. Mirri", Palermo, Italy.

A total of 122 honey samples ( ssp. Ligustica) collected from Southern Italy were examined for floral identification by melissopalynological examination and for polyphenols detection by an LC-ESI-Orbitrap -MS/MS method. The melissopalynological examination confirmed all the samples examined as fennel () unifloral variety. The analytical method carried out for polyphenols detection showed satisfactory linearity and recovery values, achieved during the validation of the method. Very high amounts of flavonols (kaempferol and quercetin) and hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid), were found in all the samples examined. Among the hydroxycinnamic acids group, caffeic acid showed the highest mean contents (865.90 ± 67.07 µg/kg). The results of this work confirmed the high presence of phenolic acids with strong free radical-scavenging activity in fennel products such as honey, suggesting their use to reduce oxidative stress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1723090DOI Listing
February 2020

Validation of a Commercial Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for the Rapid Detection of spp. DNA in Processed Fish Products.

Foods 2020 Jan 16;9(1). Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia, via Gino Marinuzzi 3, 90129 Palermo, Italy.

Parasites belonging to the genera are organisms of interest for human health because they are responsible for the Anisakiasis zoonosis, caused by the ingestion of raw or undercooked fish. Furthermore, several authors have reported this parasite to be a relevant inducer of acute or chronic allergic diseases. In this work, a rapid commercial system based on Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) was optimised and validated for the sensitive and rapid detection of spp. DNA in processed fish products. The specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP assay for processed fish samples experimentally infected with spp. larvae and DNA were determined. The LAMP system proposed in this study was able to give positive amplification for all the processed fish samples artificially contaminated with spp., giving sensitivity values equal to 100%. Specificity tests provided no amplification for the , , or genera and uninfected samples. The limit of detection (LOD) of the LAMP assay proposed was 10 times lower than the real-time PCR method compared. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the application of the LAMP assay for the detection of spp. in processed fish products. The results obtained indicate that the LAMP assay validated in this work could be a reliable, easy-to-use, and convenient tool for the rapid detection of DNA in fish product inspection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9010092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7022600PMC
January 2020

Histamine in Fish Products Randomly Collected in Southern Italy: A 6-Year Study.

J Food Prot 2020 Jan 16:241-248. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia "A. Mirri," Via Gino Marinuzzi 3, 90129, Palermo, Italy (ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9262-116X [F.G.G.]).

In total, 4,615 fresh and processed fish samples collected from 2010 to 2015 were analyzed for histamine by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Histamine levels were detected in 352 (7.6%) samples, with a maximum of 4,110 mg kg and mean values of 908.9 ± 1,226.79 and 344.01 ± 451.18 mg kg for fresh and processed fish samples, respectively. No histamine levels were found in canned tuna and smoked fish samples in contrast to most of the data reported in the literature. A low percentage (2.79%) of noncompliant samples was found. The highest mean values were found during 2011 and 2015 for fresh and processed fish samples, respectively, showing a significant ( < 0.05) difference between the sampling years. The histamine contents found in fresh fish samples were significantly higher ( < 0.05) than those of processed samples. Most of the positive samples came from street vendors, suggesting the need to improve inspection measures in these commercial categories to ensure fish product safety.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-19-305DOI Listing
January 2020

Land Snails as a Valuable Source of Fatty Acids: A Multivariate Statistical Approach.

Foods 2019 Dec 12;8(12). Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia, via Gino Marinuzzi 3, 90129 Palermo, Italy.

The fatty acid (FA) profile of wild , and land snail samples, collected in Sicily (Southern Italy), before and after heat treatment at +100 °C were examined by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The results show a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in all of the examined raw snails samples, representing up to 48.10% of the total fatty acids contents, followed by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). The thermal processing of the snail samples examined determined an overall reduction of PUFA levels (8.13%, 7.75%, and 4.62% for , and samples, respectively) and a species-specific variation of saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents. Oleic acid remained the most abundant FA of all of the snails species examined, accounting for up to 29.95% of the total FA content. A relevant decrease of ɷ3/ɷ6 ratio was found only for samples. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed a separation of the snail samples in terms of species and heat treatment. The results of this work suggest land snails as a valuable source of MUFA and PUFA contents and boiling as appropriate treatment, according to the maintenance of healthy properties.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8120676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6963810PMC
December 2019

Preservation, Characterization and Exploitation of Microbial Biodiversity: The Perspective of the Italian Network of Culture Collections.

Microorganisms 2019 Dec 12;7(12). Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, viale Mattioli, 25, 10125 Torino, Italy.

Microorganisms represent most of the biodiversity of living organisms in every ecological habitat. They have profound effects on the functioning of any ecosystem, and therefore on the health of our planet and of human beings. Moreover, microorganisms are the main protagonists in food, medical and biotech industries, and have several environmental applications. Accordingly, the characterization and preservation of microbial biodiversity are essential not only for the maintenance of natural ecosystems but also for research purposes and biotechnological exploitation. In this context, culture collections (CCs) and microbial biological resource centres (mBRCs) are crucial for the safeguarding and circulation of biological resources, as well as for the progress of life sciences. This review deals with the expertise and services of CCs, in particular concerning preservation and characterization of microbial resources, by pointing to the advanced approaches applied to investigate a huge reservoir of microorganisms. Data sharing and web services as well as the tight interconnection between CCs and the biotechnological industry are highlighted. In addition, guidelines and regulations related to quality management systems (QMSs), biosafety and biosecurity issues are discussed according to the perspectives of CCs and mBRCs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7120685DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6956255PMC
December 2019

Mercury Detection in Benthic and Pelagic Fish Collected from Western Sicily (Southern Italy).

Animals (Basel) 2019 Aug 22;9(9). Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Food Department, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia, via Gino Marinuzzi 3, 90129 Palermo, Italy.

In highly polluted water, fish can accumulate mercury up to a concentration of 10 mgKg. This has occurred on the eastern coasts of Sicily (Southern Italy), probably due to the intense industrial activity of this area. However, little is known about Hg accumulation in fish of the western Sicilian coasts. In this work, we examined the Hg accumulation of 108 fish samples belonging to 14 species collected from western Sicilian coasts using a direct mercury analyzer. The samples showed a mean mercury concentration of 0.165 ± 0.22 mg kg with a maximum in (1.72 mgKg), exceeding the limits provided by EC Reg. 1881/2006. The lowest Hg levels were found in samples (0.001 mgKg). A significant difference was found between the fish species examined ( < 0.05). The comparison between benthic and pelagic species did not show statistical differences ( < 0.05). Fish food constitutes the main route of Hg uptake for humans. Only four of the 130 samples examined reached a mercury concentration over the European limits. The comparative analysis of Hg pollution for benthic and pelagic species did not confirm a different trend in metal contamination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9090594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6769492PMC
August 2019

Use of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (L.), Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae processing residue in peat-based growing media.

Waste Manag 2019 Jul 17;95:278-288. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Interdepartmental Research Centre BIOGEST-SITEIA, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Piazzale Europa 1, 42124 Reggio Emilia, Italy; Department of Life Science, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Amendola, n. 2, 42122 Reggio Emilia (RE), Italy. Electronic address:

The Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens (L.), Diptera: Stratiomyidae) is an insect whose larvae thrive on agro-industrial by-products. This study reports the first use of black soldier fly larvae processing residue (BSPR) as an innovative ingredient for growing media. BSPR was characterized and evaluated to partially replace commercial peat (CP) in the production of potted plants. Chemical and microbiological analysis showed the suitability of BSPR for soilless production. Hence, six growing media mixtures (CP 100% + slow acting synthetic solid fertilizer, CP 90% + BSPR 10%, CP 80% + BSPR 20%, CP 70% + BSPR 30%, CP 60% + BSPR 40% and CP 100% without fertilizer) were assessed for the production of baby leaf lettuce, basil and tomato potted plants. Using BSPR in a proportion up to 20%, all investigated crops showed values significantly greater than or comparable to those obtained using CP 100% + slow acting synthetic solid fertilizer. In general, BSPR used in a proportion up to 20% increased the crop growth of baby leaf lettuce, basil and tomato, recording a high total dry weight (+31%, compared to the total average) and the measured leaf parameters (+39% of leaf area, +14% of leaf number), without showing abiotic stresses. This study indicates that BSPR used in a proportion up to 20% might be a valid approach for soilless production of potted baby leaf lettuce, basil and tomato plants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2019.06.017DOI Listing
July 2019

Toxic mineral elements in from Sicilian coasts (Southern Italy).

Nat Prod Res 2020 Jan 3;34(1):177-182. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia "A. Mirri", Palermo, Italy.

We assessed the relationship between V, Cr, Mn, Hg, As, Cd, Sn, Sb and Pb concentrations in samples from the coasts of Sicily and the expression of . Toxic mineral elements assessment was carried out by A.A. Spectrometry and ICP-MS. The expression was performed by q-PCR method. Low metals' levels were found in the mussel samples examined, in comparison with what was reported in literature. The highest mean values of toxic mineral elements were found in Gela (Cr 0.178 ± 0.03 mg/Kg, Mn 4.325 ± 0.012 mg/Kg, As 3.706 ± 0.009 mg/Kg, Sn 0.148 ± 0.014 mg/Kg, Sb 0.009 ± 0.004 mg/Kg e Pb 0.364 ± 0.01 mg/Kg). Significant levels of Hg were found in samples from Catania (0.014 ± 0.005 mg/Kg). Only vanadium and lead concentrations showed significant differences between sampling areas ( < 0.05). Molecular analysis verified a basal expression of and the absence of over-expression of , confirming the low mineral's concentrations found in the samples examined.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1610963DOI Listing
January 2020

Seasonal trend of Anisakidae infestation in South Mediterranean bluefish.

Nat Prod Res 2020 Jan 20;34(1):158-161. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia "A. Mirri", Palermo, Italy.

A total of 1104 fish samples from markets of Sicily were analysed for the detection and species identification of Anisakidae nematodes. The preliminary analysis of the fish samples showed the presence of 2459 larvae. All the fish species revealed different prevalence of infestation, with a maximum of 100% for and a minimum of 4.5% in The 80% of the larvae examined by PCR-RFLP analysis belonged to species. The seasonal infestation trend of was evaluated in all the fish sample examined. The results of the seasonal infestation trend showed a marked connection with the ecological aspects of the fish species examined. As far as we know, this work report for the first time important ecological aspects of specimens of South Mediterranean. This work could be useful to plan a seasonal fishing strategy aimed at reducing the health risks related to .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1573232DOI Listing
January 2020

Tetracycline Residues in Bovine Muscle and Liver Samples from Sicily (Southern Italy) by LC-MS/MS Method: A Six-Year Study.

Molecules 2019 Feb 15;24(4). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia "A. Mirri", via Gino Marinuzzi 3, 90129 Palermo, Italy.

We examined a total of 369 bovine liver and muscle samples for the detection of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC), and doxycycline (DOX) residues by implementation and validation of a LC-MS/MS method. The method showed good recovery values between 86% and 92% at three levels of concentrations. The linearity tests revealed r² > 0.996 for all the tetracyclines examined. Furthermore, the Youden test revealed that the method was robust. Only 14.4% of the samples showed OTC and TC residues in a concentration range of 10.4⁻40.2 µg kg. No CTC and DOX residues were found in all the samples analyzed. Liver samples showed the highest average values (31.5 ± 20.6 and 21.8 ± 18.9 for OTC and TC, respectively). The results showed a low incidence of TCs in all the samples examined, in comparison with other studies reported in the literature. A significant decrease in TC residues frequency was found from 2013 ( < 0.05). This work reports for the first time epidemiological data on the presence of TC residues in liver and muscle samples of cattle farmed in Sicily (Southern Italy). The very low incidence of TC residues indicates a continuous improvement in farming techniques in Southern Italy, which is essential to ensure consumers' protection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413177PMC
February 2019

Residues of 165 pesticides in citrus fruits using LC-MS/MS: a study of the pesticides distribution from the peel to the pulp.

Nat Prod Res 2020 Jan 19;34(1):34-38. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia "A. Mirri", Palermo, Italy.

A sensitive LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of 165 pesticides in 50 citrus fruit samples collected in Sicily. Moreover, an evaluation of pesticides levels in the citrus layers (peel, albedo, and pulp) was carried out. The method presented acceptable trueness, precision, and linearity with LOQ of 5 μg/kg. The results obtained showed a high frequency of fungicides class pesticides in all the citrus samples examined (>95%) with the highest concentrations in the peel (4468 µg/Kg). A significant difference of concentrations was found between the layers of the citrus fruits analysed (p < 0.05). In particular, the peel and albedo present higher pesticides significantly higher than the pulp. Our findings confirming the widespread use of these substances in citrus cultivation and suggesting the importance of pesticides analysis in all the citrus fruit layers separately, considering the different interactions between the physicochemical characteristics of the matrices and the pesticides.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1561682DOI Listing
January 2020

Aflatoxin M in cow, sheep, and donkey milk produced in Sicily, Southern Italy.

Mycotoxin Res 2019 Feb 13;35(1):47-53. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia "A. Mirri", via Gino Marinuzzi 3, 90129, Palermo, Italy.

Samples (n = 485) of raw (n = 394) or heat-treated (n = 91) milk of three different species (cow, n = 170; sheep, n = 133; donkey, n = 84), collected 2013-2016 in Western Sicily (Southern Italy), were analyzed for aflatoxin M (AFM) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive ELISA results were further analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Both methods had a detection limit for AFM in milk of 7 ng kg. ELISA yielded 12.9 and 5% positives in cows and sheep milk, respectively, all samples of donkey milk were negative. Levels of AFM were in most cases at 0.007-< 0.05 μg kg, only two samples (sheep milk) slightly exceeded the European Union maximum level of 0.05 μg kg. Only 6% of the samples were positive for AFM in a concentration range of 0.008-0.15 μg kg. Only milk samples collected directly from farms were positive. Overall, the levels were much lower than previously reported for Southern Italy cow and sheep milk samples purchased in retail stores. The results of this work indicate a continuous improvement of the feeding techniques on dairy farms of Southern Italy, which is essential to ensure consumers' protection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12550-018-0329-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Presence of Anisakis pegreffii in farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) commercialized in Southern Italy: A first report.

Vet Parasitol 2018 Aug 28;259:13-16. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia "A. Mirri", via Gino Marinuzzi 3, 90129 Palermo, Italy.

We examined 151 European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) samples from farms and fish markets of Sicily (Southern Italy) for Anisakidae larvae detection. All the samples were examined by visual inspection and modified chloro-peptic digestion. Two nematode larvae were found in the viscera of only one European sea bass sample from a farm located in Greece (FAO 37.3), giving a total prevalence of infestation of 0.7%. No other parasites were found after chloro-peptic digestion of the samples. The larvae were morphologically ascribed, at genus level, to morphotypes I and molecularly identified as Anisakis pegreffii. To the best if our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of anisakid parasites in farmed European sea bass of Mediterranean Sea. Our findings suggest that the risk of exposure to Anisakidae nematodes in farmed European sea bass remains very low. However, further data on Mediterranean farms are needed to have a detailed risk analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2018.06.021DOI Listing
August 2018

Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of a blend of monoglycerides against Escherichia coli and Enterococci with multiple drug resistance.

Arch Microbiol 2018 Jan 10;200(1):85-89. Epub 2017 Aug 10.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Giovanni Amendola, 2-Padiglione Besta, 42122, Reggio Emilia, Italy.

Bacterial antibiotic resistance is a natural phenomenon, seriously affecting the treatment of infections. The biggest danger is that current antibiotics are not able to eradicate the resistant strains. In recent years, alternative antibacterial substances are being sought, which can help in these cases. Fatty acids and monoglycerides are known among the natural substances for their antimicrobial properties and, important detail, bacteria do not develop resistance to them. In this work, we studied the antimicrobial effects of a monoglyceride blend against some multi-resistant Enterococci and Escherichia coli strains. Based on literature data, a blend of fatty acids and their monoglycerides was created and its antimicrobial activity was evaluated against 37 strains of E. coli and 17 Enterococci presenting resistance to at least two antibiotics. A different behavior was observed in the two groups of bacteria, proving that alternative substances can be considerate for the potential treatment of multidrug-resistant strains.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-017-1419-5DOI Listing
January 2018

Poly(vinyl alcohol)-based film potentially suitable for antimicrobial packaging applications.

J Food Sci 2014 Apr 24;79(4):E577-82. Epub 2014 Feb 24.

Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale per il Miglioramento e la Valorizzazione delle Risorse Biologiche Agro-Alimentari BIOGEST-SITEIA, Univ. degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, c/o Via G. Amendola 2 (Padiglione Besta), 42122, Reggio Emilia, Italy.

This work aimed at developing a thin and water-resistant food-grade poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH)-based matrix able to swell when in contact with high moisture content food products without rupturing to release antimicrobial agents onto the food surface. This film was prepared by blending PVOH and 7.20% (wt/wt of PVOH) of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with citric acid as crosslinking agent. The film-forming solution was then casted onto a flat surface and the obtained film was 60 μm in thickness and showed a good transparency (close to T = 100%) in the visible region (400 to 700 nm). After immersion in water for 72 h at room temperature, the crosslinked matrix loses only 19.2% of its original weight (the percentage includes the amount of unreacted crosslinking agent, antimicrobial in itself). Water content, degree of swelling, and crosslinking density of the film prove that the presence of PEG diminishes the hydrophilic behavior of the material. Also the mechanical properties of the wet and dry film were assessed. Alongside this, 2.5% (wt/wt of dry film) of grapefruit seed extract (GSE), an antimicrobial agent, was added to the film-forming solution just before casting and the ability of the plastic matrix to release the additive was then evaluated in vitro against 2 GSE-susceptible microorganisms, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria innocua. The results indicate that the developed matrix may be a promising food-grade material for the incorporation of active substances.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12375DOI Listing
April 2014

Ochratoxin A adsorption phenotype: an inheritable yeast trait.

J Gen Appl Microbiol 2012 ;58(3):225-33

Department of Scienze e Tecnologie Agro-Forestali e Ambientali, Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.

This study aimed to evaluate the inheritance of the trait ochratoxin A adsorption in two wine strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their 46 descendants. Each strain was inoculated in triplicate in test tubes containing 10 ml of must obtained from the Calabrian Zibibbo white grape variety, artificially contaminated with ochratoxin A to reach a total content of 4.10 ng/ml. The microvinification trials were performed at 25°C. After 30 days, ochratoxin A values ranged from 0.74 to 3.18 ng/ml, from 0.01 to 2.69 ng/ml, and from 0.60 to 2.95 ng/ml respectively in wines, in lees after washing, and in the saline solution used to wash the lees. The analysis of OTA in wines was performed to find the residual toxin content after yeast activity, thus obtaining technological evidence of yeast influence on wine detoxification. The analysis of OTA in lees after washing was performed to distinguish the OTA linked to cells. The analysis of OTA in the saline solution used to wash the lees was performed to distinguish the OTA adsorbed on yeast cell walls and removed by washing, thus focusing on the adsorption activity of wine yeast through electrostatic and ionic interactions between parietal mannoproteins and OTA. Ploidy of the two parental strains was controlled by flow cytometry. Results demonstrated that the ochratoxin A adsorption is genetically controlled and is a polygenic inheritable trait of wine yeasts. The majority of the descendants are characterized by a great and significant diversity compared to their parents. Both the parental strains had genome sizes consistent with their being diploid, so validating the observed results. These findings constitute an initial step to demonstrate the mechanisms of inheritance and establish breeding strategies to improve the ochratoxin A adsorption trait in wine yeasts. This will allow a decrease in the ochratoxin A content of contaminated musts during winemaking, by using genetically improved wine yeasts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2323/jgam.58.225DOI Listing
December 2012

Method for the validation of intraspecific crosses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains by minisatellite analysis.

Can J Microbiol 2012 Mar 27;58(3):350-8. Epub 2012 Feb 27.

Department of Agriculture and Food Sciences - University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.

The crossing of Saccharomyces strains by spore conjugation is one of the ways to obtain new starter cultures for the fermentation industry. One of the major difficulties of this practice is the identification of the newly formed hybrids. In this work we describe an effective molecular method for the validation of Saccharomyces intraspecific crosses. The method described is based in the hypothesis that hybrids constructed by spore conjugation contain the sum of the genomes of both parental strains. As a consequence, the conjugation of spores of two yeasts showing different genomic fingerprinting profiles will result in a hybrid culture that will show the sum of both profiles. We demonstrated that the detection of polymorphism in two genes containing minisatellite-like sequences, either SED1 or AGA1, is suitable for this purpose. Using this strategy we were able to validate 15 crosses out of 162 hybridization attempts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/w11-142DOI Listing
March 2012

Optimizing the selection process of yeast starter cultures by preselecting strains dominating spontaneous fermentations.

Can J Microbiol 2009 Mar;55(3):326-32

Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie - Universita degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Padiglione Besta, via Amendola 2, 42100 Reggio Emilia, Italy.

We propose an efficient and time-saving strategy for starter culture selection. Our approach is based on the accomplishment of 3 phases: (i) the selection of yeast strains dominating spontaneous fermentations, (ii) the selection among the dominant strains of those showing the best technological characteristics, and (iii) the final selection among good technological strains of those showing the desired qualitative traits. We applied this approach to wine fermentations, even though the same strategy has the potential to be employed for the selection of any type of starter culture. We isolated and identified yeast strains at the mid- and final stages of 6 spontaneous fermentations carried out in 3 different Spanish wineries. We identified all strains as Saccharomyces cerevisiae by restriction fragment length polymorphism of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region, and subsequently distinguished each strain by analyzing the polymorphism of the inter-delta regions. Strains that were detected both at the mid- and final stages of the fermentation were considered dominant. Four dominant strains were finally selected and tested in pilot-scale fermentation, and their performance was compared with that of a commercial wine strain. All dominant strains showed good fitness and resulted suitable to be employed as starter cultures. One of the dominant strains isolated in this study is currently commercialized.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/w08-140DOI Listing
March 2009

Diversity of lactic acid bacteria population in ripened Parmigiano Reggiano cheese.

Int J Food Microbiol 2008 Jul 30;125(3):347-51. Epub 2008 Apr 30.

Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Amendola 2, 42100-Reggio Emilia, Italy.

The diversity of dominant lactic acid bacteria population in 12 months ripened Parmigiano Reggiano cheeses was investigated by a polyphasic approach including culture-dependent and independent methods. Traditional plating, isolation of LAB and identification by 16S rDNA analysis showed that strains belonging to Lactobacillus casei group were the most frequently isolated. Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri, and Lactobacillus buchneri species were detected with lower frequency. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) applied to DNA extracted directly from cheese samples and sequencing of rDNA amplicons confirmed the complex microbiological pattern of LAB in ripened Parmigiano Reggiano cheeses, with the significant exception of the Lactobacillus fermentum species, which dominated in several samples, but was not detected by cultivation. The present combination of different approaches can effectively describe the lactic acid bacteria population of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese in advanced stages of ripening, giving useful information for elucidating the role of LAB in determining the final cheese quality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.04.008DOI Listing
July 2008

The inheritance of mtDNA in lager brewing strains.

FEMS Yeast Res 2008 Jun 3;8(4):586-96. Epub 2008 Mar 3.

Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy.

In this work, we compared the mtDNA of a number of interspecific Saccharomyces hybrids (Saccharomyces cerevisiae x Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae x Saccharomyces bayanus) to the mtDNA of 22 lager brewing strains that are thought to be the result of a natural hybridization between S. cerevisiae and another Saccharomyces yeast, possibly belonging to the species S. bayanus. We detected that in hybrids constructed in vitro, the mtDNA could be inherited from either parental strain. Conversely, in the lager strains tested, the mtDNA was never of the S. cerevisiae type. Moreover, the nucleotide sequence of lager brewing strains COXII gene was identical to S. bayanus strain NBRC 1948 COXII gene. MtDNA restriction analysis carried out with three enzymes confirmed this finding. However, restriction analysis with a fourth enzyme (AvaI) provided restriction patterns for lager strains that differed from those of S. bayanus strain NBRC 1948. Our results raise the hypothesis that the human-driven selection carried out on existing lager yeasts has favored only those bearing optimal fermentation characteristics at low temperatures, which harbor the mtDNA of S. bayanus.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1567-1364.2008.00363.xDOI Listing
June 2008

Neuroendocrine tumors metastatic to the liver: how to select patients for liver transplantation?

J Hepatol 2007 Oct 26;47(4):460-6. Epub 2007 Jul 26.

Gastrointestinal Surgery and Liver Transplantation Unit, National Cancer Institute, Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione IRCCS, Via Venezian 1, Milan 20133, Italy.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2007.07.004DOI Listing
October 2007

Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in the management of postsurgical biliary leaks in patients with nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts.

Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2006 May-Jun;29(3):380-8

Department of Radiology, Radiologia 3 Unit, National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Milan, Italy,

Purpose: To assess the feasibility of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) for the treatment of postsurgical biliary leaks in patients with nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts, its efficacy in restoring the integrity of bile ducts, and technical procedures to reduce morbidity.

Methods: Seventeen patients out of 936 undergoing PTBD over a 20-year period had a noncholestatic liver and were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent surgery for cancer and suffered a postsurgical biliary leak of 345 ml/day on average; 71% were in poor condition and required permanent nutritional support. An endoscopic approach failed or was excluded due to inaccessibility of the bile ducts.

Results: Established biliary leaks and site of origin were diagnosed an average of 21 days (range 1-90 days) after surgery. In all cases percutaneous access to the biliary tree was achieved. An external (preleakage) drain was applied in 7 cases, 9 patients had an external-internal fistula bridging catheter, and 1 patient had a percutaneous hepatogastrostomy. Fistulas healed in an average of 31 days (range 3-118 days ) in 15 of 17 patients (88%) following PTBD. No major complications occurred after drainage. Post-PTBD cholangitis was observed in 6 of 17 patients (35%) and was related to biliary sludge formation occurring mostly when drainage lasted >30 days and was of the external-internal type. Median patient survival was 17.7 months and in all cases the repaired biliary leaks remained healed.

Conclusions: PTBD is a feasible, effective, and safe procedure for the treatment of postsurgical biliary leaks. It is therefore a reliable alternative to surgical repair, which entails longer hospitalization and higher costs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00270-005-0102-4DOI Listing
September 2006

Limitations on the use of polymerase chain reaction--restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the rDNA NTS2 region for the taxonomic classification of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Can J Microbiol 2005 Sep;51(9):759-64

Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie-Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy.

Different molecular techniques were tested to determine which was the most effective in the identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. In particular, polymerase chain reaction--restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the nontranscribed spacer 2 (NTS2) region, sequencing of the D1/D2 domain, and electrophoretic karyotyping were applied to 123 yeast strains isolated from different sourdoughs and tentatively attributed to the species S. cerevisiae. All of the strains tested showed an identical PCR-RFLP pattern for the ITS regions, an identical nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 domain, and the typical electrophoretic karyo type of S. cerevisiae. In contrast, 14 out of the 123 strains tested showed some polymorphism with BanI restriction analysis of the NTS2 region. Our results indicate that while the sequencing of the D1/D2 domain, the PCR-RFLP analysis of the ITS regions, and the electrophoretic karyotype can be employed successfully to identify S. cerevisiae strains, PCR-RFLP analysis of the NTS2 region does not allow a consistent and accurate grouping for S. cerevisiae strains. The fact that the NTS2 region of a small number of strains (8.78% of the total strains tested) is different from that of the other S. cerevisiae strains confirms that molecular methods should always be tested on a great number of strains.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/w05-062DOI Listing
September 2005

Prophylaxis of hepatitis B virus recurrence after liver transplantation in carriers of lamivudine-resistant mutants.

Liver Transpl 2005 May;11(5):532-8

Department of Gastroenterology, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Turin, Italy.

The combination of lamivudine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) reduces the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT). However, the efficacy of this strategy and the need for combined therapy with adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) in patients who select lamivudine-resistant strains (YMDD) before surgery is still unknown. Twenty-two patients treated with lamivudine (LAM) who underwent LT after YMDD-mutant selection were studied. In 13 patients, YMDD mutants were associated with an HBV DNA breakthrough greater than 5 log10 (group A: phenotypic resistance), and 11 were treated with ADV to decrease viral load before LT. In the remaining 9 patients who did not experience the viral breakthrough, YMDD mutants were detected only retrospectively in sera stored at the time of LT (group B: genotypic resistance). During 35 months of post-LT follow-up, none of the 11 patients of group A treated with ADV before and after surgery (in addition to HBIG and LAM) had HBV recurrence, and neither did any of the 7 subjects of group B treated with LAM before and after transplantation (in addition to HBIG). HBV recurred in 2 patients of group A (untreated with ADV before surgery and transplanted with an HBV DNA exceeding 5 log10) and in 2 subjects of group B (who spontaneously stopped HBIG after surgery). In carriers of YMDD mutants, the risk of post-LT HBV recurrence is low, provided that preemptive and prophylactic ADV (in addition to LAM and HBIG) treatment is used in highly viremic patients and prophylactic LAM (or ADV) and HBIG therapy is continued in low viremic patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lt.20393DOI Listing
May 2005
-->