Publications by authors named "Andrea Di Lenarda"

273 Publications

Post-discharge antithrombotic management and clinical outcomes of patients with new-onset or pre-existing atrial fibrillation and acute coronary syndromes undergoing coronary stenting: Follow-up data of the MATADOR-PCI study.

Eur J Intern Med 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Cardiology, Garibaldi-Nesima Hospital, Azienda di Rilievo Nazionale e Alta Specializzazione "Garibaldi", Catania, Italy.

Background: . Patients with concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF) and acute coronary syndromes (ACS) do not seem to receive proper antithrombotic therapies and present high rates of adverse clinical events.

Methods: . We analyzed the follow-up data of the prospective, nationwide MATADOR-PCI registry. We assessed the use of antithrombotic strategies and the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and net adverse clinical events (NACE) at 6 months, in patients with new-onset or pre-existing AF admitted for ACS and treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Results: . Out of the 588 patients enrolled in the registry and discharged alive (287 with pre-existing and 301 with new-onset AF), data at 6 months were obtained for 579 (98.5%) patients. Compared to hospital discharge, the rate of triple antithrombotic therapy was significantly reduced (from 76.4% to 23.6% and from 53.8% to 23.6%; both p<0.0001) while dual antithrombotic therapy (DAT) increased (from 11.8% to 56.3% and from 5.8% to 30.9%; both p<0.0001) at follow-up, in patients with pre-existing and new-onset AF, respectively. Among patients with a class IA indication to receive oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT), it was prescribed in 91% and 88% of patients with pre-existing and 64% and 62% of new-onset AF, at discharge and follow-up, respectively. At 6 months from discharge the overall rate of MACE was 8.4% and 7.6% (p=0.75), while NACE occurred in 10.8% vs 10.0% (p=0.74) of patients with pre-existing or new-onset AF, respectively.

Conclusions: . At follow-up, DAT was the most used antithrombotic strategy for both patients with pre-existing and new-onset AF with concomitant ACS. These two groups of patients presented comparable rates of MACE and NACE at 6 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2021.03.029DOI Listing
April 2021

Indirect comparison between ferric carboxymaltose and oral iron replacement in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: a network meta-analysis.

Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Cardiovascular Center, University Hospital and Health Services of Trieste.

Treatment of iron deficiency (ID) in patients with heart failure (HF) has improved symptoms, quality of life, exercise capacity and has reduced hospitalizations in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) provided convincing results in this field, while oral iron supplementation failed. However, FCM and oral iron were compared to placebo, and a comparison between the two strategies is still lacking. We aimed to fill this gap of knowledge with an indirect comparison between them by means of a network meta-analysis of RCTs. Five studies measuring exercise capacity (i.e. 6-minute walking test) and quality of life (i.e. Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire) were eligible to be included in our review. Given the limitations of a network meta-analysis, our findings support the better efficacy of FCM than oral iron as regards exercise capacity, with a trend towards an improvement in quality of life, suggesting that FCM seems to be strategy of choice to correct ID in HF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2021.1703DOI Listing
March 2021

[Integrated social and health care supported by home telemonitoring in patients with heart failure: the European SmartCare project in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region].

G Ital Cardiol (Rome) 2021 Mar;22(3):221-232

S.C. Cardiovascolare e Medicina dello Sport, Ospedale Maggiore di Trieste, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Giuliano Isontina.

Background: Home care for patients with chronic diseases and specifically with heart failure (HF) is one of the main challenges of health care for the future. Telemedicine, applied to HF, allows intensive home monitoring of the most advanced patients, improving their prognosis and quality of life. The European SmartCare project was carried out in the Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG) region with the aim of improving integrated health and social care in patients with chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) through home telemonitoring (TM) and promoting self-management and patient empowerment.

Methods: The SmartCare project in FVG was a prospective, randomized and controlled cohort study that enrolled, from November 2014 to February 2016, 201 patients in integrated home care ("usual care" [UC] in our study) to TM (n=100) or UC (n=101). Inclusion criteria were age >50 years, at least 1 CNCD (HF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or diabetes) and 1 missing BADL. There were 19 drop-outs (9%) (12 in the TM arm; 7 in the UC arm; p=NS). All patients were followed by a multiprofessional team and stratified in the short-term pathway (3-6 months; average 4 ± 1 months; n=101), enrolled at discharge from hospitalization, or in the long-term pathway (6-12 months; mean 10 ± 3 months; n=100) for frail/chronic patients already followed in home care.

Results: The most frequent main diagnosis was HF (n=108, 54%), followed by diabetes (30%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (16%). A Charlson score ≥3 was present in 75% of cases and over 60% were taking at least 7 drugs. Among the social characteristics of the enrolled population, 55% were living alone or with non-familial caregivers, 62% had primary education and 48% were non-self-sufficient. The days of hospitalization were significantly reduced only in the TM arm of the post-acute pathway (20 days of hospitalization avoided for 10 patient-months of follow-up, p=0.03) and the effect was mainly evident in patients with HF (p=0.02). A significant increase in the number of home accesses and telephone contacts were also documented in the TM group (12.7 and 13.7 more home interventions for 10 patient-months of follow-up; p=0.01 and p=0.002 in the post-acute and chronic pathway, respectively).

Conclusions: The SmartCare-FVG project showed in patients with chronic diseases (mainly HF), in the post-acute phase of the disease, to significantly reduce the days of hospitalization with a limited and sustainable increase in the use of nursing home care resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1714/3557.35342DOI Listing
March 2021

Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol versus low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in clinical practice: ANMCO position paper.

J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Clinical and Rehabilitative Cardiology Unit, San Filippo Neri Hospital ASL Roma 1, Rome Department of Translational and Precision Medicine, Sapienza University of Roma, Rome U.O.C. Cardiologia-UTIC, San Paolo Hospital, Bari Cardilogy-Intensive Care Unit, Ospedali di Città di Castello e Gubbio - Gualdo Tadino, Azienda USL Umbria 1, Perugia Cardiology Department, Le Scotte University Hospital, Siena Cardiology Unit, Bellaria Hospital, AUSL of Bologna, Bologna Cardiology Unit, Ospedale Santa Maria della Misericordia, Rovigo Cardilogy-Intensive Care Unit, Santa Maria degli Ungheresi Hospital, Polistena, Reggio Calabria Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Sciences, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome Cardiology Unit 2, ASST Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda Cà Granda, Milan Cardiology Unit, ASL 3, Ospedale Padre A. Micone, Genova Cardiology Division, Ospedale Garibaldi-Nesima, Azienda di Rilievo Nazionale e Alta Specializzazione 'Garibaldi' Catania, Catania Cardilogy Unit, Presidio Molinette, A.O.U. Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Torino Cardiologia-UTIC-Emodinamica, Ospedale del Mare, Napoli Cardiovascular Center, University Hospital and Health Services of Trieste, Trieste Presidente Fondazione per il Tuo cuore, Heart Care Foundation, Florence Division of Cardiology, Augusto Murri Hospital, Fermo, Italy.

Bloodstream cholesterol is a central contributor to atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. For several decades, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been the main biomarker for the prediction of cardiovascular events and therapeutic target of lipid-lowering treatments. More recently, several findings have supported the greater reliability of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) as a predictive factor and possible therapeutic target in refining antiatherogenic treatments, especially among patients with lower LDL-C and higher triglyceride values. This article discusses the limits of current standard methods for assessing LDL-C levels and emphasizes the persistent residual cardiovascular risk in patients treated with lipid-lowering agents on the basis of recommended LDL-C targets. It highlights that patients with controlled LDL-C and non-targeted non-HDL-C have a higher cardiovascular risk. The article focuses on the role of non-HDL-C as a better predictor of atherosclerotic disease as compared with LDL-C and as a therapeutic target. Finally, this article includes an executive summary aimed at refining preventive approaches in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2459/JCM.0000000000001175DOI Listing
March 2021

The hemodynamic power of the heart differentiates normal from diseased right ventricles.

J Biomech 2021 Apr 11;119:110312. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Cardiovascular Department, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Giuliano Isontina, Trieste, Italy.

Cardiac mechanics is primarily described by the pressure-volume relationship. The ventricular pressure-volume loop displays the instantaneous relationship between intraventricular pressure and volume throughout the cardiac cycle; however, it does not consider the shape of the ventricles, their spatiotemporal deformation patterns, and how these balance with the flowing blood. Our study demonstrates that the pressure-volume relationship represents a first level of approximation for the mechanical power of the ventricles, while, at a further level of approximation, the importance of hemodynamic power emerges through the balance between deformation patterns and fluid dynamics. The analysis is preliminarily tested in a healthy subject's right ventricle and two patients. Moreover, patients' geometry was then rescaled to present a normal volumetric profile to verify whether results were affected by volume size or by the spatiotemporal pattern of how that volume profile was achieved. Results show that alterations of hemodynamic power were found in the abnormal ventricles and that they were not directly caused by the ventricular size but by changes in the ability of intraventricular pressure gradient to generate blood flow. Therefore, hemodynamic power represents a physics-based measure that takes into account the dynamics of the space-time shape changes in combination with blood flow. Hemodynamic power is assessed non-invasively using cardiac imaging techniques and can be an early indicator of cardiac dysfunction before changes occur in volumetric measurements. These preliminary results provide a physical ground to evaluate its diagnostic or prognostic significance in future clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2021.110312DOI Listing
April 2021

Trend in potassium intake and Na/K ratio in the Italian adult population between the 2008 and 2018 CUORE project surveys.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 03 23;31(3):814-826. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Federico II University of Naples Medical School, Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Low potassium intake, in addition to high sodium, has been associated with higher risk of hypertension and CVD. The Study assessed habitual potassium intake and sodium/potassium ratio of the Italian adult population from 2008 to 2012 to 2018-2019 based on 24-h urine collection, in the framework of the CUORE Project/MINISAL-GIRCSI/MENO SALE PIU' SALUTE national surveys.

Methods And Results: Data were from cross-sectional surveys of randomly selected age-and-sex stratified samples of resident persons aged 35-74 years in 10 (out of 20) Italian regions. Urinary electrolyte and creatinine measurements were performed in a central laboratory. Analyses considered 942 men and 916 women, examined in 2008-2012, and 967 men and 1010 women, examined in 2018-2019. In 2008-2012, the age-standardized mean of potassium intake (urinary potassium accounts for 70% of potassium intake) was 3147 mg (95% CI 3086-3208) in men and 2784 mg (2727-2841) in women, whereas in 2018-2019, it was 3043 mg (2968-3118) and 2561 mg (2508-2614) respectively. In 2008-2012, age-adjusted prevalence of persons with an adequate potassium intake (i.e. ≥ 3510 mg/day) was 31% (95% CI 28-34%) for men and 18% (16-21%) for women; in 2018-2019, it was 26% (23-29%) and 12% (10-14%) respectively. The sodium/potassium ratio significantly decreased both in men and women.

Conclusions: The average daily potassium intake of the Italian general adult population remains lower than the WHO and EFSA recommended level. These results suggest the need of a revision to strengthen initiatives for the promotion of an adequate potassium intake at the population level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2020.11.015DOI Listing
March 2021

Two-Dimensional Aortic Size Normalcy: A Novelty Detection Approach.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Feb 2;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Cardiology Service, CMSR Veneto Medica, 36077 Altavilla Vicentina, Italy.

To develop a tool for assessing normalcy of the thoracic aorta (TA) by echocardiography, based on either a linear regression model (Z-score), or a machine learning technique, namely one-class support vector machine (OC-SVM) (Q-score). TA diameters were measured in 1112 prospectively enrolled healthy subjects, aging 5 to 89 years. Considering sex, age and body surface area we developed two calculators based on the traditional Z-score and the novel Q-score. The calculators were compared in 198 adults with TA > 40 mm, and in 466 patients affected by either Marfan syndrome or bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). Q-score attained a better Area Under the Curve (0.989; 95% CI 0.984-0.993, sensitivity = 97.5%, specificity = 95.4%) than Z-score (0.955; 95% CI 0.942-0.967, sensitivity = 81.3%, specificity = 93.3%; < 0.0001) in patients with TA > 40 mm. The prevalence of TA dilatation in Marfan and BAV patients was higher as Z-score > 2 than as Q-score < 4% (73.4% vs. 50.09%, < 0.00001). Q-score is a novel tool for assessing TA normalcy based on a model requiring less assumptions about the distribution of the relevant variables. Notably, diameters do not need to depend linearly on anthropometric measurements. Additionally, Q-score can capture the joint distribution of these variables with all four diameters simultaneously, thus accounting for the overall aortic shape. This approach results in a lower rate of predicted TA abnormalcy in patients at risk of TA aneurysm. Further prognostic studies will be necessary for assessing the relative effectiveness of Q-score versus Z-score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11020220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912952PMC
February 2021

Antithrombotic management of patients with acute coronary syndrome and atrial fibrillation undergoing coronary stenting: a prospective, observational, nationwide study.

BMJ Open 2020 12 22;10(12):e041044. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Division of Cardiology, Garibaldi-Nesima Hospital, Catania, Italy.

Objective: The aim of the study was to assess current management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing coronary stenting.

Design: Non-interventional, prospective, nationwide study.

Setting: 76 private or public cardiology centres in Italy.

Participants: Patients with ACS with concomitant AF undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Primary And Secondary Outcome Measures: To obtain accurate and up-to-date information on pharmacological management of patients with AF admitted for an ACS and undergoing PCI with stent implantation.

Results: Over a 12-month period, 598 consecutive patients were enrolled: 48.8% with AF at hospital admission and 51.2% developing AF during hospitalisation. At discharge, a triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT) was prescribed in 64.8%, dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in 25.7% and dual antithrombotic therapy (DAT) in 8.8% of patients. Among patients with AF at admission, TAT and DAT were more frequently prescribed compared with patients with new-onset AF (76.3% vs 53.8% and 12.5% vs 5.3%, respectively; both p<0.0001), while a DAPT was less often used (11.2% vs 39.5%; p<0.0001). At multivariable analysis, a major bleeding event (OR: 5.40; 95% CI: 2.42 to 12.05; p<0.0001) and malignancy (OR: 5.11; 95% CI: 1.77 to 14.78; p=0.003) resulted the most important independent predictors of DAT prescription.

Conclusions: In this contemporary registry of patients with ACS with AF treated with coronary stents, TAT still resulted as the antithrombotic strategy of choice, DAT was reserved for high bleeding risk and DAPT was mainly prescribed in those developing AF during hospitalisation.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03656523.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757435PMC
December 2020

Gastroprotection in patients on antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant therapy: a position paper of National Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO) and the Italian Association of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Endoscopists (AIGO).

Eur J Intern Med 2021 Mar 2;85:1-13. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy, Academic Hospital Cattinara, Trieste, Italy.

Aspirin and P2Y receptor antagonists are widely used across the spectrum of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Gastrointestinal complications, including ulcer and bleeding, are relatively common during antiplatelet treatment and, therefore, concomitant proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment is often prescribed. However, potential increased risk of cardiovascular events has been suggested for PPIs, and, in recent years, it has been discussed whether these drugs may reduce the cardiovascular protection by aspirin and, even more so, clopidogrel. Indeed, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies suggested an interaction through hepatic CYP2C19 between PPIs and clopidogrel, which could translate into clinical inefficacy, leading to higher rates of cardiovascular events. The FDA and the EMA sent a warning in 2010 discouraging the concomitant use of clopidogrel with omeprazole or esomeprazole. In addition, whether the use of PPIs may affect the clinical efficacy of the new P2Y receptor antagonists, ticagrelor and prasugrel, remains less known. According to current guidelines, PPIs in combination with antiplatelet treatment are recommended in patients with risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding, including advanced age, concurrent use of anticoagulants, steroids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and Helicobacter pylori infection. Like vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), DOACs can determine gastrointestinal bleeding. Results from both randomized clinical trials and observational studies suggest that high-dose dabigatran (150 mg bid), rivaroxaban and high-dose edoxaban (60 mg daily) are associated with a higher risk of GI bleeding as compared with apixaban and warfarin. In patients taking oral anticoagulant with GI risk factor, PPI could be recommended, even if usefulness of PPIs in these patients deserves further data. Helicobacter pylori should always be searched, and treated, in patients with history of peptic ulcer disease (with or without complication). Given the large number of patients treated with antithrombotic drugs and PPIs, even a minor reduction of platelet inhibition or anticoagulant effect potentially carries a considerable clinical impact. The present joint statement by ANMCO and AIGO summarizes the current knowledge regarding the widespread use of platelet inhibitors, anticoagulants, and PPIs in combination. Moreover, it outlines evidence supporting or opposing drug interactions between these drugs and discusses consequent clinical implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2020.11.014DOI Listing
March 2021

[ANMCO/SIC Consensus document on the management of myocarditis].

G Ital Cardiol (Rome) 2020 Dec;21(12):969-989

S.C. Cardiologia, Dipartimento Cardiotoracovascolare, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Giuliano Isontina-ASUGI, Università di Trieste.

Myocarditis is an inflammatory heart disease that can occur acutely, as in acute myocarditis, or persistently, as in chronic myocarditis or chronic inflammatory cardiomyopathy. Different agents can induce myocarditis, with viruses being the most common triggers. Generally, acute myocarditis affects relatively young people and men more than women. Myocarditis has a broad spectrum of clinical presentations and evolution trajectories, although most cases resolve spontaneously. Patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, heart failure symptoms, advanced atrioventricular block, sustained ventricular arrhythmias or cardiogenic shock (the latter known as fulminant myocarditis) are at increased risk for death and heart transplantation. The presentation of chronic inflammatory cardiomyopathy may be more subtle, with progressive symptoms of heart failure or appearance of rhythm disturbance, not rarely preceded by an infective episode. Autoimmune disorder or systemic inflammatory conditions can be another significant predisposing substrate of myocarditis, especially in women. Emerging causes of myocarditis are drug-related like the new anticancer therapies, the immune checkpoint inhibitors. In this Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO) and Italian Society of Cardiology (SIC) expert consensus document on myocarditis, we propose diagnostic strategies for identifying possible causes of the disease and factors associated with increased risk. Finally, we propose potential treatments and when referring patients to tertiary centers, especially for high-risk patients. Even if endomyocardial biopsy is the invasive diagnostic tool for making definitive diagnosis and differentiation of histological subtypes (i.e., lymphocytic vs eosinophilic vs giant cell myocarditis), it is not always readily available in all centers. Thus, we propose when this exam is mandatory or when it can be postponed or substituted by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. This document reflects the Italian perspective on managing patients with myocarditis and their follow-up, considering also current US and European scientific position statements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1714/3472.34551DOI Listing
December 2020

[Diagnostic work-up and clinical management of cardiomyopathies: the operative protocol from the Cardiothoracovascular Department of Trieste, Italy].

G Ital Cardiol (Rome) 2020 Dec;21(12):935-953

S.C. Cardiologia, Dipartimento Cardiotoracovascolare, Centro per la Diagnosi e Cura delle Cardiomiopatie, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Giuliano Isontina e Università degli Studi di Trieste.

Cardiomyopathies are primary myocardial disorders, genetically determined, with clinical onset between the third and the fifth decade of life. They represent the main causes of sudden cardiac death and heart failure in the youth. The more common myocardial diseases in clinical practice are dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Next generation sequencing techniques, recently available for genetics researches, together with the diffusion of advanced imaging techniques, permitted in the last years a deeper knowledge of these pathologies. Nevertheless, diagnosis, etiology and several aspects of patients' clinical management remain complex and controversial. This review paper aims to propose some operative flow-charts, derived from scientific evidences and the internal protocol of the Cardiothoracovascular Department of Trieste Hospital, Italian referral Center for cardiomyopathies and heart failure, with more than 30 years of experience in diagnosis and management of patients who suffer from primary myocardial disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1714/3472.34548DOI Listing
December 2020

Risk stratification and secondary prevention post-myocardial infarction: insights from the EYESHOT Post-MI study.

J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2020 Oct 29. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Division of Cardiology, Augusto Murri Hospital, Fermo, Italy.

Background: Clinical management of patients more than 1 year after acute myocardial infarction (MI) is challenging. Patient risk stratification may help to establish therapeutic priorities. We aimed to describe the comprehensive risk profile and management of patients with prior MI.

Methods: We analyzed data from the EYESHOT Post-MI study, which evaluated the management of patients 1-3 years after MI. The risk profile of participants was defined according to the qualifying high-risk features of the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 trial (history of diabetes, history of recurrent MI, angiographic evidence of multivessel coronary disease, chronic kidney disease with estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min, age ≥65 years). Patients were classified into five subgroups according to the presence of zero, one, two, three, or more than three features.

Results: Of the 1633 patients in the EYESHOT Post-MI study, 1008 could be stratified according to PEGASUS-TIMI 54 high-risk features. About 22% of patients had no high-risk features, whereas 25% showed at least three features. The prevalence of patients with specific clinical severity indicators was progressively higher with the increasing number of high-risk features. Dual antiplatelet therapy and oral anticoagulation were more frequently used in patients with an increasing number of high-risk features (P for trend <0.0001). Lipid-lowering therapies were less frequently prescribed in patients with a higher number of features (P for trend 0.006 for statins; P for trend 0.007 for ezetimibe).

Conclusion: Higher-risk post-MI patients, identified by PEGASUS-TIMI 54 high-risk features, showed an increased prevalence of major clinical severity indicators. Secondary prevention therapies were not adequately implemented in higher-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2459/JCM.0000000000001132DOI Listing
October 2020

[HCF-ANMCO/AICPR/GIEC/ITAHFA/SICOA/SICP/SIMG/SIT Cardiological Societies Council Consensus document: Anticoagulant therapy in venous thromboembolism and atrial fibrillation of the patient with cancer. Current knowledge and new evidence].

G Ital Cardiol (Rome) 2020 Sep;21(9):687-738

A.S.U.R. Marche, Area Vasta 4 Fermo, Ospedale Civile Augusto Murri, Fermo.

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis, either symptomatic or incidental, is a common complication in the history of cancer disease. The risk of VTE is 4-7-fold higher in oncology patients, and it represents the second leading cause of death, after cancer itself. In cancer patients, compared with the general population, VTE therapy is associated with higher rates of recurrent thrombosis and/or major bleeding. The need for treatment of VTE in patients with cancer is a challenge for the clinician because of the multiplicity of types of cancer, the disease stage and the imbricated cancer treatment. Historically, in cancer patients, low molecular weight heparins have been preferred for treatment of VTE. More recently, in large randomized clinical trials, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) demonstrated to reduce the risk of VTE. However, in the "real life", uncertainties remain on the use of DOACs, especially for the bleeding risk in patients with gastrointestinal cancers and the potential drug-to-drug interactions with specific anticancer therapies.In cancer patients, atrial fibrillation can arise as a perioperative complication or for the side effect of some chemotherapy agents, as well as a consequence of some associated risk factors, including cancer itself. The current clinical scores for predicting thrombotic events (CHA2DS2-VASc) or for predicting bleeding (HAS-BLED), used to guide antithrombotic therapy in the general population, have not yet been validated in cancer patients. Encouraging data for DOAC prescription in patients with atrial fibrillation and cancer are emerging: recent post-hoc analysis showed safety and efficacy of DOACs for the prevention of embolic events compared to warfarin in cancer patients. Currently, anticoagulant therapy of cancer patients should be individualized with multidisciplinary follow-up and frequent reassessment. This consensus document represents an advanced state of the art on the subject and provides useful notes on clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1714/3413.33967DOI Listing
September 2020

Updated clinical evidence and place in therapy of bempedoic acid for hypercholesterolemia: ANMCO position paper.

J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2021 Mar;22(3):162-171

Division of Cardiology, Augusto Murri Hospital, Fermo, Ancona, Italy.

The central role of high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease has led to research focused on lipid-lowering agents for cardiovascular risk reduction. Bempedoic acid is an emerging treatment for hypercholesterolemia that has recently been approved for marketing in the United States and Europe. This review focuses on its mechanism of action and summarizes the main preclinical study findings. Furthermore, we report the clinical evidence supporting and guiding its use in hypercholesterolemia management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2459/JCM.0000000000001108DOI Listing
March 2021

Prevalence and Predictors of Out-of-Target LDL Cholesterol 1 to 3 Years After Myocardial Infarction. A Subanalysis From the EYESHOT Post-MI Registry.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2021 Mar 6;26(2):149-157. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Division of Cardiology, A.O. San Camillo-Forlanini, Roma, Italy.

Background: There is an incomplete understanding of the prevalence and predictors of attainment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal after myocardial infarction (MI).

Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of achievement of LDL-C goal of 70 mg/dL, to identify the baseline features associated with suboptimal lipid control, and to assess the use of LDL-C-lowering drug therapies (LLT) beyond the first year after MI.

Methods: The EYESHOT Post-MI was a prospective, cross-sectional, Italian registry, which enrolled patients presenting to cardiologist 1 to 3 years after MI. In this retrospective post-hoc analysis, patients were categorized in 2 groups according to the achievement or not of the LDL-C goal of 70 mg/dL. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the baseline features associate with LDL-C≥70 mg/dL.

Results: The study population included 903 patients (mean age 65.5 ± 11.5 years). Among them, LDL-C was ≥70 mg/dL in 474 (52.5%). Male sex ( = 0.031), hypertension ( = 0.024), prior percutaneous coronary intervention ( = 0.016) and high education level ( = 0.008) were higher in the LDL-C <70 group. At multivariable analysis, low education level was an independent predictor of LDL-C≥70 mg/dL (OR:1.582; 95%CI, 1.156-2.165; = 0.004). Conversely, hypertension increased the probability to achieve the LDL-C goal (OR:0.650; 95%CI, 0.443-0.954; = 0.028). Among off-target patients, LLT was not modified in the majority of cases (67.3%), intensified in 85 (18.6%), and actually reduced in 63 patients (13.8%).

Conclusions: In patients presenting to cardiologists 1 to 3 years from the last MI event, LDL-C is not under control in a large proportion of patients, particularly in those with a low education level or without hypertension. LLT is underused in this very-high-risk setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1074248420947633DOI Listing
March 2021

Sex-related differences in chronic heart failure: a community-based study.

J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2021 Jan;22(1):36-44

Cardiothoracicvascular Department, Cardiovascular Center, University Hospital and Health Services, Trieste.

Aims: To evaluate sex-related differences among real-life outpatients with chronic heart failure across the ejection fraction spectrum and to evaluate whether these differences might impact therapy and outcomes.

Methods: A total of 2528 heart failure patients were examined between 2009 and 2015 [mean age 76, 42% females; 59% with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), 17% with heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) and 24% with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)]. Females showed a higher prevalence of HFpEF than males.

Results: Females were older, less obese and with less ischaemic heart disease. They have renal failure and anaemia more frequently than males. There were no differences in terms of heart failure therapy in the HFrEF group, but a lower prescription rate of angiotensin-converting enzyme-I/AT1 blockers in HFmrEF and HFpEF and a higher prescription of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in the female group with HFpEF were observed. Crude rate mortality and composite outcome (death/heart failure progression) run similarly across sexes regardless of the ejection fraction categories. After adjustment, risk of mortality was significantly lower in females than males in the HFmrEF and HFpEF groups, whereas similar risk was confirmed across sexes in the HFrEF group. Considering prognostic risk factors, noncardiac comorbidities emerged in the HFpEF group.

Conclusion: In a community-based heart failure cohort, females were differently distributed within heart failure phenotypes and they presented some different characteristics across ejection fraction categories. Although in an unadjusted model there was no significant difference for adverse outcomes, in an adjusted model females showed a lower risk of mortality in HFpEF and HFmrEF. Concerning sex-related prognostic risk factors, noncardiac comorbidities significantly affected adverse prognosis in females with HFpEF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2459/JCM.0000000000001049DOI Listing
January 2021

A new integrated approach to cardiac mechanics: reference values for normal left ventricle.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2020 Nov 15;36(11):2173-2185. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Cardiovascular Department, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Giuliano Isontina, via Slataper n°9, 34100, Trieste, Italy.

The association between left ventricular (LV) myocardial deformation and hemodynamic forces is still mostly unexplored. The normative values and the effects of demographic and technical factors on hemodynamic forces are not known. The authors studied the association between LV myocardial deformation and hemodynamic forces in a large cohort of healthy volunteers. One-hundred seventy-six consecutive subjects (age range, 16-82; 51% women), with no cardiovascular risk factors or any relevant diseases, were enrolled. All subjects underwent an echo-Doppler examination. Both 2D global myocardial and endocardial longitudinal strain (GLS), circumferential strain (GCS), and the hemodynamic forces were measured with new software that enabled to calculate all these values and parameters from the three apical views. Higher LV mass index and larger LV volumes were found in males compared to females (85 ± 17 vs 74 ± 15 g/m and 127 ± 28 vs 85 ± 18 ml, p < 0.0001 respectively) while no differences of the mean values of endocardial and myocardial GLS and of myocardial GCS were found (p = ns) and higher endocardial GCS in women (- 30.6 ± 4.2 vs - 31.8 ± 3.7; p = 0.05). LV longitudinal force, LV systolic longitudinal force and LV impulse were higher in men (16.2 ± 5.3 vs 13.2 ± 3.6; 25.1 ± 7.9 vs 19.4 ± 5.6 and 20.4 ± 7 vs 16.6 ± 5.2, p < 0.0001, respectively). A weak but statistically significant decline with age (p < 0.0001) was also found for these force parameters. This new integrated approach could differentiate normality from pathology by providing average deformation values and hemodynamic forces parameters, differentiated by age and gender.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-020-01934-1DOI Listing
November 2020

COMPASS criteria applied to a contemporary cohort of unselected patients with stable coronary artery diseases: insights from the START registry.

Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Division of Cardiology, Azienda Ospedaliera G. Rummo, Benevento.

Background: Recently, the COMPASS trial demonstrated that dual therapy reduced cardiovascular outcomes compared with aspirin alone in patients with stable atherosclerotic disease.

Methods And Results: We sought to assess the proportion of patients eligible for the COMPASS trial and to compare the epidemiology and outcome of these patients with those without COMPASS inclusion or with any exclusion criteria in a contemporary, nationwide cohort of patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).Among the 4068 patients with detailed information allowing evaluation of eligibility, 1416 (34.8%) did not fulfill the inclusion criteria (COMPASS-Not-Included), 841 (20.7%) had exclusion criteria (COMPASS-Excluded) and the remaining 1811 (44.5%) were classified as COMPASS-Like. At 1 year, the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke, was 0.9% in the COMPASS-Not-Included and 2.0% in the COMPASS-Like (p = 0.01), and 5.0% in the COMPASS-Excluded group (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Among the COMPASS-Like population, patients with multiple COMPASS enrichment criteria presented a significant increase in the risk of MACE (from 1.0% to 3.3% in those with 1 and ≥3 criteria, respectively; p = 0.012), and a modest absolute increase in major bleeding risk (from 0.2% to 0.4%, respectively; p = 0.46).

Conclusions: In a contemporary real-world cohort registry of stable CAD, most patients resulted as eligible for the COMPASS. These patients presented a considerable annual risk of MACE that consistently increases in the presence of multiple risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjqcco/qcaa054DOI Listing
June 2020

Contemporary survival trends and aetiological characterization in non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy.

Eur J Heart Fail 2020 07 26;22(7):1111-1121. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Cardiovascular Department, Centre for Diagnosis and Management of Cardiomyopathies, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata di Trieste (ASUITS), University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.

Aim: Contemporary survival trends in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate clinical descriptors, survival trends and the prognostic impact of aetiological characterization in DCM patients.

Methods And Results: Dilated cardiomyopathy patients were consecutively enrolled and divided into four groups according to the period of enrolment (1978-1984; 1985-1994; 1995-2004; and 2005-2015). A subset of patients with DCM of specific aetiology, enrolled from 2005 to 2015, was also analysed. Over a mean follow-up of 12 ± 8 years, 1284 DCM patients (52 in the 1978-1984 group, 326 in the 1985-1994 group, 379 in the 1995-2004 group, and 527 in the 2005-2015 group) were evaluated. Despite older age (mean age 51 ± 15, 43 ± 15, 45 ± 14, and 52 ± 15 years for the 1978-1984, 1985-1994, 1995-2004, and 2005-2015 groups, respectively; P < 0.001), most of the baseline clinical characteristics improved in the 2005-2015 group, suggesting a less advanced disease stage at diagnosis. Similarly, at competing risk analysis, the annual incidence of all outcome parameters progressively decreased over time (global P < 0.001). At multivariable analysis, the last period of enrolment emerged as independently associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality/heart transplantation (HTx)/ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation (1.46 events/100 patients/year), cardiovascular death/HTx/VAD implantation (0.82 events/100 patients/year) and sudden cardiac death (0.15 events/100 patients/year). Lastly, in 287 patients with DCM of specific aetiology, patients with environmental, toxic, or removable factors appeared to have different phenotypes and prognosis compared to those with genetic, post-myocarditis, or idiopathic DCM (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Contemporary survival trends in DCM significantly improved, mainly due to a reduction of cardiovascular events. Appropriate aetiological characterization might help in prognostication of DCM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1914DOI Listing
July 2020

Cardiovascular Death Risk in Recovered Mid-Range Ejection Fraction Heart Failure: Insights From Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test.

J Card Fail 2020 Nov 17;26(11):932-943. Epub 2020 May 17.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milano, Italy; Department of Clinical sciences and Community Health, Cardiovascular Section, University of Milano, Milano, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Heart failure with midrange ejection fraction (HFmrEF) represents a heterogeneous category where phenotype, as well as prognostic assessment, remains debated. The present study explores a specific HFmrEF subset, namely those who recovered from a reduced EF (rec-HFmrEF) and, particularly, it focuses on the possible additive prognostic role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

Methods And Results: We analyzed data from 4535 patients with HFrEF and 1176 patients with rec-HFmrEF from the Metabolic Exercise combined with Cardiac and Kidney Indexes database. The end point was cardiovascular death at 5 years. The median follow-up was 1343 days (25th-75th range 627-2403 days). Cardiovascular death occurred in 552 HFrEF and 61 rec-HFmrEF patients. The multivariate analysis confirmed an independent role of the MECKI score's variables in HFrEF (C-index = 0.744) whereas, in the rec-HFmrEF group, only age and peak oxygen uptake (pVO) remained associated to the end point (C-index = 0.745). A peak oxygen uptake of ≤55% of predicted and a ventilatory efficiency of ≥31 resulted as the most accurate cut-off values in the outcome prediction.

Conclusions: Present data support the cardiopulmonary exercise test and, particularly, the peak oxygen uptake, as a useful tool in the rec-HFmrEF prognostic assessment. A peak VO of ≤55% predicted and ventilatory efficiency of ≥31 might help to identify a high-risk rec-HFmrEF subgroup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2020.04.021DOI Listing
November 2020

CHADS-VASc Score Predicts Adverse Outcome in Patients with Simple Congenital Heart Disease Regardless of Cardiac Rhythm.

Pediatr Cardiol 2020 Jun 5;41(5):1051-1057. Epub 2020 May 5.

Scuola di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli Studi di Verona, Verona, Italy.

Adult patients with simple congenital heart disease (sACHD) represent an expanding population vulnerable to atrial arrhythmias (AA). CHADS-VASc score estimates thromboembolic risk in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients. We investigated the prognostic role of CHADS-VASc score in a non-selected sACHD population regardless of cardiac rhythm. Between November 2009 and June 2018, 427 sACHD patients (377 in sinus rhythm, 50 in AA) were consecutively referred to our ACHD service. Cardiovascular hospitalization and/or all-cause death were considered as composite primary end-point. Patients were divided into group A with CHADS-VASc score = 0 or 1 point, and group B with a score greater than 1 point. Group B included 197 patients (46%) who were older with larger prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors than group A. During a mean follow-up of 70 months (IQR 40-93), primary end-point occurred in 94 patients (22%): 72 (37%) in group B and 22 (10%, p < 0.001) in group A. Rate of death for all causes was also significantly higher in the group B than A (22% vs 2%, respectively, p < 0.001). Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that CHADS-VASc score was independently related to the primary end-point (HR 1.84 [1.22-2.77], p = 0.004) together with retrospective AA, stroke/TIA/peripheral thromboembolism and diabetes. Furthermore, CHADS-VASc score independently predicted primary end-point in the large subgroup of 377 patients with sinus rhythm (HR 2.79 [1.54-5.07], p = 0.01). In conclusion, CHADS-VASc score accurately stratifies sACHD patients with different risk for adverse clinical events in the long term regardless of cardiac rhythm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00246-020-02356-5DOI Listing
June 2020

Sacubitril/Valsartan Induces Global Cardiac Reverse Remodeling in Long-Lasting Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction: Standard and Advanced Echocardiographic Evidences.

J Clin Med 2020 Mar 25;9(4). Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Division of Cardiology, Cardiothoracovascular Department, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata di Trieste, 34149 Trieste, Italy.

Sacubitril/valsartan reduces mortality in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients, partially due to cardiac reverse remodeling (RR). Little is known about the RR rate in long-lasting HFrEF and the evolution of advanced echocardiographic parameters, despite their known prognostic impact in this setting. We sought to evaluate the rates of left ventricle (LV) and left atrial (LA) RR through standard and advanced echocardiographic imaging in a cohort of HFrEF patients, after the introduction of sacubitril/valsartan. A multi-parametric standard and advanced echocardiographic evaluation was performed at the moment of introduction of sacubitril/valsartan and at 3 to 18 months subsequent follow-up. LVRR was defined as an increase in the LV ejection fraction ≥10 points associated with a decrease ≥10% in indexed LV end-diastolic diameter; LARR was defined as a decrease >15% in the left atrium end-systolic volume. We analyzed 77 patients (65 ± 11 years old, 78% males, 40% ischemic etiology) with 76 (28-165) months since HFrEF diagnosis. After a median follow-up of 9 (interquartile range 6-14) months from the beginning of sacubitril/valsartan, LVRR occurred in 20 patients (26%) and LARR in 33 patients (43%). Moreover, left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) improved from -8.3 ± 4% to -12 ± 4.7% ( < 0.001), total left atrial emptying fraction (TLAEF) from 28.2 ± 14.4% to 32.6 ± 13.7% ( = 0.01) and peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) from 10.3 ± 6.9% to 13.7 ± 7.6% ( < 0.001). In HFrEF patients, despite a long history of the disease, the introduction of sacubitril/valsartan provides a rapid global (i.e., LV and LA) RR in >25% of cases, both at standard and advanced echocardiographic evaluations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9040906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230879PMC
March 2020

[The role of ambulatory cardiac rehabilitation on return to work of patients with cardiovascular diseases].

G Ital Med Lav Ergon 2019 12;41(4):337-340

Dipartimento Cardiovascolare e Scuola di Specializzazione in Malattie Apparato Cardiovascolare, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata, Università di Trieste.

Summary: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and about 50% of myocardial infarctions occur in working age individuals. Return to work rates are determined by cardiovascular parameters as well as by psychosocial factors and a Cardiac Rehabilitation program after an acute coronary syndrome or coronary revascularization has shown to improve the cardiovascular outcome, occupational recovery and professional reintegration through a multidisciplinary intervention including physical exercise, lipid and blood pressure control, smoking cessation program, nutritional advice, psychological counselling and target-driven pharmacological therapies. The collaboration between cardiologist and occupational physician is crucial in the transition from illness to an active social position defining the work eligibility with the assessment of cardiological profile, comorbidities, psychological functions, worker's ability and functional capacity.
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December 2019