Publications by authors named "Andrea Carpentieri"

38 Publications

Tyrosine Phosphorylation Modulates Peroxiredoxin-2 Activity in Normal and Diseased Red Cells.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Feb 1;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Medicine, University of Verona and AOUI Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy.

Peroxiredoxin-2 (Prx2) is the third most abundant cytoplasmic protein in red blood cells. Prx2 belongs to a well-known family of antioxidants, the peroxiredoxins (Prxs), that are widely expressed in mammalian cells. Prx2 is a typical, homodimeric, 2-Cys Prx that uses two cysteine residues to accomplish the task of detoxifying a vast range of organic peroxides, HO, and peroxynitrite. Although progress has been made on functional characterization of Prx2, much still remains to be investigated on Prx2 post-translational changes. Here, we first show that Prx2 is Tyrosine (Tyr) phosphorylated by Syk in red cells exposed to oxidation induced by diamide. We identified Tyr-193 in both recombinant Prx2 and native Prx2 from red cells as a specific target of Syk. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that phosphorylation of Tyr-193 allows Prx2 conformational change that is more favorable for its peroxidase activity. Indeed, Syk-induced Tyr phosphorylation of Prx2 enhances in vitro Prx2 activity, but also contributes to Prx2 translocation to the membrane of red cells exposed to diamide. The biologic importance of Tyr-193 phospho-Prx2 is further supported by data on red cells from a mouse model of humanized sickle cell disease (SCD). SCD is globally distributed, hereditary red cell disorder, characterized by severe red cell oxidation due to the pathologic sickle hemoglobin. SCD red cells show Tyr-phosphorylated Prx2 bound to the membrane and increased Prx2 activity when compared to healthy erythrocytes. Collectively, our data highlight the novel link between redox related signaling and Prx2 function in normal and diseased red cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912311PMC
February 2021

A versatile and user-friendly approach for the analysis of proteins in ancient and historical objects.

J Proteomics 2021 01 2;231:104039. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

Identification and characterization of ancient proteins still require technical developments towards non-invasiveness, sensitivity, versatility and ease of use of the analyses. We report that the enzyme functionalized films, described in Cicatiello et al. (2018), can be used efficiently on the surface of different objects ranging from fixative-coated paper to canvas to the coating on an albumen photograph, as well as the much harder surfaces of ivory objects and the proteinaceous binders in the decoration of a wooden Egyptian coffin. The mixture of digested peptides that are efficiently captured on the functionalized surface are also amenable to LC-MS/MS analysis, which is necessary to confidently identify chemical modifications induced upon degradation, in order to characterize the conservation state of proteins. Moreover, in a two-step procedure, we have combined the trypsin functionalized film with a PNGaseF functionalized film, which adds a deglycosylation pretreatment allowing improved detection of glycosylated proteins. SIGNIFICANCE: User friendly trypsin functionalized films were implemented to expand their potential as versatile, modular tools that can be widely exploited in the world of diagnosis of cultural heritage objects, ancient proteins, and palaeoproteomics: a procedure that could be carried out by conservators or archaeologists first on-site and later analysed with standard MS techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2020.104039DOI Listing
January 2021

Protein Glycosylation Investigated by Mass Spectrometry: An Overview.

Cells 2020 08 28;9(9). Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Cinthia 26, 80126 Naples, Italy.

The protein glycosylation is a post-translational modification of crucial importance for its involvement in molecular recognition, protein trafficking, regulation, and inflammation. Indeed, abnormalities in protein glycosylation are correlated with several disease states such as cancer, inflammatory diseases, and congenial disorders. The understanding of cellular mechanisms through the elucidation of glycan composition encourages researchers to find analytical solutions for their detection. Actually, the multiplicity and diversity of glycan structures bond to the proteins, the variations in polarity of the individual saccharide residues, and the poor ionization efficiencies make their detection much trickier than other kinds of biopolymers. An overview of the most prominent techniques based on mass spectrometry (MS) for protein glycosylation (glycoproteomics) studies is here presented. The tricks and pre-treatments of samples are discussed as a crucial step prodromal to the MS analysis to improve the glycan ionization efficiency. Therefore, the different instrumental MS mode is also explored for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of glycopeptides and the glycans structural composition, thus contributing to the elucidation of biological mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9091986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7564411PMC
August 2020

Fyn specifically Regulates the activity of red cell glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase.

Redox Biol 2020 09 11;36:101639. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Dept of Medicine University of Verona and AOUI Verona, Verona, Italy. Electronic address:

Fyn is a tyrosine kinase belonging to the Src family (Src-Family-Kinase, SFK), ubiquitously expressed. Previously, we report that Fyn is important in stress erythropoiesis. Here, we show that in red cells Fyn specifically stimulates G6PD activity, resulting in a 3-fold increase enzyme catalytic activity (k) by phosphorylating tyrosine (Tyr)-401. We found Tyr-401 on G6PD as functional target of Fyn in normal human red blood cells (RBC), being undetectable in G6PD deficient RBCs (G6PD-Mediterranean and G6PD-Genova). Indeed, Tyr-401 is located to a region of the G6PD molecule critical for the formation of the enzymatically active dimer. Amino acid replacements in this region are mostly associated with a chronic hemolysis phenotype. Using mutagenesis approach, we demonstrated that the phosphorylation status of Tyr401 modulates the interaction of G6PD with G6P and stabilizes G6PD in a catalytically more efficient conformation. RBCs from Fynmice are defective in G6PD activity, resulting in increased susceptibility to primaquine-induced intravascular hemolysis. This negatively affected the recycling of reduced Prx2 in response to oxidative stress, indicating that defective G6PD phosphorylation impairs defense against oxidation. In human RBCs, we confirm the involvement of the thioredoxin/Prx2 system in the increase vulnerability of G6PD deficient RBCs to oxidation. In conclusion, our data suggest that Fyn is an oxidative radical sensor, and that Fyn-mediated Tyr-401 phosphorylation, by increasing G6PD activity, plays an important role in the physiology of RBCs. Failure of G6PD activation by this mechanism may be a major limiting factor in the ability of G6PD deficient RBCs to withstand oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2020.101639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7387845PMC
September 2020

Quantification of Polyphenols and Metals in Chinese Tea Infusions by Mass Spectrometry.

Foods 2020 Jun 25;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Monte S. Angelo-Cinthia, 80126 Naples, Italy.

Chemical compounds within tea are characterized by an extensive heterogeneity; some of them are crucial for their protective and defensive role in plants, and are closely connected to the benefits that the consumption of tea can provide. This paper is mainly focused on the characterization of polyphenols (secondary metabolites generally involved in defense against ultraviolet radiation and aggression by pathogens) and metals, extracted from nine Chinese tea samples, by integrating different mass spectrometry methodologies, LC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our approach allowed to identify and compare forty polyphenols differently distributed in tea infusions at various fermentation levels. The exploration of polyphenols with nutraceutical potential in tea infusions can widely benefit especially tea-oriented populations. The worldwide consumption of tea requires at the same time a careful monitoring of metals released during the infusion of tea leaves. Metal analysis can provide the identification of many healthy minerals such as potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, differently affected by the fermentation of leaves. Our results allowed us: (i) to draw up a polyphenols profile of tea leaves subjected to different fermentation processes; (ii) to identify and quantify metals released from tea leaves during infusion. In this way, we obtained a molecular fingerprint useful for both nutraceutical applications and food control/typization, as well as for frauds detection and counterfeiting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9060835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7353651PMC
June 2020

Gelling behavior of bio-tofu coagulated by microbial transglutaminase combined with lactic acid bacteria.

Food Res Int 2020 08 31;134:109200. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Cinthia, 80126 Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to investigate the gelling behavior of proteins in bio-tofu (soymilk-cow milk mixture gel) coagulated by microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) combined with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). It was shown that MTGase (3.0 U/g protein) treatment of soymilk-cow milk mixture (SCMM) could not induce gelation at 43℃ even if the incubation was lasting 4 h. However, the concomitant use of LAB (0.025 UC/L) along with MTGase could induce the formation of denser and finer gel network with smaller pores and higher storage modulus (G') compared to SCMM treated with only LAB. Electrophoresis and mass spectrometry results indicated that LAB improve MTGase-dependent polymerization of proteins. In addition, this study investigates the effect of LAB and MTGase treatment on the rheology behavior of the derived gel products. In general, the use of both bio-coagulants for the manufacture of a mixed protein gel, might open new horizons in the field of novel nutrional and functional foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109200DOI Listing
August 2020

Fiano, Greco and Falanghina grape cultivars differentiation by volatiles fingerprinting, a case study.

Heliyon 2019 Aug 22;5(8):e02287. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Italy.

The biomolecular characterization of edible products is gaining an increasing importance in food chemistry. The characteristic aroma or bouquet of a wine is the result of complex interactions of volatile molecules and odor receptors. Its characterization is the subject of many different studies, aimed at the development of new methods to be used for the discovery of frauds and for the typization of Protected Designation of Origin (P.D.O.) or Protected Geographic Indication (P.G.I.) wines. We previously outlined the proteomic profile of three cultivars of from South Italy (Campania) used for white wine production (Fiano, Greco and Falanghina) during the ripening. In this work, we present a mass spectrometry based study aimed at obtaining the profile of volatiles on the same samples using solid phase micro extraction coupled to gas chromatography. We demonstrated that some of the main constituents of aroma (namely terpenes, alcohols, aldehydes, etc.) were characteristic of certain grapes and absent in others.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6716974PMC
August 2019

Mass spectrometry based proteomics for the molecular fingerprinting of Fiano, Greco and Falanghina cultivars.

Food Res Int 2019 06 10;120:26-32. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Italy.

The official methodologies used for the identification and comparison of vine cultivars are ampelography and ampelometry. These methodologies are essentially based on qualitative assessments or biometric dependent morphological features of the plant. The heterogeneity of cultivars and consequently the increasing demand for a more detailed product typization, led to the introduction of new methodologies for the varietal characterization. In this scenario, proteomics has already proved to be a very useful discipline for the typization of many kinds of edible products. In this paper, we present a proteomic study carried out on three cultivars of Vitis vinifera peculiar of south Italy (Campania) used for white wine production (Fiano, Greco and Falanghina) by advanced biomolecular mass spectrometry approach. Our data highlight variations in the proteomic profiles during ripening for each cultivar and between analyzed cultivars, thus suggesting a new way to outline the biomolecular signature of vines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.02.020DOI Listing
June 2019

Structural effects of methylglyoxal glycation, a study on the model protein MNEI.

Mol Cell Biochem 2019 Jan 16;451(1-2):165-171. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant'Angelo, Via Cintia, 80126, Naples, Italy.

The reaction of free amino groups in proteins with reactive carbonyl species, known as glycation, leads to the formation of mixtures of products, collectively referred to as advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). These compounds have been implicated in several important diseases, but their role in pathogenesis and clinical symptoms' development is still debated. Particularly, AGEs are often associated to the formation of amyloid deposits in conformational diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, and it has been suggested that they might influence the mechanisms and kinetics of protein aggregation. We here present the characterization of the products of glycation of the model protein MNEI with methylglyoxal and their effect on the protein structure. We demonstrate that, despite being an uncontrolled process, glycation occurs only at specific residues of the protein. Moreover, while not affecting the protein fold, it alters its shape and hydrodynamic properties and increases its tendency to fibrillar aggregation. Our study opens the way to in deep structural investigations to shed light on the complex link between protein post-translational modifications, structure, and stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-018-3403-zDOI Listing
January 2019

High-level production of single chain monellin mutants with enhanced sweetness and stability in tobacco chloroplasts.

Planta 2018 Aug 18;248(2):465-476. Epub 2018 May 18.

CNR-IBBR, National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Biosciences and BioResources, Portici, NA, Italy.

Main Conclusion: Plastid-based MNEI protein mutants retain the structure, stability and sweetness of their bacterial counterparts, confirming the attractiveness of the plastid transformation technology for high-yield production of recombinant proteins. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes has dramatically increased the industrial demand for the development and use of alternatives to sugar and traditional sweeteners. Sweet proteins, such as MNEI, a single chain derivative of monellin, are the most promising candidates for industrial applications. In this work, we describe the use of tobacco chloroplasts as a stable plant expression platform to produce three MNEI protein mutants with improved taste profile and stability. All plant-based proteins were correctly expressed in tobacco chloroplasts, purified and subjected to in-depth chemical and sensory analyses. Recombinant MNEI mutants showed a protein yield ranging from 5% to more than 50% of total soluble proteins, which, to date, represents the highest accumulation level of MNEI mutants in plants. Comparative analyses demonstrated the high similarity, in terms of structure, stability and function, of the proteins produced in plant chloroplasts and bacteria. The high yield and the extreme sweetness perceived for the plant-derived proteins prove that plastid transformation technology is a safe, stable and cost-effective production platform for low-calorie sweeteners, with an estimated production of up to 25-30 mg of pure protein/plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-018-2920-zDOI Listing
August 2018

Ecotoxicological survey of MNEI and Y65R-MNEI proteins as new potential high-intensity sweeteners.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Apr 1;24(10):9734-9740. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

Department of Biology, University of Naples "Federico II", Via Cinthia Complesso Monte Sant'Angelo, 80126, Naples, Italy.

Low-calorie sweeteners are widespread. They are routinely introduced into commonly consumed food such as diet sodas, cereals, and sugar-free desserts. Recent data revealed the presence in considerable quantities of some of these artificial sweeteners in water samples qualifying them as a class of potential new emerging contaminants. This study aimed at evaluating the ecotoxicity profile of MNEI and Y65R-MNEI, two engineered products derived from the natural protein monellin, employing representative test organism such as Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Raphidocelis subcapitata. Potential genotoxicity and mutagenicity effects on Salmonella typhimurium (strain TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA1535) and Escherichia coli (strain WP2 pkM101) were evaluated. No genotoxicity effects were detected, whereas slight mutagenicity was highlighted by TA98 S. typhimurium. Ecotoxicity results evidenced effects approximately up to 14 and 20% with microalgae at 500 mg/L of MNEI and Y65R-MNEI, in that order. Macrophytes and crustaceans showed no significant effects. No median effective concentrations were determined. Overall, MNEI and Y65R-MNEI can be classified as not acutely toxic for the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-8626-0DOI Listing
April 2017

Multifunctional Thin Films and Coatings from Caffeic Acid and a Cross-Linking Diamine.

Langmuir 2017 03 17;33(9):2096-2102. Epub 2017 Feb 17.

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples "Federico II" , Via Cintia 4, I-80126 Naples, Italy.

The exploitation of easily accessible and nontoxic natural catechol compounds for surface functionalization and coating is attracting growing interest for biomedical applications. We report herein the deposition on different substrates of chemically stable thin films by autoxidation of 1 mM caffeic acid (CA) solutions at pH 9 in the presence of equimolar amounts of hexamethylenediamine (HMDA). UV-visible, mass spectrometric, and solid state C and N NMR analysis indicated covalent incorporation of the amine during CA polymerization to produce insoluble trioxybenzacridinium scaffolds decorated with carboxyl and amine functionalities. Similar coatings are obtained by replacing CA with 4-methylcatechol (MC) in the presence of HMDA. No significant film deposition was detected in the absence of HMDA nor by replacing it with shorter chain ethylenediamine, or with monoamines. The CA/HMDA-based films resisted oxidative and reductive treatments, displayed efficient Fe(II) and Cu(II) binding capacity and organic dyes adsorption, and provided an excellent cytocompatible platform for growing embryonic stem cells. These results pointed to HMDA as an efficient cross-linking mediator of film deposition from natural catechols for surface functionalization and coatings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b04079DOI Listing
March 2017

Profiling Carbonylated Proteins in Heart and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria from Trained and Untrained Mice.

J Proteome Res 2016 10 13;15(10):3666-3678. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences "Mario Serio", University of Florence , Viale G.B. Morgagni 50, Florence, 50134 Italy.

Understanding the relationship between physical exercise, reactive oxygen species, and skeletal muscle modification is important in order to better identify the benefits or the damages that appropriate or inappropriate exercise can induce. Heart and skeletal muscles have a high density of mitochondria with robust energetic demands, and mitochondria plasticity has an important role in both the cardiovascular system and skeletal muscle responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of regular physical activity on the oxidation profiles of mitochondrial proteins from heart and tibialis anterior muscles. To this end, we used the mouse as animal model. Mice were divided into two groups: untrained and regularly trained. The carbonylated protein pattern was studied by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by Western blot with anti-dinitrophenyl hydrazone antibodies. Mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of several different protein oxidation sites, including methionine, cysteine, proline, and leucine residues. A large number of oxidized proteins were found in both untrained and trained animals. Moreover, mitochondria from skeletal muscles and heart showed almost the same carbonylation pattern. Interestingly, exercise training seems to increase the carbonylation level mainly of mitochondrial proteins from skeletal muscle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.6b00475DOI Listing
October 2016

An interdomain network: the endobacterium of a mycorrhizal fungus promotes antioxidative responses in both fungal and plant hosts.

New Phytol 2016 07 23;211(1):265-75. Epub 2016 Feb 23.

Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, Università di Torino, viale Mattioli 25, I-10125, Torino, Italy.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate plant biotrophs that may contain endobacteria in their cytoplasm. Genome sequencing of Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum revealed a reduced genome and dependence on the fungal host. RNA-seq analysis of the AMF Gigaspora margarita in the presence and absence of the endobacterium indicated that endobacteria have an important role in the fungal pre-symbiotic phase by enhancing fungal bioenergetic capacity. To improve the understanding of fungal-endobacterial interactions, iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) quantitative proteomics was used to identify differentially expressed proteins in G. margarita germinating spores with endobacteria (B+), without endobacteria in the cured line (B-) and after application of the synthetic strigolactone GR24. Proteomic, transcriptomic and biochemical data identified several fungal and bacterial proteins involved in interspecies interactions. Endobacteria influenced fungal growth, calcium signalling and metabolism. The greatest effects were on fungal primary metabolism and respiration, which was 50% higher in B+ than in B-. A shift towards pentose phosphate metabolism was detected in B-. Quantification of carbonylated proteins indicated that the B- line had higher oxidative stress levels, which were also observed in two host plants. This study shows that endobacteria generate a complex interdomain network that affects AMF and fungal-plant interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.13895DOI Listing
July 2016

Rational Design of a Carrier Protein for the Production of Recombinant Toxic Peptides in Escherichia coli.

PLoS One 2016 25;11(1):e0146552. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

Department of Biology, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy.

Commercial uses of bioactive peptides require low cost, effective methods for their production. We developed a new carrier protein for high yield production of recombinant peptides in Escherichia coli very well suited for the production of toxic peptides like antimicrobial peptides. GKY20, a short antimicrobial peptide derived from the C-terminus of human thrombin, was fused to the C-terminus of Onconase, a small ribonuclease (104 amino acids), which efficiently drove the peptide into inclusion bodies with very high expression levels (about 200-250 mg/L). After purification of the fusion protein by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, peptide was obtained by chemical cleavage in diluted acetic acid of an acid labile Asp-Pro sequence with more than 95% efficiency. To improve peptide purification, Onconase was mutated to eliminate all acid labile sequences thus reducing the release of unwanted peptides during the acid cleavage. Mutations were chosen to preserve the differential solubility of Onconase as function of pH, which allows its selective precipitation at neutral pH after the cleavage. The improved carrier allowed the production of 15-18 mg of recombinant peptide per liter of culture with 96-98% purity without the need of further chromatographic steps after the acid cleavage. The antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide, with an additional proline at the N-terminus, was tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains and was found to be identical to that measured for synthetic GKY20. This finding suggests that N-terminal proline residue does not change the antimicrobial properties of recombinant (P)GKY20. The improved carrier, which does not contain cysteine and methionine residues, Asp-Pro and Asn-Gly sequences, is well suited for the production of peptides using any of the most popular chemical cleavage methods.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0146552PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4726619PMC
July 2016

A new hexapeptide from the leader peptide of rMnSOD enters cells through the oestrogen receptor to deliver therapeutic molecules.

Sci Rep 2016 Jan 4;6:18691. Epub 2016 Jan 4.

Laedhexa Biotechnologies Inc., QB3@953, San Francisco, CA, USA.

A 24-amino acid leader peptide of a new human recombinant manganese superoxide dismutase can enter cells and carry molecules. Here, we demonstrated that six of the 24 amino acids penetrate cells through a particular gate represented by a specific amino acid sequence of the oestrogen receptor (ER). We analysed the internalization of the synthetic hexapeptide and the cytotoxic activity of the hexapeptide conjugated to cisplatin on a cell line panel. In most cell lines, the hexapeptide delivered an amount of cisplatin that was 2 to 8 times greater than that released by cisplatin when the drug was used alone. This increased delivery increases the therapeutic index of cisplatin and reduces side effects caused by a high dosage or long-term treatment times. We may consider this hexapeptide a new molecular carrier to deliver molecules with therapeutic activity into ER(+) cells for diagnostic purposes and clinical or immune therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep18691DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4698655PMC
January 2016

Aptamer targeting EGFRvIII mutant hampers its constitutive autophosphorylation and affects migration, invasion and proliferation of glioblastoma cells.

Oncotarget 2015 Nov;6(35):37570-87

Istituto per l'Endocrinologia e l'Oncologia Sperimentale "G. Salvatore" (IEOS), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Naples, Italy.

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive human brain tumor, associated with very poor survival despite surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) are hallmarks in GBM with driving roles in tumor progression. In approximately half of the tumors with amplified EGFR, the EGFRvIII truncated extracellular mutant is detected. EGFRvIII does not bind ligands, is highly oncogenic and its expression confers resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). It has been demonstrated that EGFRvIII-dependent cancers may escape targeted therapy by developing dependence on PDGFRβ signaling, thus providing a strong rationale for combination therapy aimed at blocking both EGFRvIII and PDGFRβsignaling.We have recently generated two nuclease resistant RNA aptamers, CL4 and Gint4.T, as high affinity ligands and inhibitors of the human wild-type EGFR (EGFRwt) and PDGFRβ, respectively.Herein, by different approaches, we demonstrate that CL4 aptamer binds to the EGFRvIII mutant even though it lacks most of the extracellular domain. As a consequence of binding, the aptamer inhibits EGFRvIII autophosphorylation and downstream signaling pathways, thus affecting migration, invasion and proliferation of EGFRvIII-expressing GBM cell lines.Further, we show that targeting EGFRvIII by CL4, as well as by EGFR-TKIs, erlotinib and gefitinib, causes upregulation of PDGFRβ. Importantly, CL4 and gefitinib cooperate with the anti-PDGFRβ Gint4.T aptamer in inhibiting cell proliferation.The proposed aptamer-based strategy could have impact on targeted molecular cancer therapies and may result in progresses against GBMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.6066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4741949PMC
November 2015

The identification and molecular characterization of the first archaeal bifunctional exo-β-glucosidase/N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase demonstrate that family GH116 is made of three functionally distinct subfamilies.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2014 Jan 21;1840(1):367-77. Epub 2013 Sep 21.

Institute of Protein Biochemistry, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via P. Castellino 111, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Background: β-N-acetylhexosaminidases, which are involved in a variety of biological processes including energy metabolism, cell proliferation, signal transduction and in pathogen-related inflammation and autoimmune diseases, are widely distributed in Bacteria and Eukaryotes, but only few examples have been found in Archaea so far. However, N-acetylgluco- and galactosamine are commonly found in the extracellular storage polymers and in the glycans decorating abundantly expressed glycoproteins from different Crenarchaeota Sulfolobus sp., suggesting that β-N-acetylglucosaminidase activities could be involved in the modification/recycling of these cellular components.

Methods: A thermophilic β-N-acetylglucosaminidase was purified from cellular extracts of S. solfataricus, strain P2, identified by mass spectrometry, and cloned and expressed in E. coli. Glycosidase assays on different strains of S. solfataricus, steady state kinetic constants, substrate specificity analysis, and the sensitivity to two inhibitors of the recombinant enzyme were also reported.

Results: A new β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from S. solfataricus was unequivocally identified as the product of gene sso3039. The detailed enzymatic characterization demonstrates that this enzyme is a bifunctional β-glucosidase/β-N-acetylglucosaminidase belonging to family GH116 of the carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZy) classification.

Conclusions: This study allowed us to propose that family GH116 is composed of three subfamilies, which show distinct substrate specificities and inhibitor sensitivities.

General Significance: The characterization of SSO3039 allows, for the first time in Archaea, the identification of an enzyme involved in the metabolism β-N-acetylhexosaminide, an essential component of glycoproteins in this domain of life, and substantially increases our knowledge on the functional role and phylogenetic relationships amongst the GH116 CAZy family members.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2013.09.022DOI Listing
January 2014

Evidence for a structural role for acid-fast lipids in oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria.

mBio 2013 Sep 3;4(5):e00387-13. Epub 2013 Sep 3.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Boston University Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Unlabelled: Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp. cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while Toxoplasma causes disseminated infections in fetuses and untreated AIDS patients. Eimeria is a major pathogen of commercial chickens. Oocysts, which are the infectious form of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria and one of two infectious forms of Toxoplasma (the other is tissue cysts in undercooked meat), have a multilayered wall. Recently we showed that the inner layer of the oocyst walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria is a porous scaffold of fibers of β-1,3-glucan, which are also present in fungal walls but are absent from Cryptosporidium oocyst walls. Here we present evidence for a structural role for lipids in the oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria. Briefly, oocyst walls of each organism label with acid-fast stains that bind to lipids in the walls of mycobacteria. Polyketide synthases similar to those that make mycobacterial wall lipids are abundant in oocysts of Toxoplasma and Eimeria and are predicted in Cryptosporidium. The outer layer of oocyst wall of Eimeria and the entire oocyst wall of Cryptosporidium are dissolved by organic solvents. Oocyst wall lipids are complex mixtures of triglycerides, some of which contain polyhydroxy fatty acyl chains like those present in plant cutin or elongated fatty acyl chains like mycolic acids. We propose a two-layered model of the oocyst wall (glucan and acid-fast lipids) that resembles the two-layered walls of mycobacteria (peptidoglycan and acid-fast lipids) and plants (cellulose and cutin).

Importance: Oocysts, which are essential for the fecal-oral spread of coccidia, have a wall that is thought responsible for their survival in the environment and for their transit through the stomach and small intestine. While oocyst walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria are strengthened by a porous scaffold of fibrils of β-1,3-glucan and by proteins cross-linked by dityrosines, both are absent from walls of Cryptosporidium. We show here that all oocyst walls are acid fast, have a rigid bilayer, dissolve in organic solvents, and contain a complex set of triglycerides rich in polyhydroxy and long fatty acyl chains that might be synthesized by an abundant polyketide synthase. These results suggest the possibility that coccidia build a waxy coat of acid-fast lipids in the oocyst wall that makes them resistant to environmental stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00387-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3760245PMC
September 2013

L1CAM from human melanoma carries a novel type of N-glycan with Galβ1-4Galβ1- motif. Involvement of N-linked glycans in migratory and invasive behaviour of melanoma cells.

Glycoconj J 2013 Apr 29;30(3):205-25. Epub 2012 Apr 29.

Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, 9 Gronostajowa Street, Krakow, Poland.

Dramatic changes in glycan biosynthesis during oncogenic transformation result in the emergence of marker glycans on the cell surface. We analysed the N-linked glycans of L1CAM from different stages of melanoma progression, using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with exoglycosidase sequencing, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and lectin probes. L1CAM oligosaccharides are heavily sialylated, mainly digalactosylated, biantennary complex-type structures with galactose β1-4/3-linked to GlcNAc and with or without fucose α1-3/6-linked to GlcNAc. Hybrid, bisected hybrid, bisected triantennary and tetraantennary complex oligosaccharides, and β1-6-branched complex-type glycans with or without lactosamine extensions are expresses at lower abundance. We found that metastatic L1CAM possesses only α2-6-linked sialic acid and the loss of α2-3-linked sialic acid in L1CAM is a phenomenon observed during the transition of melanoma cells from VGP to a metastatic stage. Unexpectedly, we found a novel monoantennary complex-type oligosaccharide with a Galβ1-4Galβ1- epitope capped with sialic acid residues A1[3]G(4)2S2-3. To our knowledge this is the first report documenting the presence of this oligosaccharide in human cancer. The novel and unique N-glycan should be recognised as a new class of human melanoma marker. In functional tests we demonstrated that the presence of cell surface α2-3-linked sialic acid facilitates the migratory behaviour and increases the invasiveness of primary melanoma cells, and it enhances the motility of metastatic cells. The presence of cell surface α2-6-linked sialic acid enhances the invasive potential of both primary and metastatic melanoma cells. Complex-type oligosaccharides in L1CAM enhance the invasiveness of metastatic melanoma cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10719-012-9374-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3606521PMC
April 2013

Chymotrypsin C is a co-activator of human pancreatic procarboxypeptidases A1 and A2.

J Biol Chem 2011 Jan 22;286(3):1819-27. Epub 2010 Nov 22.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

Human digestive carboxypeptidases CPA1, CPA2, and CPB1 are secreted by the pancreas as inactive proenzymes containing a 94-96-amino acid-long propeptide. Activation of procarboxypeptidases is initiated by proteolytic cleavage at the C-terminal end of the propeptide by trypsin. Here, we demonstrate that subsequent cleavage of the propeptide by chymotrypsin C (CTRC) induces a nearly 10-fold increase in the activity of trypsin-activated CPA1 and CPA2, whereas CPB1 activity is unaffected. Other human pancreatic proteases such as chymotrypsin B1, chymotrypsin B2, chymotrypsin-like enzyme-1, elastase 2A, elastase 3A, or elastase 3B are inactive or markedly less effective at promoting procarboxypeptidase activation. On the basis of these observations, we propose that CTRC is a physiological co-activator of proCPA1 and proCPA2. Furthermore, the results confirm and extend the notion that CTRC is a key regulator of digestive zymogen activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M110.187369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3023477PMC
January 2011

The antiretroviral lectin cyanovirin-N targets well-known and novel targets on the surface of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites.

Eukaryot Cell 2010 Nov 17;9(11):1661-8. Epub 2010 Sep 17.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Boston University Goldman School of Dental Medicine, MA 02118, USA.

Entamoeba histolytica, the protist that causes amebic dysentery and liver abscess, has a truncated Asn-linked glycan (N-glycan) precursor composed of seven sugars (Man(5)GlcNAc(2)). Here, we show that glycoproteins with unmodified N-glycans are aggregated and capped on the surface of E. histolytica trophozoites by the antiretroviral lectin cyanovirin-N and then replenished from large intracellular pools. Cyanovirin-N cocaps the Gal/GalNAc adherence lectin, as well as glycoproteins containing O-phosphodiester-linked glycans recognized by an anti-proteophosphoglycan monoclonal antibody. Cyanovirin-N inhibits phagocytosis by E. histolytica trophozoites of mucin-coated beads, a surrogate assay for amebic virulence. For technical reasons, we used the plant lectin concanavalin A rather than cyanovirin-N to enrich secreted and membrane proteins for mass spectrometric identification. E. histolytica glycoproteins with occupied N-glycan sites include Gal/GalNAc lectins, proteases, and 17 previously hypothetical proteins. The latter glycoproteins, as well as 50 previously hypothetical proteins enriched by concanavalin A, may be vaccine targets as they are abundant and unique. In summary, the antiretroviral lectin cyanovirin-N binds to well-known and novel targets on the surface of E. histolytica that are rapidly replenished from large intracellular pools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/EC.00166-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2976296PMC
November 2010

Giardia cyst wall protein 1 is a lectin that binds to curled fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer.

PLoS Pathog 2010 Aug 19;6(8):e1001059. Epub 2010 Aug 19.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Boston University Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

The infectious and diagnostic stage of Giardia lamblia (also known as G. intestinalis or G. duodenalis) is the cyst. The Giardia cyst wall contains fibrils of a unique beta-1,3-linked N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) homopolymer and at least three cyst wall proteins (CWPs) composed of Leu-rich repeats (CWP(LRR)) and a C-terminal conserved Cys-rich region (CWP(CRR)). Our goals were to dissect the structure of the cyst wall and determine how it is disrupted during excystation. The intact Giardia cyst wall is thin (approximately 400 nm), easily fractured by sonication, and impermeable to small molecules. Curled fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are restricted to a narrow plane and are coated with linear arrays of oval-shaped protein complex. In contrast, cyst walls of Giardia treated with hot alkali to deproteinate fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are thick (approximately 1.2 microm), resistant to sonication, and permeable. The deproteinated GalNAc homopolymer, which forms a loose lattice of curled fibrils, is bound by native CWP1 and CWP2, as well as by maltose-binding protein (MBP)-fusions containing the full-length CWP1 or CWP1(LRR). In contrast, neither MBP alone nor MBP fused to CWP1(CRR) bind to the GalNAc homopolymer. Recombinant CWP1 binds to the GalNAc homopolymer within secretory vesicles of Giardia encysting in vitro. Fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are exposed during excystation or by treatment of heat-killed cysts with chymotrypsin, while deproteinated fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are degraded by extracts of Giardia cysts but not trophozoites. These results show the Leu-rich repeat domain of CWP1 is a lectin that binds to curled fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer. During excystation, host and Giardia proteases appear to degrade bound CWPs, exposing fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer that are digested by a stage-specific glycohydrolase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2924369PMC
August 2010

Glycoproteome study in myocardial lesions serum by integrated mass spectrometry approach: preliminary insights.

Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester) 2010 ;16(1):123-49

Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Biochimica, Università degli Studi Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, via Cynthia 4, 80126 Napoli, Italy.

Bottom up proteomics requires efficient and selective pre-fractionation procedures to simplify the analysis of the enormous number of peptides resulting from the hydrolysis of a cellular extract enabling the detection, identification and the structural characterization of the post-translational modifications. Glycosylation, a well-known post-translational modification, plays a key role in the enormous complexity, and heterogeneity of the human blood serum proteome. Thereby, characterization of glycosylation from serum is a challenging task, even for the existing sophisticated analytical methodologies. Here we report a glycoproteomics study on the identification of even low abundant glycoproteins, including the localization of N-glycosylation sites and the glycan profiling in human sera from healthy and myocarditis affected donors. The strategy is simply based on proteolytic digestion of total serum proteins followed by a single enrichment step of glycopeptides on ConA lectin affinity chromatography. Glycopeptides were then deglycosylated by PNGaseF treatment and nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analyses of the free peptides provided the basis for both identification of the individual proteins and elucidation of their modification sites. Moreover, glycan profilings could be obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis of the released oligosaccharides. Our data led to the identification of 68 different glycosylation sites within 49 different proteins. Moreover, the analyses carried out on glycans represent the first picture of a glycosylation pattern in myocardial lesions. As a whole, several differences in the glycosylation patterns from different sera were observed, thus indicating glycan profiling as a possible tool to discriminate among different diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1255/ejms.1035DOI Listing
March 2010

Technical advances in proteomics mass spectrometry: identification of post-translational modifications.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2009 ;47(6):647-65

Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

The importance of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins has become evident in the proteomic era as it plays a critical role in modulating cellular function, and can vary in response to different stimuli thereby tuning cellular mechanisms. Assessment of PTMs on a proteomic scale is a challenging task since they are substoichiometric, transient and reversible. Moreover, the amount of post-translationally modified proteins is generally very small when compared to their unmodified counterparts. Existing methodologies for identification of PTMs essentially relies on enrichment procedure to selectively increase the amount of modified peptides. These procedures need to be integrated with sophisticated mass spectrometric methods to enable the identifications of PTMs. Although the strategies developed so far are not optimal, a number of examples will be given where the combination of innovative separation methods along with advanced mass spectrometric analyses provide positive results. These experiences are leading the way for the next generation of proteomic approaches for identification of a wide range of PTMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2009.154DOI Listing
October 2009

The presence of OMP inclusion bodies in a Escherichia coli K-12 mutated strain is not related to lipopolysaccharide structure.

J Biochem 2009 Aug 13;146(2):231-40. Epub 2009 Apr 13.

Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Biochimica, Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy.

The role of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in the biogenesis of outer membrane proteins have been investigated in several studies. Some of these analyses showed that LPS is required for correct and efficient folding of outer membrane proteins; other studies support the idea of independence of outer membrane proteins biogenesis from LPS structure. In this article, we investigated the involvement of LPS structure in the anomalous aggregation of outer membrane proteins in a E. coli mutant strain (S17-1(lambdapir)). To achieve this aim, the LPS structure of the mutant strain was carefully determined and compared with the E. coli K-12 one. It turned out that LPS of these two strains differs in the inner core for the absence of a heptose residue (HepIII). We demonstrated that this difference is due to a mutation in waaQ, a gene encoding the transferase for the branch heptose HepIII residue. The mutation was complemented to find out if the restoration of LPS structure influenced the observed outer membrane proteins aggregation. Data reported in this work demonstrated that, in E. coli S17-1(lambdapir) there is no influence of LPS structure on the outer membrane proteins inclusion bodies formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jb/mvp062DOI Listing
August 2009

Positive modulation of RNA polymerase III transcription by ribosomal proteins.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2009 Feb 29;379(2):489-93. Epub 2008 Dec 29.

Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare, Università degli Studi di Parma, Viale G.P. Usberti 23/A, 43100 Parma, Italy.

A yeast nuclear fraction of unknown composition, named TFIIIE, was reported previously to enhance transcription of tRNA and 5S rRNA genes in vitro. We show that TFIIIE activity co-purifies with a specific subset of ribosomal proteins (RPs) which, as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, generally interact with tRNA and 5S rRNA genes, but not with a Pol II-specific promoter. Only Rpl6Ap and Rpl6Bp, among the tested RPs, were found associated to a TATA-containing tRNA(Ile)(TAT) gene. The RPL6A gene also emerged as a strong multicopy suppressor of a conditional mutation in the basal transcription factor TFIIIC, while RPL26A and RPL14A behaved as weak suppressors. The data delineate a novel extra-ribosomal role for one or a few RPs which, by influencing 5S rRNA and tRNA synthesis, could play a key role in the coordinate regulation of the different sub-pathways required for ribosome biogenesis and functionality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.12.097DOI Listing
February 2009

Gating deficits in isolation-reared rats are correlated with alterations in protein expression in nucleus accumbens.

J Neurochem 2009 Feb 28;108(3):611-20. Epub 2008 Nov 28.

Istituto Sperimentale Italiano L. Spallanzani, Milano, Italy.

The isolation-rearing (IR) paradigm, consisting of the social deprivation for 6-9 weeks after weaning, induces a spectrum of aberrant behaviors in adult rats. Some of these alterations such as sensorimotor gating deficits are reminiscent of the dysfunctions observed in schizophrenia patients. Although gating impairments in IR rats have been linked to impairments in the cortico-mesolimbic system, the specific molecular mechanisms underlying this relation are unclear. To elucidate the neurochemical modifications underlying the gating disturbances exhibited by IR rats, we compared their pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex with that of socially reared (SR) controls, and correlated this index to the results of proteomic analyses in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens from both groups. As expected, IR rats exhibited significantly lower startle amplitude and PPI than their SR counterparts. Following behavioral testing, IR and SR rats were killed and protein expression profiles of their brain regions were examined using two-dimensional electrophoresis based proteomics. Image analysis in the Coomassie blue-stained gel revealed that three protein spots were differentially expressed in the nucleus accumbens of IR and SR rats. Mass spectrometry (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and MS/MS) identified these spots as heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn), and 14-3-3 protein zeta/delta. While accumbal levels of HSP60 was decreased in IR rats, alpha-syn and 14-3-3 proteins were significantly increased in IR in comparison with SR controls. Notably, these two last alterations were significantly correlated with different loudness intensity-specific PPI deficits in IR rats. In view of the role of these proteins in synaptic trafficking and dopaminergic regulation, these findings might provide a neurochemical foundation for the gating alterations and psychotic-like behaviors in IR rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05806.xDOI Listing
February 2009

Characterisation of alpha3beta1 and alpha(v)beta3 integrin N-oligosaccharides in metastatic melanoma WM9 and WM239 cell lines.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2008 Dec 29;1780(12):1421-31. Epub 2008 Jul 29.

Department of Glycoconjugate Biochemistry, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, ul. Ingardena 6, 30-060 Krakow, Poland.

It is well documented that glycan synthesis is altered in some pathological processes, including cancer. The most frequently observed alterations during tumourigenesis are extensive expression of beta1,6-branched complex type N-glycans, the presence of poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures, and high sialylation of cell surface glycoproteins. This study investigated two integrins, alpha3beta1 and alpha(v)beta3, whose expression is closely related to cancer progression. Their oligosaccharide structures in two metastatic melanoma cell lines (WM9, WM239) were analysed with the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry. Both examined integrins possessed heavily sialylated and fucosylated glycans, with beta1,6-branches and short polylactosamine chains. In WM9 cells, alpha3beta1 integrin was more variously glycosylated than alpha(v)beta3; in WM239 cells the situation was the reverse. Functional studies (wound healing and ELISA integrin binding assays) revealed that the N-oligosaccharide component of the tested integrins influenced melanoma cell migration on vitronectin and alpha3beta1 integrin binding to laminin-5. Additionally, more variously glycosylated integrins exerted a stronger influence on these parameters. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report concerning structural characterisation of alpha(v)beta3 integrin glycans in melanoma or in any cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2008.07.011DOI Listing
December 2008

The different forms of PNS myelin P0 protein within and outside lipid rafts.

J Neurochem 2008 Oct 1;107(1):291-301. Epub 2008 Aug 1.

Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare "Ernesto Quagliariello", University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

It is now well established that plasma membranes, such as the myelin sheath, are made of different microdomains with different lipid and protein composition. Lipid rafts are made mainly of sphingolipids and cholesterol, whereas the non-raft regions are made mainly of phosphoglycerides. Most myelin proteins may distribute themselves in raft and non-raft microdomains but the driving force that gives rise to their different distribution is not known yet. In this paper, we have studied the distribution of protein zero (P0), the most representative protein of PNS myelin, in the membrane microdomains. To this end, we have purified P0 from both non-raft (soluble P0, P0-S) and raft (P0-R) regions of PNS. Purified proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified and characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A detailed structural description of the two P0 forms is given in terms of amino acid sequence, post-translational modifications, and composition of associated lipids. Our findings suggest that structural differences between the two proteins, mainly related to the glycogroups, might be responsible for their different localization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05598.xDOI Listing
October 2008