Publications by authors named "Andrea Held"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Exoscope as a Teaching Tool: A Narrative Review of the Literature.

Front Surg 2022 26;9:878293. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milan Bicocca, Milan, Italy.

Recently, the emergence of the three-dimensional (3D) exoscope has proven to be a viable alternative to the operative microscope (OM) as a novel workhorse of microneurosurgical procedures. Through its current iteration, the 3D exoscope has been demonstrated to be at least equivalent to the operative microscope in terms of surgical outcomes in many settings. With its superior ergonomics and simplicity of use, the 3D exoscope has been shown in multiple studies to be a powerful visualizing tool during surgical procedures. Moreover, the exoscopic systems, through their current iterations and by means of a high-resolution 3D monitor and 3D glasses, have allowed all participants present in the operative room to attain an unprecedented level of intraoperative visualization of anatomical structures and surgical maneuvers which are traditionally available only to the first operator. Although long-term data are still lacking regarding its future as a replacement of the OM, the 3D exoscope has revealed itself as an intense subject of discussion in neurosurgery regarding its implication for surgical education, especially for residents and junior neurosurgeons. This article is a review of the current state of the literature on the role of the exoscope in surgical education, underlining its strength as a learning tool and its potential future implications in terms of surgical education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2022.878293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9086489PMC
April 2022

Intraoperative MRI versus intraoperative ultrasound in pediatric brain tumor surgery: is expensive better than cheap? A review of the literature.

Childs Nerv Syst 2022 Aug 5;38(8):1445-1454. Epub 2022 May 5.

Pediatric Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: The extent of brain tumor resection (EOR) is a fundamental prognostic factor in pediatric neuro-oncology in association with the histology. In general, resection aims at gross total resection (GTR). Intraoperative imaging like intraoperative US (iOUS) and MRI have been developed in order to find any tumoral remnant but with different costs. Aim of our work is to review the current literature in order to better understand the differences between costs and efficacy of MRI and iOUS to evaluate tumor remnants intraoperatively.

Methods: We reviewed the existing literature on PubMed until 31st December 2021 including the sequential keywords "intraoperative ultrasound and pediatric brain tumors", "iUS and pediatric brain tumors", "intraoperative magnetic resonance AND pediatric brain tumors", and "intraoperative MRI AND pediatric brain tumors.

Results: A total of 300 papers were screened through analysis of title and abstract; 254 were excluded. After selection, a total of 23 articles were used for this systematic review. Among the 929 patients described, a total of 349(38%) of the cases required an additional resection after an iMRI scan. GTR was measured on 794 patients (data of 69 patients lost), and it was achieved in 552(70%) patients. In case of iOUS, GTR was estimated in 291 out of 379 (77%) cases. This finding was confirmed at the post-operative MRI in 256(68%) cases.

Conclusions: The analysis of the available literature demonstrates that expensive equipment does not always mean better. In fact, for the majority of pediatric brain tumors, iOUS is comparable to iMRI in estimating the EOR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-022-05545-0DOI Listing
August 2022

Preparation of a reference material for microplastics in water-evaluation of homogeneity.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2022 Jan 6;414(1):385-397. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), 2440, Geel, Belgium.

Validation of analytical methods for measurements of microplastics (MP) is severely hampered because of a general lack of reference materials, RM. There is a great need to develop such reference materials. This study presents a concept of three-component kit with immobilised MP in solid NaCl, a surfactant and clean water that can be applied for the production of many types of MP RMs. As proof of concept, an RM for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) particles in water was prepared and evaluated for its homogeneity. The particles ranged from 30 μm (Feret) to about 200 μm adapted by wet sieving. A specific number of PET particles were immobilized in about 0.29 g of solid NaCl by freeze-drying 1 mL of a NaCl suspension. By using manual and automated counting, twenty reconstituted 1-L water samples were evaluated for homogeneity with respect to number of PET particles from 30 μm to > 200 μm/L of water. The number of particles was 730 ± 120 (mean ± one standard deviation (SD); n = 10) and 865 ± 155 particles (n = 10) obtained by optical microscopy in two independent laboratories. This corresponded to relative SDs of 16.4 and 17.9% and a mean of 797 ± 151 particles (18.9% RSD, for n = 20). Homogeneity studies of the NaCl carrier without reconstitution resulted in 794 ± 60 particles (7.5% RSD). The homogeneity of PET in the salt carrier was also evaluated directly with respect to mass of PET per vial using an ultra-micro balance. An average mass of 293 ± 41 μg of PET was obtained (14, % RSD for n = 14). Micrographs were recorded to demonstrate the absence of major sources of contamination of the RM components. Information about the particle size distribution and particle shapes was obtained by laser diffraction (LD) and dynamic image analysis (DIA). In addition, the identity of the PET polymer was confirmed by Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. The RM was developed for a large-scale inter-laboratory comparison of PET particles in water (ILC). Based on the homogeneity results, the material was found to be sufficiently homogeneous to be of meaningful use in the ILC. In a 3-day process, more than 500 samples of PET particles in the NaCl carrier were prepared with good potential for further upscaling with respect to the number of vials or with other kinds of polymers. The stability of PET was not evaluated but it was deemed to be stable for the duration of the ILC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03198-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8748356PMC
January 2022

A new certified reference material for size and shape analysis of nanorods using electron microscopy.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Jan 13;413(1):141-157. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), 2440, Geel, Belgium.

A new certified reference material (CRM) for size and shape analysis of elongated nanoparticles has been developed by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre. The CRM consists of titanium dioxide nanorods dispersed in 1-butanol, was coded ERM-FD103 and has been certified for different electron microscopy-based operationally defined measurands such as the modal and median values of the particle number-weighted distributions of the minimum and maximum Feret diameter, the maximum inscribed circle diameter, the area-equivalent circular diameter and the aspect ratio. The nanorods have nominal dimensions of 15 nm in width and 55 nm in length. Homogeneity and stability measurements were performed using transmission electron microscopy. The relative standard uncertainty for homogeneity ranged from 0.3 to 1.7%. No significant instability was detected for a shelf life of 18 months and a storage temperature of 18 °C. The certified values have been determined from the results of an interlaboratory comparison in which qualified expert laboratories participated with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The certified values are traceable to the unit of length in the International System of Units, the metre, and the relative expanded uncertainties (confidence level of approximately 95%) range from 4 to 6%. These properties allow the CRM to be used for quality assurance and calibration of electron microscopy methods for nanoparticle size and shape analysis in ranges relevant for the implementation of EU legislation related to nanomaterials. The presented study discusses the purpose and results of the different steps that were followed to turn an industrially relevant raw titanium dioxide nanorod material into a fit-for-purpose CRM.Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-020-02984-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801322PMC
January 2021

Preparation of a PM-like reference material in sufficient quantities for accurate monitoring of anions and cations in fine atmospheric dust.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2017 Dec 2;409(30):7121-7131. Epub 2017 Oct 2.

European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Retieseweg 111, 2440, Geel, Belgium.

A reference material of a PM-like atmospheric dust material has been prepared using a newly developed method. It is intended to certify values for the mass fraction of SO, NO, Cl (anions) and Na, K, NH, Ca, Mg (cations) in this material. A successful route for the preparation of the candidate reference material is described alongside with two alternative approaches that were abandoned. First, a PM-like suspension was allowed to stand for 72 h. Next, 90% of the volume was siphoned off. The suspension was spiked with appropriate levels of the desired ions just prior to drop-wise shock-freezing in liquid nitrogen. Finally, freeze drying of the resulting ice kernels took place. In using this approach, it was possible to produce about 500 g of PM-like material with appropriate characteristics. Fine dust in 150-mg portions was filled into vials under an inert atmosphere. The final candidate material approaches the EN12341 standard of a PM-material containing the ions mentioned in Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Union. The material should be analysed using the CEN/TR 16269:2011 method for anions and cations in PM collected on filters. The method described here is a relatively rapid means to obtain large quantities of PM. With access to smaller freeze dryers, still 5 to 10 g per freeze-drying cycle can be obtained. Access to such quantities of PM-like material could potentially be used for different kinds of experiments when performing research in this field. Graphical abstract The novelty of the method lies in transformation of a suspension with fine particulate matter to a homogeneous and stable powder with characteristics similar to air-sampled PM. The high material yield in a relatively short time is a distinct advantage in comparison with collection of air-sampled PM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-017-0670-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5717123PMC
December 2017

Comparison of total and extractability of heavy metals in sewage sludge: The case study of a certified reference material.

Trends Analyt Chem 2017 04;89:34-40

European Commission Joint Research Centre, Directorate F - Health, Consumers and Reference Materials, Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel, Belgium.

A number of different digestion methods, including extraction following two ISO guides were used in an inter-laboratory comparison study. The results obtained showed comparable values for the total and extractable content of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn, while Cd, Co and Cr results were about 10% lower when was employed. This small difference was covered by the between-laboratory relative standard deviation of the measurements; therefore in this study no difference in the extraction of the elements by the employed methods was found. The high organic matter content, together with low SiO and refractory aluminium and iron oxide amount as well as the small particle size of the sewage sludge material was reputed to have an effect on the extracting capacity of a weaker solvent such as , bringing its results close to the total content ones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2017.01.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5380651PMC
April 2017

Addressing Analytical Challenges of the Environmental Monitoring for the Water Framework Directive: ERM-CE100, a New Biota Certified Reference Material.

Anal Chem 2017 02 3;89(4):2514-2521. Epub 2017 Feb 3.

European Commission, Joint Research Centre , Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel, Belgium.

In the context of supporting the EU Member States in the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), a project for the production of a fish reference material (ERM-CE100) certified for its content of the two priority substances hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) was carried out at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission. The starting material was naturally contaminated Wels catfish (Silurus glanis), caught in the Ebro River (Spain). A novel approach for the processing of the fish was tested that resulted in a homogeneous and stable reference material in the form of a wet paste. The fresh-like texture of the matrix enhances the comparability of this material toward routinely analyzed environmental biota samples and facilitates its use as a quality assurance tool given that the WFD environmental quality standards (EQS) for biota are expressed as wet weight. Certified values for the mass fractions of HCB and HCBD were assigned with 120 ± 8 and 36 ± 4 μg/kg, respectively. The related interlaboratory comparison involved 13 expert laboratories applying a range of analytical methodologies. It is the first biota CRM ever available for HCBD. ERM-CE100 can be used to assess the performance of analytical methods employed in the mandatory monitoring of water bodies under the WFD, thus, providing a benchmark for establishing comparability among measurement results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.6b04682DOI Listing
February 2017

Development and validation of a method for mercury determination in seawater for the process control of a candidate certified reference material.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2015 Aug 23;407(21):6569-74. Epub 2015 Jun 23.

European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, 2440, Geel, Belgium.

A simple, robust and reliable method for mercury determination in seawater matrices based on the combination of cold vapour generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CV-ICP-MS) and its complete in-house validation are described. The method validation covers parameters such as linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), trueness, repeatability, intermediate precision and robustness. A calibration curve covering the whole working range was achieved with coefficients of determination typically higher than 0.9992. The repeatability of the method (RSDrep) was 0.5 %, and the intermediate precision was 2.3 % at the target mass fraction of 20 ng/kg. Moreover, the method was robust with respect to the salinity of the seawater. The limit of quantification was 2.7 ng/kg, which corresponds to 13.5 % of the target mass fraction in the future certified reference material (20 ng/kg). An uncertainty budget for the measurement of mercury in seawater has been established. The relative expanded (k = 2) combined uncertainty is 6 %. The performance of the validated method was demonstrated by generating results for process control and a homogeneity study for the production of a candidate certified reference material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-015-8833-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4516897PMC
August 2015

On-line hydrogenation of biodiesel-Toward a reference method for the determination of glycerides and total glycerol.

J Chromatogr A 2014 Apr 21;1338:127-35. Epub 2014 Feb 21.

Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Joint Research Centre (JRC) European Commission (EC), Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel, Belgium.

A reliable method with ensured traceability of the measurement results for free and bound glycerol (as monoacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and triacylglyerides) in biodiesel was developed, giving results beyond the state of the art of the current standard methodologies. The proposed method is based on an on-line hydrogenation using gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection and hydrogen as carrier gas. After sample introduction the hydrogenation takes place on a fused silica pre-column coated with a palladium catalyst. This approach allows an immediate and reliable hydrogenation of vegetable oils and biodiesels from different feedstocks. All glycerides are converted into their saturated analogues, resulting in simplified chromatograms with structurally clearly defined analytes, and increased sensitivity for trace amounts of compounds. The method has been successfully in-house validated and combined uncertainty values have been assigned to the final results, which were less than 8% for free glycerol, the sum of monoacylglycerides, the sum of diacylglycerides and the sum of triacylglycerides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2014.02.040DOI Listing
April 2014

Full method validation for the determination of hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorobutadiene in fish tissue by GC-IDMS.

Talanta 2013 Nov 14;116:251-8. Epub 2013 May 14.

European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel, Belgium.

This paper summarizes the validation strategy and the results obtained for the simultaneous determination of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) in fish tissue with a maximum of about 10% m/m fat content using a GC-IDMS technique. The method is applicable for the determination of HCB and HCBD at trace levels in different kinds of fish tissue samples in accordance with the requirements of the EU Directive 2008/105/EC establishing Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) levels for biota in aquatic ecosystems (10 ng/g for HCB and 55 ng/g for HCBD). The method validation aimed to assess performance parameters such as linearity, limit of detection/limit of quantification (LOD/LOQ), trueness, selectivity, intermediate precision, repeatability, stability of the extracts and robustness. The validation experiments have been performed by using uncontaminated fish tissue. Trueness was evaluated by using a certified reference material (NIST SRM 1947) (where applicable) and by the standard addition method. Very good linear signal-concentration curves were obtained for both analytes over the whole range of calibration. The repeatability and the intermediate precision of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) and calculated at the EQS level, were estimated to be below 3% both for HCB and HCBD. The limits of quantification were 3.7 ng/g for HCB and 15.7 ng/g for HCBD in the fish. An uncertainty budget for the measurement of both HCB and HCBD in fish at about the EQS levels, applying the described method, has been established in the order of 10%. The analytical method and its performance characteristics take into account the requirements of EU Directive 2009/90/EC regarding the establishment of minimum performance criteria for the methods of analysis to be used in the water monitoring activity of the Water Framework Directive. Finally, the validated method was successfully tested on contaminated Silurus glanis from Ebro River (Spain). The method will be used in the homogeneity, stability and interlaboratory comparison studies for the characterization of a new candidate certified reference material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2013.04.080DOI Listing
November 2013

Analysis of short-chain chlorinated paraffins: a discussion paper.

J Environ Monit 2007 Sep 26;9(9):924-30. Epub 2007 Jul 26.

European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel, Belgium.

Short-chain chlorinated paraffins are a class of organic compounds widely used in many industrial applications, extensively diffused into the environment, persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic towards aquatic organisms. However, their study and monitoring in the environment are still limited. Because of the enormous number of positional isomers that characterise their mixtures, the analysis of this class of pollutants is very difficult to perform. Beside this, the lack of certified reference materials poses a problem for the assessment of the quality assurance/quality control of any analytical procedure. At present, the scientific community does not agree on any analytical reference method, although the monitoring of short-chain chlorinated paraffins has already started in order to comply with the Water Framework Directive of the European Union on water quality. In this paper the regulatory framework, in which chlorinated paraffins are included, and the status concerning their determination are summarized. The main analytical difficulties still existing are discussed, and the definition of a method-defined parameter as well as the development of a standardised method are suggested as a way to obtain comparable monitoring data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b710053aDOI Listing
September 2007
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