Publications by authors named "Andrea E Balazs"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

McCune-Albright Syndrome With Unremitting Hyperthyroidism at Early Age: Management Perspective for Early Thyroidectomy.

Glob Pediatr Health 2019 9;6:2333794X19875153. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

. McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is characterized by hyperpigmented macules, endocrinopathies, and fibrous dysplasia. Hyperthyroidism is the second most common endocrinopathy in MAS and its management is challenging, particularly among infants and toddlers. Traditionally, young infants have been treated with antithyroid medications, but remission is likely and these medications have severe side effects and affect the control of other endocrinopathies. Thus, it is reasonable to consider permanent treatment options at an earlier age. In this article, we performed a retrospective chart review and describe 3 children who underwent thyroidectomy at an early age due to complex presentation. . Case 1 was a female patient who underwent bilateral adrenalectomy due to adrenal hyperplasia and subsequently underwent thyroidectomy at 5 months of age due to unremitting hyperthyroidism with fibrous dysplasia, multiple fractures, and ovarian cysts with vaginal bleeding. Case 2 was a 20-month-old female on methimazole who acquired influenza A, precipitating a thyroid storm, and subsequently developed central precocious puberty. Case 3 was a 4-year-old female who underwent thyroidectomy because of unremitting hyperthyroidism after methimazole cessation due to declining neutrophils. All 3 children experienced no complications from thyroidectomy. . Early thyroidectomy by an experienced surgeon is an option for managing MAS-associated hyperthyroidism, even in very young patients, with excellent results.
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September 2019

Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticotropin-releasing hormone co-secreting tumors in children and adolescents causing cushing syndrome: a diagnostic dilemma and how to solve it.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015 Jan;100(1):141-8

Section on Endocrinology and Genetics (A.S.K., J.B., M.F.K., C.L., M.B.L., C.A.S.), Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; Section of Radiology and Imaging Sciences (G.Z.P., N.J.P.), Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; Laboratory of Pathology (M.M.Q., M.M.), Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; Thoracic and Gastrointestinal Oncology Branch (D.S.S.), Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; Endocrine Oncology Branch (E.K.), Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; Randall Children's Hospital at Legacy Emanuel (M.K.H.), Children's Diabetes and Endocrine Center, Portland, Oregon 97227; Department of Pediatrics (M.R.A., L.P.K., A.E.B.), Section of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030.

Context: Ectopic ACTH/CRH syndrome is a rare cause of Cushing syndrome (CS), especially in children. The localization, work-up, and management of ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors are discussed.

Setting: A retrospective study was conducted of patients under 21 years of age evaluated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for CS and diagnosed with ectopic ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors during the period 2009-2014.

Patients: Seven patients with ectopic ACTH/CRH CS are included in this study with a median age 13.6 years (range 1-21), and 3 are female.

Measurements: Clinical, biochemical, radiological features, treatment, and histological findings are described.

Results: Seven patients were found to have ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors, all with neuroendocrine features. The site of the primary lesion varied: pancreas (3), thymus (2), liver (1), right lower pulmonary lobe (1). PATIENTS underwent biochemical evaluation for CS, including diurnal serum cortisol and ACTH levels, urinary free cortisol levels (UFC), and CRH stimulation tests. All patients underwent radiological investigations including MRI, CT, and PET scan; imaging with octreotide and 68 gallium DOTATATE scans were performed in individual cases. Five patients underwent inferior petrosal sinus sampling; 4 patients had sampling for ACTH and CRH levels from additional sites. Three patients underwent trans-sphenoidal surgery (TSS), and 3 patients required bilateral adrenalectomy. Three patients (43%) died due to metastatic disease, demonstrating the high mortality rate. One of the unique findings in these seven patients is that in each case, their neuroendocrine tumors were ultimately proven to be co-secreting ACTH and CRH. This explains the enigmatic presentation, in which 3 patients initially thought to have Cushing's disease (CD) with corresponding pituitary hyperplasia underwent TSS prior to the correct localization of the causative tumor.

Conclusions: Ectopic ACTH/CRH co-secreting tumors are extremely rare in children and adolescents. The diagnosis of this condition is frequently missed and is sometimes confused with CD due to the effect of CRH on the pituitary.
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January 2015

Early onset obesity and adrenal insufficiency associated with a homozygous POMC mutation.

Int J Pediatr Endocrinol 2011 6;2011(1). Epub 2011 Jul 6.

Endocrinology section-Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Isolated hypocortisolism due to ACTH deficiency is a rare condition that can be caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding proopiomelanocortin (POMC). Loss of function mutations of POMC gene typically results in adrenal insufficiency, obesity and red hair. We describe an 18 month old Hispanic female with congenital adrenal insufficiency, a novel POMC mutation and atypical clinical features. The patient presented at the age of 9 months with hypoglycemia and the endocrine evaluation resulted in a diagnosis of ACTH deficiency. She developed extreme weight gain prompting sequence analysis of POMC, which revealed a homozygous c.231C > A change which is predicted to result in a premature termination codon. The case we report had obesity, hypocortisolism but lacked red hair which is typical for subjects with POMC mutations. Mutations of POMC should be considered in individuals with severe early onset obesity and adrenal insufficiency even when they lack the typical pigmentary phenotype.
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November 2011

Rapid resolution of consumptive hypothyroidism in a child with hepatic hemangioendothelioma following liver transplantation.

Ann Clin Lab Sci 2007 ;37(3):280-4

Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

We report a unique case of a 3-mo-old female with consumptive hypothyroidism and liver hemangioendothelioma who required pharmacological doses of thyroid hormones and was cured following liver transplantation. Liver hemangioendotheliomas are capable of producing an excess of the thyroid hormone inactivating enzyme, type-3 iodothyronine deiodinase. The increased tumoral enzyme activity leads to rapid degradation of thyroid hormones, resulting in consumptive hypothyroidism. Review of similar cases indicated variable outcomes. We focus on our patient's clinical course and describe in detail the thyroid hormone replacement therapy and a unique outcome of this rare type of hypothyroidism. This first example of a prompt and complete resolution of consumptive hypothyroidism in an infant after liver transplantation confirms the concept and the reversibility of consumptive hypothyroidism and provides novel insights into the rapidity of response of the infant's hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis to thyroid hormone replacement.
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October 2007