Publications by authors named "Andrea Lewis"

56 Publications

Comparison of characteristics and outcomes of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 during wave 1 and wave 2 of the current pandemic.

Intern Emerg Med 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Endocrinology, Ashford and St Peter's Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford Road, Chertsey, Surrey, KT16 0PZ, UK.

In this study of patients admitted with COVID-19, we examined differences between the two waves in patient characteristics and outcomes. Data were collected from the first COVID-19 admission to the end of study (01/03/2020-31/03/2021). Data were adjusted for age and sex and presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among 12,471 admissions, 1452 (11.6%) patients were diagnosed with COVID-19. On admission, the mean (± SD) age of patients with other causes was 68.3 years (± 19.8) and those with COVID-19 in wave 1 was 69.4 years (± 18.0) and wave 2 was 66.2 years (± 18.4). Corresponding ages at discharge were 67.5 years (± 19.7), 63.9 years (± 18.0) and 62.4 years (± 18.0). The highest proportion of total admissions was among the oldest group (≥ 80 years) in wave 1 (35.0%). When compared with patients admitted with other causes, those admitted with COVID-19 in wave 1 and in wave 2 were more frequent in the 40-59 year band: 20.8, 24.6 and 30.0%; consisted of more male patients: 47.5, 57.6 and 58.8%; and a high LACE (Length of stay, Acuity of admission, Comorbidity and Emergency department visits) index (score ≥ 10): 39.4, 61.3 and 50.3%. Compared to wave-2 patients, those admitted in wave 1 had greater risk of death in hospital: OR = 1.58 (1.18-2.12) and within 30 days of discharge: OR = 2.91 (1.40-6.04). Survivors of COVID-19 in wave 1 stayed longer in hospital (median = 6.5 days; interquartile range = 2.9-12.0) as compared to survivors from wave 2 (4.5 days; interquartile range = 1.9-8.7). Patient characteristics differed significantly between the two waves of COVID-19 pandemic. There was an improvement in outcomes in wave 2, including shorter length of stay in hospital and reduction of mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-021-02842-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8505475PMC
October 2021

Parental perceptions of genetic testing for children with autism spectrum disorders.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) routinely undergo genetic testing (GT) to identify the causative genetic etiology of their ASD. As there are questions about the impact of GT beyond clinical diagnosis, we conducted a mixed methods study to assess the perceived benefits of GT by exploring factors that lead parents to pursue these tests and the benefits experienced. Respondents were part of a pretest or posttest group. The pretest group (N = 22) expressed intent to pursue GT and the posttest group (N = 32) had undergone GT and received results at least 3 months prior to completing the survey. Responses were compared between and within groups. Free text responses were coded for themes and selection questions were analyzed using Fisher's exact tests. Our results demonstrate significant differences between the groups with participants in the pretest group more likely to choose "increased access to therapies" (p = 0.026) and "improved healthcare" (p < 0.000) as reasons to pursue testing. Benefits were also significantly different with "improved healthcare" (p = 0.009), "improved access to services" (p = 0.012), and "improved access to therapies" (p = 0.003) more frequently anticipated by the pretest group than reported by the posttest group. A relationship between GT and clinical management changes was reported by 34.4-50.0% of the posttest group. Among that group, genetic result type (positive, negative, or variant of uncertain significance) was associated with differing perceived benefits of testing. Thematic analysis revealed increased knowledge and coping as reported benefits in both groups. Our findings indicate a discrepancy between parental expectations and experiences of GT. Comprehensive pretest and posttest genetic counseling are necessary to improve information retention, address potential outcomes, and set expectations of GT for parents of children with ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62517DOI Listing
September 2021

Evaluating the efficacy of eradicating Gardnerella vaginalis (GV) vaginal colonization with amoxicillin; a randomized, double-blind, phase 2 study.

Sex Transm Dis 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston Salem, NC The Emmes Company, LLC, Rockville, MD University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL FHI 360, Durham, NC.

Background: Research suggests that Gardnerella vaginalis (GV) is the keystone pathogen in bacterial vaginosis (BV). Knowledge gaps exist regarding the role of GV eradication in the development of BV. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that vaginal colonization with GV could be eradicated by treatment of women without BV with amoxicillin, a drug highly active against GV. If GV is necessary for the development of BV, then eradication of GV may prevent the development of BV.

Methods: We conducted a randomized control trial of amoxicillin 500 mg twice daily versus placebo for 7 days in women ages 18-45 without vaginitis who screened positive for vaginal colonization with GV by qPCR. Test-of-cure visit for GV was conducted at day 21.

Results: 172 women met preliminary criteria and were screened for enrollment. Ninety-seven GV positive women were randomized to receive amoxicillin versus placebo. Eradication of GV occurred in 21% of women randomized to amoxicillin versus 16% on placebo (p = 0.757). In the 4 weeks between screening and test-of-cure visit, 16/92 (17%) of participants developed Nugent scores >3 with 8/92 (9%) having BV. All of these were in participants in whom GV was not eradicated (p = 0.035).

Conclusions: The study failed to show a benefit of treatment with amoxicillin to eradicate GV. No participants in whom GV was eradicated had progression to abnormal vaginal flora during the study period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001555DOI Listing
August 2021

Associations of public water system trihalomethane exposure during pregnancy with spontaneous preterm birth and the cervicovaginal microbial-immune state.

Environ Res 2021 08 2;199:111288. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Maternal and Child Health Research Center, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Water total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) are disinfectant byproducts found in municipal water supplies. TTHM exposure has been linked to cancer and may be associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. A non-optimal cervicovaginal microbiota and low cervicovaginal beta-defensin-2 levels are associated with increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth. Whether TTHM exposure increases the risk of spontaneous preterm birth or alters the cervicovaginal microbial or immune state is unknown.

Objective: Investigate associations of water TTHM levels with spontaneous preterm birth, a non-optimal cervicovaginal microbiota, and beta-defensin-2 levels in a completed, diverse, urban pregnancy cohort. We hypothesized that higher TTHM levels would be associated with spontaneous preterm birth, a non-optimal cervicovaginal microbiota, and lower beta-defensin-2 levels.

Design: Methods: This was a secondary analysis of participants (n = 474) in the Motherhood & Microbiome (M&M) study (n = 2000), who lived in Philadelphia and had cervicovaginal samples analyzed for cervicovaginal microbiota composition and beta-defensin-2 levels. The microbiota was classified into community state types (CSTs). CST IV (non-optimal microbiota) is characterized by a paucity of Lactobacillus species and wide array of anaerobes. Municipal water TTHM levels were obtained from 16 sites monthly across the city of Philadelphia to establish mean residential water supply levels for each participant for the first four months of pregnancy (prior to vaginal swab collection at 16-20 weeks' gestation). Associations of water TTHM levels with spontaneous preterm birth and a non-optimal cervicovaginal microbiota birth were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Multivariable linear regression was used to model associations of water TTHM levels with log-transformed cervicovaginal beta-defensin-2 levels. Since water TTHM levels vary by season and beta-defensin-2 levels have been shown to differ by race, stratified models by warm (April-September) and cold (October-March) seasons as well as by self-identified race were utilized.

Results: Participants' water supply TTHM levels (mean μg/L [SD]) were higher in the warm (53.5 [9.4]) than cold (33.4 [7.5]) season (p < 0.0001). TTHM levels were non-significantly higher among Black participants than non-Black participants (44.8 [13.5] vs. 41.8 [11.8], p = 0.07). No associations were detected between TTHM with spontaneous preterm birth (per SD increment of TTHM, aOR 0.94, 95%CI: 0.66, 1.34) or with CST IV (aOR 0.94, 95%CI: 0.86, 1.16). Counter to our hypothesis, we observed positive associations of water TTHM with log-transformed cervicovaginal beta-defensin-2 levels in unadjusted models (β 0.20 [95%CI: 0.02, 0.39]) per SD increment of TTHM), but the association was null after adjustment for season. However, in models adjusted for covariates including season and stratified by race, TTHM was significantly associated with lower beta-defensin-2 levels among non-Black participants (β -0.75 [95%CI: -1.43, -0.08]) but not among Black participants (β 0.17 [95%CI: -0.15, 0.49]), interaction p = 0.013).

Conclusion: We did not detect associations of water TTHM levels with spontaneous preterm birth or the structure of the cervicovaginal microbiota. However, the finding of a significant interaction between TTHM and race on beta-defensin-2 levels suggest that environmental exposures may contribute to differences in reproductive tract innate immune function by race. Future studies to delineate environmental contributions to the cervicovaginal microbial-immune state, a potentially important biologic underpinning for preterm birth, are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8195861PMC
August 2021

Germline mutation in : a heterogeneous, multi-systemic developmental disorder characterized by transcriptional dysregulation.

HGG Adv 2021 Jan 20;2(1). Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

germline variation in was recently reported to associate with a neurodevelopmental disorder. We report twelve individuals harboring putatively pathogenic or inherited variants in , detail their phenotypes, and map all known variants to the domain structure of and crystal structure of RNA polymerase II. Affected individuals were ascertained from a local data lake, pediatric genetics clinic, and an online community of families of affected individuals. These include six affected by missense variants (including one previously reported individual), four clinical laboratory samples affected by missense variation with unknown inheritance-with yeast functional assays further supporting altered function-one affected by a in-frame deletion, and one affected by a C-terminal frameshift variant inherited from a largely asymptomatic mother. Recurrently observed phenotypes include ataxia, joint hypermobility, short stature, skin abnormalities, congenital cardiac abnormalities, immune system abnormalities, hip dysplasia, and short Achilles tendons. We report a significantly higher occurrence of epilepsy (8/12, 66.7%) than previously reported (3/15, 20%) (p value = 0.014196; chi-square test) and a lower occurrence of hypotonia (8/12, 66.7%) than previously reported (14/15, 93.3%) (p value = 0.076309). -related developmental disorders likely represent a spectrum of related, multi-systemic developmental disorders, driven by distinct mechanisms, converging at a single locus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xhgg.2020.100014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928427PMC
January 2021

Intraperitoneal bladder rupture in a young child with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 03 8;185(3):841-844. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA.

In this report, we present the case of a 3-year-old child with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) previously known as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV. After experiencing a minor traumatic injury to the abdomen, consisting of falling over a bathroom stool on the way to the restroom with a full bladder, the child developed acute abdominal pain. He was found to have an intraperitoneal bladder rupture that was successfully repaired with management techniques tailored to his known diagnosis of vEDS. While tissue fragility and internal organ rupture occurring with minor trauma are known complications of vEDS, this is the first case in the literature of a bladder rupture in a child with vEDS with a confirmed variant in the COL3A1 gene, to our knowledge. This case broadens the clinical presentation of vEDS, demonstrates that children can have life-threatening organ rupture at a young age, and may alert providers to consider this diagnosis when a child presents with bladder rupture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62004DOI Listing
March 2021

Outcomes of prior authorization requests for genetic testing in outpatient pediatric genetics clinics.

Genet Med 2021 05 20;23(5):950-955. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Purpose: Genetic testing is an important diagnostic tool in pediatric genetics clinics, yet many patients face barriers to testing. We describe the outcomes of prior authorization requests (PARs) for genetic tests, one indicator of patient access to clinically recommended testing, in pediatric genetics clinics.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed PARs for genetic tests (n = 4,535) recommended for patients <18 years of age (n = 2,798) by pediatric medical geneticists at two children's hospitals in Texas, 2017-2018. We described PAR outcomes, accompanying diagnostic codes, and diagnostic yield.

Results: The majority (79.9%) of PARs received a favorable outcome. PARs submitted to public payers were more likely to receive a favorable outcome compared with private payers (85.5% vs. 70.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). No diagnostic codes were associated with higher likelihood of PAR approval for exome sequencing. Among the 2,685 tests approved and completed, 522 (19.4%) resulted in a diagnosis.

Conclusion: Though there was a high PAR approval rate, our findings suggest that insurance coverage remains one barrier to genetic testing. When completed, genetic testing had a high yield in our sample. Further evidence of clinical utility and development of clinical practice guidelines may inform payer medical policy development and improve access to testing in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-01081-xDOI Listing
May 2021

Missense variants in CTNNB1 can be associated with vitreoretinopathy-Seven new cases of CTNNB1-associated neurodevelopmental disorder including a previously unreported retinal phenotype.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 01 22;9(1):e1542. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: CTNNB1 (MIM 116806) encodes beta-catenin, an adherens junction protein that supports the integrity between layers of epithelial tissue and mediates intercellular signaling. Recently, various heterozygous germline variants in CTNNB1 have been associated with human disease, including neurodevelopmental disorder with spastic diplegia and visual defects (MIM 615075) as well as isolated familial exudative vitreoretinopathy without developmental delays or other organ system involvement (MIM 617572). From over 40 previously reported patients with CTNNB1-related neurodevelopmental disorder, many have had ocular anomalies including strabismus, hyperopia, and astigmatism. More recently, multiple reports indicate that these abnormalities are associated with the presence of vitreoretinopathy.

Methods: We gathered a cohort of three patients with CTNNB1-related neurodevelopmental disorder, recruited from both our own clinic and referred from outside providers. We then searched for a clinical database comprised of over 12,000 exome sequencing studies to identify and recruit four additional patients.

Results: Here, we report seven new cases of CTNNB1-related neurodevelopmental disorder, all harboring de novo variants, six of which were previously unreported. All patients but one presented with a spectrum of ocular abnormalities and one patient, who was found to carry a missense variant in CTNNB1, had notable vitreoretinopathy.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest ophthalmologic screening should be performed in all patients with CTNNB1 variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7963417PMC
January 2021

Transition Readiness Assessment in Adolescents and Young Adults with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1).

Compr Child Adolesc Nurs 2020 Sep 24:1-17. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Division of Genetics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) conveys significant disease morbidity and lower quality of life compared to the general population. Research has shown that decreased positive health outcomes are directly correlated with inadequate development of health-related self-management skills among similar patient populations, and among these populations a healthcare transition (HCT) intervention improves provision of care and health outcomes. Thus, HCT intervention may improve care and outcomes in NF1. To design a future informed NF1 HCT intervention, baseline transition readiness must be assessed. A survey distributed by Children's Tumor Foundation (CTF) was developed to assess transition readiness and the impact of NF1 on factors of young adult life. A total of 101 participants aged 14-26 years living in the United States completed the survey with a median [IQR] age of 18 [16, 21]. The majority of participants reported that NF1 had significant or some impact on all factors of young adult life including education, career, relationships, and family planning. The median Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire (TRAQ) score in this study (3.50/5.00) was significantly lower than the previously published score of healthy peers (3.93/5.00) (< .001). Higher TRAQ scores correlated with higher NF1-specific transition knowledge and skills (NF1-TRAQ) ( = 0.632). Participants self-report adequate knowledge of NF1 and comfort in talking to medical providers. They report discomfort with appointment keeping, insurance related tasks, addressing NF1 emergencies, and discussing NF1 with non-medical providers and peers. Further, TRAQ and NF1-TRAQ scores were lower in individuals who reported that their diagnosis of NF1 had some or significant impact on education, career, and relationships. Findings demonstrate that among individuals with NF1 in this study, decreased transition readiness is associated with a negative impact on young adult life. Data from this study supports the need to develop NF1-specific HCT intervention tools, with an effort to improve quality of life and standardize NF1 care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/24694193.2020.1806402DOI Listing
September 2020

Evaluation and classification of severity for 176 genes on an expanded carrier screening panel.

Prenat Diagn 2020 09 16;40(10):1246-1257. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Division of Medical Affairs, Myriad Women's Health, South San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Disease severity is important when considering genes for inclusion on reproductive expanded carrier screening (ECS) panels. We applied a validated and previously published algorithm that classifies diseases into four severity categories (mild, moderate, severe, and profound) to 176 genes screened by ECS. Disease traits defining severity categories in the algorithm were then mapped to four severity-related ECS panel design criteria cited by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG).

Methods: Eight genetic counselors (GCs) and four medical geneticists (MDs) applied the severity algorithm to subsets of 176 genes. MDs and GCs then determined by group consensus how each of these disease traits mapped to ACOG severity criteria, enabling determination of the number of ACOG severity criteria met by each gene.

Results: Upon consensus GC and MD application of the severity algorithm, 68 (39%) genes were classified as profound, 71 (40%) as severe, 36 (20%) as moderate, and one (1%) as mild. After mapping of disease traits to ACOG severity criteria, 170 out of 176 genes (96.6%) were found to meet at least one of the four criteria, 129 genes (73.3%) met at least two, 73 genes (41.5%) met at least three, and 17 genes (9.7%) met all four.

Conclusion: This study classified the severity of a large set of Mendelian genes by collaborative clinical expert application of a trait-based algorithm. Further, it operationalized difficult to interpret ACOG severity criteria via mapping of disease traits, thereby promoting consistency of ACOG criteria interpretation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.5762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7540025PMC
September 2020

Clinical and biochemical improvement with galactose supplementation in SLC35A2-CDG.

Genet Med 2020 06 27;22(6):1102-1107. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Paediatrics and Metabolic Center, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose: We studied galactose supplementation in SLC35A2-congenital disorder of glycosylation (SLC35A2-CDG), caused by monoallelic pathogenic variants in SLC35A2 (Xp11.23), encoding the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi UDP-galactose transporter. Patients present with epileptic encephalopathy, developmental disability, growth deficiency, and dysmorphism.

Methods: Ten patients with SLC35A2-CDG were supplemented with oral D-galactose for 18 weeks in escalating doses up to 1.5 g/kg/day. Outcome was assessed using the Nijmegen Pediatric CDG Rating Scale (NPCRS, ten patients) and by glycomics (eight patients).

Results: SLC35A2-CDG patients demonstrated improvements in overall Nijmegen Pediatric CDG Rating Scale (NPCRS) score (P = 0.008), the current clinical assessment (P = 0.007), and the system specific involvement (P = 0.042) domains. Improvements were primarily in growth and development with five patients resuming developmental progress, which included postural control, response to stimuli, and chewing and swallowing amelioration. Additionally, there were improvements in gastrointestinal symptoms and epilepsy. One patient in our study did not show any clinical improvement. Galactose supplementation improved patients' glycosylation with decreased ratios of incompletely formed to fully formed glycans (M-gal/disialo, P = 0.012 and monosialo/disialo, P = 0.017) and increased levels of a fully galactosylated N-glycan (P = 0.05).

Conclusions: Oral D-galactose supplementation results in clinical and biochemical improvement in SLC35A2-CDG. Galactose supplementation may partially overcome the Golgi UDP-galactose deficiency and improves galactosylation. Oral galactose is well tolerated and shows promise as dietary therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0767-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275909PMC
June 2020

Deficient histone H3 propionylation by BRPF1-KAT6 complexes in neurodevelopmental disorders and cancer.

Sci Adv 2020 01 22;6(4):eaax0021. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University and Ghent University Hospital, C. Heymanslaan 10, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Lysine acetyltransferase 6A (KAT6A) and its paralog KAT6B form stoichiometric complexes with bromodomain- and PHD finger-containing protein 1 (BRPF1) for acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 23 (H3K23). We report that these complexes also catalyze H3K23 propionylation in vitro and in vivo. Immunofluorescence microscopy and ATAC-See revealed the association of this modification with active chromatin. deletion obliterates the acylation in mouse embryos and fibroblasts. Moreover, we identify variants in 12 previously unidentified cases of syndromic intellectual disability and demonstrate that these cases and known variants impair H3K23 propionylation. Cardiac anomalies are present in a subset of the cases. H3K23 acylation is also impaired by cancer-derived somatic mutations. Valproate, vorinostat, propionate and butyrate promote H3K23 acylation. These results reveal the dual functionality of BRPF1-KAT6 complexes, shed light on mechanisms underlying related developmental disorders and various cancers, and suggest mutation-based therapy for medical conditions with deficient histone acylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax0021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6976298PMC
January 2020

BAZ2B haploinsufficiency as a cause of developmental delay, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder.

Hum Mutat 2020 05 7;41(5):921-925. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

The bromodomain adjacent to zinc finger 2B gene (BAZ2B) encodes a protein involved in chromatin remodeling. Loss of BAZ2B function has been postulated to cause neurodevelopmental disorders. To determine whether BAZ2B deficiency is likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of these disorders, we performed bioinformatics analyses that demonstrated a high level of functional convergence during fetal cortical development between BAZ2B and genes known to cause autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and neurodevelopmental disorder. We also found an excess of de novo BAZ2B loss-of-function variants in exome sequencing data from previously published cohorts of individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. We subsequently identified seven additional individuals with heterozygous deletions, stop-gain, or de novo missense variants affecting BAZ2B. All of these individuals have developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), and/or ASD. Taken together, our findings suggest that haploinsufficiency of BAZ2B causes a neurodevelopmental disorder, whose cardinal features include DD, ID, and ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7262739PMC
May 2020

Retrospective Diagnosis of Ataxia-Telangiectasia in an Adolescent Patient With a Remote History of T-Cell Leukemia.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 01;43(1):e138-e140

Department of Pediatrics, Aflac Cancer & Blood Disorders Center, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar degeneration that is typically diagnosed in early childhood. A-T is associated with a predisposition to malignancies, particularly lymphoid tumors in childhood and early adulthood. An adolescent girl with minimal neurologic symptoms was diagnosed with A-T 8 years after completing therapy for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, following a diagnosis of ATM-mutated breast cancer in her mother. We highlight the importance of recognizing ATM mutations in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, appreciating the phenotypic heterogeneity of A-T, and defining optimal cancer screening in A-T patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000001672DOI Listing
January 2021

Novel Missense Variants in ADAT3 as a Cause of Syndromic Intellectual Disability.

J Pediatr Genet 2019 Dec 9;8(4):244-251. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States.

Autosomal recessive variants in the adenosine deaminase, tRNA specific 3 ( ) gene cause a syndromic form of intellectual disability due to a loss of ADAT3 function. This disorder is characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, speech delay, abnormal brain structure, strabismus, microcephaly, and failure to thrive. A small subset of individuals with ADAT3 deficiency have other structural birth defects including atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and micropenis. Here, we report a sibling pair with novel compound heterozygous missense variants that affect a conserved amino acid in the deaminase domain of ADAT3. These siblings have many of the features characteristic of this syndrome, including, intellectual disability, hypotonia, esotropia, failure to thrive, and microcephaly. Both had gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), feeding problems, and aspiration requiring thickening of feeds. Although they have no words, their communication abilities progressed rapidly when they began to use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices. One of these siblings was born with an anterior congenital diaphragmatic hernia, which has not been reported previously in association with ADAT3 deficiency. We conclude that individuals with ADAT3 deficiency should be monitored for GERD, feeding problems, and aspiration in infancy. They may also benefit from the use of AAC devices and individualized educational programs that take into account their capacity for nonverbal language development. Additional studies in humans or animal models will be needed to determine if ADAT3 deficiency predisposes to the development of structural birth defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1693151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6824885PMC
December 2019

Clinical spectrum of individuals with pathogenic NF1 missense variants affecting p.Met1149, p.Arg1276, and p.Lys1423: genotype-phenotype study in neurofibromatosis type 1.

Hum Mutat 2020 01 26;41(1):299-315. Epub 2019 Oct 26.

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

We report 281 individuals carrying a pathogenic recurrent NF1 missense variant at p.Met1149, p.Arg1276, or p.Lys1423, representing three nontruncating NF1 hotspots in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) cohort, together identified in 1.8% of unrelated NF1 individuals. About 25% (95% confidence interval: 20.5-31.2%) of individuals heterozygous for a pathogenic NF1 p.Met1149, p.Arg1276, or p.Lys1423 missense variant had a Noonan-like phenotype, which is significantly more compared with the "classic" NF1-affected cohorts (all p < .0001). Furthermore, p.Arg1276 and p.Lys1423 pathogenic missense variants were associated with a high prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities, including pulmonic stenosis (all p < .0001), while p.Arg1276 variants had a high prevalence of symptomatic spinal neurofibromas (p < .0001) compared with "classic" NF1-affected cohorts. However, p.Met1149-positive individuals had a mild phenotype, characterized mainly by pigmentary manifestations without externally visible plexiform neurofibromas, symptomatic spinal neurofibromas or symptomatic optic pathway gliomas. As up to 0.4% of unrelated individuals in the UAB cohort carries a p.Met1149 missense variant, this finding will contribute to more accurate stratification of a significant number of NF1 individuals. Although clinically relevant genotype-phenotype correlations are rare in NF1, each affecting only a small percentage of individuals, together they impact counseling and management of a significant number of the NF1 population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6973139PMC
January 2020

Loss-of-function mutations in Lysyl-tRNA synthetase cause various leukoencephalopathy phenotypes.

Neurol Genet 2019 Apr 18;5(2):e565. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Neurology (C.S., J.S., C.Z., J. Lu, J.X., S. Luo, J. Lin), Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Baylor Genetic Laboratories (Y.J., Z.N., M.L.L., M.W., R.E.P., H.M., Y.Y.), Houston, TX; Department of Radiology (Y.L.), Huashan Hospital, Fudan University; Department of Pathology (Y.W., M.G.), Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (M.L., K.D., Y.-M.H.), Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA; Department of Human Genetics (S.N.O., A.A.), University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI; Department of Pediatrics and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (S.L.), University of Hawaii School of Medicine, Honolulu, HI; Department of Medical Oncology and Therapeutics Research (T.P.S.), Division of Clinical Cancer Genetics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA; Department of Molecular and Human Genetics (P.L.M., A.L.M., L.E., S.R.L., Z.N., M.L.L., J.A.R., M.W., R.E.P., H.M., J.A.R., Y.Y., V.W.Z.), Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; and AmCare Genomics Lab (V.W.Z.), Guangzhou, China.

Objective: To expand the clinical spectrum of lysyl-tRNA synthetase () gene-related diseases, which so far includes Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, congenital visual impairment and microcephaly, and nonsyndromic hearing impairment.

Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed on index patients from 4 unrelated families with leukoencephalopathy. Candidate pathogenic variants and their cosegregation were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Effects of mutations on KARS protein function were examined by aminoacylation assays and yeast complementation assays.

Results: Common clinical features of the patients in this study included impaired cognitive ability, seizure, hypotonia, ataxia, and abnormal brain imaging, suggesting that the CNS involvement is the main clinical presentation. Six previously unreported and 1 known mutations were identified and cosegregated in these families. Two patients are compound heterozygous for missense mutations, 1 patient is homozygous for a missense mutation, and 1 patient harbored an insertion mutation and a missense mutation. Functional and structural analyses revealed that these mutations impair aminoacylation activity of lysyl-tRNA synthetase, indicating that defective KARS function is responsible for the phenotypes in these individuals.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that patients with loss-of-function mutations can manifest CNS disorders, thus broadening the phenotypic spectrum associated with KARS-related disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXG.0000000000000316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6515944PMC
April 2019

Biallelic loss-of-function P4HTM gene variants cause hypotonia, hypoventilation, intellectual disability, dysautonomia, epilepsy, and eye abnormalities (HIDEA syndrome).

Genet Med 2019 10 3;21(10):2355-2363. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

PEDEGO Research Unit and Medical Research Centre Oulu, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.

Purpose: A new syndrome with hypotonia, intellectual disability, and eye abnormalities (HIDEA) was previously described in a large consanguineous family. Linkage analysis identified the recessive disease locus, and genome sequencing yielded three candidate genes with potentially pathogenic biallelic variants: transketolase (TKT), transmembrane prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4HTM), and ubiquitin specific peptidase 4 (USP4). However, the causative gene remained elusive.

Methods: International collaboration and exome sequencing were used to identify new patients with HIDEA and biallelic, potentially pathogenic, P4HTM variants. Segregation analysis was performed using Sanger sequencing. P4H-TM wild-type and variant constructs without the transmembrane region were overexpressed in insect cells and analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot.

Results: Five different homozygous or compound heterozygous pathogenic P4HTM gene variants were identified in six new and six previously published patients presenting with HIDEA. Hypoventilation, obstructive and central sleep apnea, and dysautonomia were identified as novel features associated with the phenotype. Characterization of three of the P4H-TM variants demonstrated yielding insoluble protein products and, thus, loss-of-function.

Conclusions: Biallelic loss-of-function P4HTM variants were shown to cause HIDEA syndrome. Our findings enable diagnosis of the condition, and highlight the importance of assessing the need for noninvasive ventilatory support in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0503-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6774999PMC
October 2019

De novo and inherited TCF20 pathogenic variants are associated with intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, hypotonia, and neurological impairments with similarities to Smith-Magenis syndrome.

Genome Med 2019 02 28;11(1):12. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Centre de Génétique Humaine, Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon, France.

Background: Neurodevelopmental disorders are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous encompassing developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), structural brain abnormalities, and neurological manifestations with variants in a large number of genes (hundreds) associated. To date, a few de novo mutations potentially disrupting TCF20 function in patients with ID, ASD, and hypotonia have been reported. TCF20 encodes a transcriptional co-regulator structurally related to RAI1, the dosage-sensitive gene responsible for Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion/haploinsufficiency) and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (duplication/triplosensitivity).

Methods: Genome-wide analyses by exome sequencing (ES) and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) identified individuals with heterozygous, likely damaging, loss-of-function alleles in TCF20. We implemented further molecular and clinical analyses to determine the inheritance of the pathogenic variant alleles and studied the spectrum of phenotypes.

Results: We report 25 unique inactivating single nucleotide variants/indels (1 missense, 1 canonical splice-site variant, 18 frameshift, and 5 nonsense) and 4 deletions of TCF20. The pathogenic variants were detected in 32 patients and 4 affected parents from 31 unrelated families. Among cases with available parental samples, the variants were de novo in 20 instances and inherited from 4 symptomatic parents in 5, including in one set of monozygotic twins. Two pathogenic loss-of-function variants were recurrent in unrelated families. Patients presented with a phenotype characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, variable dysmorphic features, movement disorders, and sleep disturbances.

Conclusions: TCF20 pathogenic variants are associated with a novel syndrome manifesting clinical characteristics similar to those observed in Smith-Magenis syndrome. Together with previously described cases, the clinical entity of TCF20-associated neurodevelopmental disorders (TAND) emerges from a genotype-driven perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13073-019-0623-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6393995PMC
February 2019

ZMIZ1 Variants Cause a Syndromic Neurodevelopmental Disorder.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 02 10;104(2):319-330. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Cook Children's Medical Center, Fort Worth, TX 76102, USA.

ZMIZ1 is a coactivator of several transcription factors, including p53, the androgen receptor, and NOTCH1. Here, we report 19 subjects with intellectual disability and developmental delay carrying variants in ZMIZ1. The associated features include growth failure, feeding difficulties, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, and various other congenital malformations. Of these 19, 14 unrelated subjects carried de novo heterozygous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) or single-base insertions/deletions, 3 siblings harbored a heterozygous single-base insertion, and 2 subjects had a balanced translocation disrupting ZMIZ1 or involving a regulatory region of ZMIZ1. In total, we identified 13 point mutations that affect key protein regions, including a SUMO acceptor site, a central disordered alanine-rich motif, a proline-rich domain, and a transactivation domain. All identified variants were absent from all available exome and genome databases. In vitro, ZMIZ1 showed impaired coactivation of the androgen receptor. In vivo, overexpression of ZMIZ1 mutant alleles in developing mouse brains using in utero electroporation resulted in abnormal pyramidal neuron morphology, polarization, and positioning, underscoring the importance of ZMIZ1 in neural development and supporting mutations in ZMIZ1 as the cause of a rare neurodevelopmental syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.12.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369415PMC
February 2019

Pneumoparotitis.

Clin Exp Emerg Med 2018 Dec 31;5(4):282-285. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Otolaryngology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA.

The objective is to review a case of pneumoparotitis and to discuss how knowledge of this unique presentation is important when making differential diagnoses in emergency medicine. A patient with recurrent subcutaneous emphysema of the head and neck is reviewed. Stenson's duct demonstrated purulent discharge. Physical examination revealed palpable crepitance of the head and neck. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy and barium esophagram were normal. Computed tomography demonstrated left pneumoparotitis and subcutaneous emphysema from the scalp to the clavicles. This is an unusual presentation of pneumoparotitis and malingering. Emergency physicians should be aware of pneumoparotitis and its presentation when creating a differential diagnosis for pneumomediastinum, which includes more life-threatening diagnoses such as airway or esophageal injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15441/ceem.17.291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6301857PMC
December 2018

Expanding the clinical phenotype of individuals with a 3-bp in-frame deletion of the NF1 gene (c.2970_2972del): an update of genotype-phenotype correlation.

Genet Med 2019 04 7;21(4):867-876. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Department of Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Purpose: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is characterized by a highly variable clinical presentation, but almost all NF1-affected adults present with cutaneous and/or subcutaneous neurofibromas. Exceptions are individuals heterozygous for the NF1 in-frame deletion, c.2970_2972del (p.Met992del), associated with a mild phenotype without any externally visible tumors.

Methods: A total of 135 individuals from 103 unrelated families, all carrying the constitutional NF1 p.Met992del pathogenic variant and clinically assessed using the same standardized phenotypic checklist form, were included in this study.

Results: None of the individuals had externally visible plexiform or histopathologically confirmed cutaneous or subcutaneous neurofibromas. We did not identify any complications, such as symptomatic optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) or symptomatic spinal neurofibromas; however, 4.8% of individuals had nonoptic brain tumors, mostly low-grade and asymptomatic, and 38.8% had cognitive impairment/learning disabilities. In an individual with the NF1 constitutional c.2970_2972del and three astrocytomas, we provided proof that all were NF1-associated tumors given loss of heterozygosity at three intragenic NF1 microsatellite markers and c.2970_2972del.

Conclusion: We demonstrate that individuals with the NF1 p.Met992del pathogenic variant have a mild NF1 phenotype lacking clinically suspected plexiform, cutaneous, or subcutaneous neurofibromas. However, learning difficulties are clearly part of the phenotypic presentation in these individuals and will require specialized care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0269-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752285PMC
April 2019

De Novo Missense Variants in TRAF7 Cause Developmental Delay, Congenital Anomalies, and Dysmorphic Features.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 07 28;103(1):154-162. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Baylor Genetics, Houston, TX 77021, USA.

TRAF7 is a multi-functional protein involved in diverse signaling pathways and cellular processes. The phenotypic consequence of germline TRAF7 variants remains unclear. Here we report missense variants in TRAF7 in seven unrelated individuals referred for clinical exome sequencing. The seven individuals share substantial phenotypic overlap, with developmental delay, congenital heart defects, limb and digital anomalies, and dysmorphic features emerging as key unifying features. The identified variants are de novo in six individuals and comprise four distinct missense changes, including a c.1964G>A (p.Arg655Gln) variant that is recurrent in four individuals. These variants affect evolutionarily conserved amino acids and are located in key functional domains. Gene-specific mutation rate analysis showed that the occurrence of the de novo variants in TRAF7 (p = 2.6 × 10) and the recurrent de novo c.1964G>A (p.Arg655Gln) variant (p = 1.9 × 10) in our exome cohort was unlikely to have occurred by chance. In vitro analyses of the observed TRAF7 mutations showed reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that missense mutations in TRAF7 are associated with a multisystem disorder and provide evidence of a role for TRAF7 in human development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.06.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6035372PMC
July 2018

Iatrogenic pneumothorax during hypoglossal nerve stimulator implantation.

Am J Otolaryngol 2018 Sep - Oct;39(5):636-638. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Department of Otolaryngology and Communicative Sciences, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA.

Hypoglossal nerve stimulation is a promising new treatment for patients with obstructive sleep apnea. In the initial Stimulation Therapy for Apnea Reduction Trial, the overall rate of serious adverse events was <2% and no cases of pneumothorax were reported. We present the case of an iatrogenic pneumothorax during placement of the chest sensor lead between the intercostal muscles. Following clinical and radiological evaluation, surgery was continued and the patient was treated expectantly. In the following review, we discuss pathophysiology, diagnosis, and expected outcomes. Surgeons placing hypoglossal nerve stimulators should be aware of complications and prepared to manage a pneumothorax.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2018.06.014DOI Listing
January 2019

Congenital hyperinsulinism as the presenting feature of Kabuki syndrome: clinical and molecular characterization of 9 affected individuals.

Genet Med 2019 01 15;21(1):233-242. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago Genetic Services Laboratory, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Purpose: Describe the clinical and molecular findings of patients with Kabuki syndrome (KS) who present with hypoglycemia due to congenital hyperinsulinism (HI), and assess the incidence of KS in patients with HI.

Methods: We documented the clinical features and molecular diagnoses of 9 infants with persistent HI and KS via a combination of sequencing and copy-number profiling methodologies. Subsequently, we retrospectively evaluated 100 infants with HI lacking a genetic diagnosis, for causative variants in KS genes.

Results: Molecular diagnoses of KS were established by identification of pathogenic variants in KMT2D (n = 5) and KDM6A (n = 4). Among the 100 infants with HI of unknown genetic etiology, a KS diagnosis was uncovered in one patient.

Conclusions: The incidence of HI among patients with KS may be higher than previously reported, and KS may account for as much as 1% of patients diagnosed with HI. As the recognition of dysmorphic features associated with KS is challenging in the neonatal period, we propose KS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of HI. Since HI in patients with KS is well managed medically, a timely recognition of hyperinsulinemic episodes will improve outcomes, and prevent aggravation of the preexisting mild to moderate intellectual disability in KS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0013-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7597849PMC
January 2019
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