Publications by authors named "Andre Uitterlinden"

988 Publications

Serum phosphate, BMI and Body Composition of Middle-aged and Older Adults: A Cross-sectional Association Analysis and Bi-directional Mendelian Randomization Study.

J Nutr 2021 Oct 2. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Internal Medicine.

Background: Observational studies have reported associations between serum phosphate and body mass index (BMI) in specific clinical settings but the nature of this relation in the general population is unclear.

Objective: The aim of this study was twofold: to investigate the association between serum phosphate and BMI and body composition, and to explore evidence of causality through bidirectional one-sample Mendelian Randomization (MR) in the population-based Rotterdam Study (RS).

Methods: Observational associations between phosphate (mg/dL) and BMI, lean mass and fat percentage (fat%), estimated by DXA, were analyzed using multivariable regression models in 9202 subjects aged 45-100 years from three RS cohorts. The role of serum leptin was examined in a subgroup of 1089 subjects. For MR analyses, allele scores with 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for phosphate and 905 SNPs for BMI were constructed in 7983 subjects.

Results: Phosphate was inversely associated with BMI in the total population (β: -0.89; 95% CI: -1.17, -0.62), and stronger in females (β: -1.92; 95% CI: -2.20, -1.65) than in males (β: -0.37; 95% CI: -0.68, -0.06) (P-interaction < 0.05). Adjustment for leptin did not change results in males. In females, adjustment for leptin attenuated the association, but it was not abolished (β: -0.94; 95% CI: -1.45, -0.42). Phosphate was inversely associated with fat%, but not with lean mass, in both sexes. MR analyses suggested a causal effect of BMI on serum phosphate (β: -0.01; 95%CI: -0.02, 0.00), but not vice versa.

Conclusion: Serum phosphate was inversely associated with BMI and fat% in a population-based study of middle-aged and older adults, with a stronger effect in females than in males. Adjusting for leptin attenuated this relation in females only. MR results suggest a causal effect of BMI on phosphate but not vice versa. An underlying sex dimorphism in phosphate homeostasis should be further explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxab351DOI Listing
October 2021

Effect of Genetic Variation in CYP450 on Gonadal Impairment in a European Cohort of Female Childhood Cancer Survivors, Based on a Candidate Gene Approach: Results from the PanCareLIFE Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Sep 13;13(18). Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Brandenburg Medical School Theodor Fontane, Immanuel Klinik Rüdersdorf, 16816 Neuruppin, Germany.

Background: Female childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) carry a risk of therapy-related gonadal dysfunction. Alkylating agents (AA) are well-established risk factors, yet inter-individual variability in ovarian function is observed. Polymorphisms in CYP450 enzymes may explain this variability in AA-induced ovarian damage. We aimed to evaluate associations between previously identified genetic polymorphisms in CYP450 enzymes and AA-related ovarian function among adult CCSs.

Methods: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels served as a proxy for ovarian function in a discovery cohort of adult female CCSs, from the pan-European PanCareLIFE cohort ( = 743; age (years): median 25.8, interquartile range (IQR) 22.1-30.6). Using two additive genetic models in linear and logistic regression, nine genetic variants in three CYP450 enzymes were analyzed in relation to cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (CED) score and their impact on AMH levels. The main model evaluated the effect of the variant on AMH and the interaction model evaluated the modifying effect of the variant on the impact of CED score on log-transformed AMH levels. Results were validated, and meta-analysis performed, using the USA-based St. Jude Lifetime Cohort ( = 391; age (years): median 31.3, IQR 26.6-37.4).

Results: was significantly associated with AMH levels in the discovery and replication cohort. Meta-analysis revealed a significant main deleterious effect (Beta (95% CI): -0.706 (-1.11--0.298), -value = 7 × 10) of (rs4986910) on log-transformed AMH levels. (rs8192709) showed a significant protective interaction effect (Beta (95% CI): 0.527 (0.126-0.928), -value = 0.01) on log-transformed AMH levels in CCSs receiving more than 8000 mg/m CED.

Conclusions: Female CCSs carriers had significantly lower AMH levels, and may have a protective effect on AMH levels. Identification of risk-contributing variants may improve individualized counselling regarding the treatment-related risk of infertility and fertility preservation options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13184598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8470074PMC
September 2021

Genomic and phenotypic insights from an atlas of genetic effects on DNA methylation.

Nat Genet 2021 09 6;53(9):1311-1321. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Estonian Genome Center, Institute of Genomics, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

Characterizing genetic influences on DNA methylation (DNAm) provides an opportunity to understand mechanisms underpinning gene regulation and disease. In the present study, we describe results of DNAm quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analyses on 32,851 participants, identifying genetic variants associated with DNAm at 420,509 DNAm sites in blood. We present a database of >270,000 independent mQTLs, of which 8.5% comprise long-range (trans) associations. Identified mQTL associations explain 15-17% of the additive genetic variance of DNAm. We show that the genetic architecture of DNAm levels is highly polygenic. Using shared genetic control between distal DNAm sites, we constructed networks, identifying 405 discrete genomic communities enriched for genomic annotations and complex traits. Shared genetic variants are associated with both DNAm levels and complex diseases, but only in a minority of cases do these associations reflect causal relationships from DNAm to trait or vice versa, indicating a more complex genotype-phenotype map than previously anticipated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00923-xDOI Listing
September 2021

The genomics of heart failure: design and rationale of the HERMES consortium.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims: The HERMES (HEart failure Molecular Epidemiology for Therapeutic targetS) consortium aims to identify the genomic and molecular basis of heart failure.

Methods And Results: The consortium currently includes 51 studies from 11 countries, including 68 157 heart failure cases and 949 888 controls, with data on heart failure events and prognosis. All studies collected biological samples and performed genome-wide genotyping of common genetic variants. The enrolment of subjects into participating studies ranged from 1948 to the present day, and the median follow-up following heart failure diagnosis ranged from 2 to 116 months. Forty-nine of 51 individual studies enrolled participants of both sexes; in these studies, participants with heart failure were predominantly male (34-90%). The mean age at diagnosis or ascertainment across all studies ranged from 54 to 84 years. Based on the aggregate sample, we estimated 80% power to genetic variant associations with risk of heart failure with an odds ratio of ≥1.10 for common variants (allele frequency ≥ 0.05) and ≥1.20 for low-frequency variants (allele frequency 0.01-0.05) at P < 5 × 10 under an additive genetic model.

Conclusions: HERMES is a global collaboration aiming to (i) identify the genetic determinants of heart failure; (ii) generate insights into the causal pathways leading to heart failure and enable genetic approaches to target prioritization; and (iii) develop genomic tools for disease stratification and risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13517DOI Listing
September 2021

Genome-wide association study of frontotemporal dementia identifies a C9ORF72 haplotype with a median of 12-G4C2 repeats that predisposes to pathological repeat expansions.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 09 2;11(1):451. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Genetic factors play a major role in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The majority of FTD cannot be genetically explained yet and it is likely that there are still FTD risk loci to be discovered. Common variants have been identified with genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but these studies have not systematically searched for rare variants. To identify rare and new common variant FTD risk loci and provide more insight into the heritability of C9ORF72-related FTD, we performed a GWAS consisting of 354 FTD patients (including and excluding N = 28 pathological repeat carriers) and 4209 control subjects. The Haplotype Reference Consortium was used as reference panel, allowing for the imputation of rare genetic variants. Two rare genetic variants nearby C9ORF72 were strongly associated with FTD in the discovery (rs147211831: OR = 4.8, P = 9.2 × 10, rs117204439: OR = 4.9, P = 6.0 × 10) and replication analysis (P < 1.1 × 10). These variants also significantly associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a publicly available dataset. Using haplotype analyses in 1200 individuals, we showed that these variants tag a sub-haplotype of the founder haplotype of the repeat expansion that was previously found to be present in virtually all pathological C9ORF72 GC repeat lengths. This new risk haplotype was 10 times more likely to contain a C9ORF72 pathological repeat length compared to founder haplotypes without one of the two risk variants (~22% versus ~2%; P = 7.70 × 10). In haplotypes without a pathologic expansion, the founder risk haplotype had a higher number of repeats (median = 12 repeats) compared to the founder haplotype without the risk variants (median = 8 repeats) (P = 2.05 × 10). In conclusion, the identified risk haplotype, which is carried by ~4% of all individuals, is a major risk factor for pathological repeat lengths of C9ORF72 GC. These findings strongly indicate that longer C9ORF72 repeats are unstable and more likely to convert to germline pathological C9ORF72 repeat expansions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01577-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413318PMC
September 2021

Skin autofluorescence, a non-invasive biomarker for advanced glycation end-products, is associated with Sarcopenia.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in skeletal muscle has been implicated in development of sarcopenia.

Aim: To obtain further insight in the pathophysiology of sarcopenia we studied its relationship with skin AGEs in the general population.

Methods: In a cross-sectional analysis, 2744 participants of Northern European background, mean age 74.1 years were included from the Rotterdam Study. Skin AGEs were measured using AGE readerTMas Skin autofluorescence (SAF), appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI) using iDXA, hand grip strength (HGS) using a hydraulic hand dynamometer and in a subgroup gait speed (GS) measured on an electronic walkway (n=2,080). We defined probable sarcopenia (low HGS) and confirmed sarcopenia (low HGS and low ASMI) based on European working group on Sarcopenia revised criteria (EWGSOP2) cut-offs. Multivariate linear and logistic regression were performed adjusting for age, sex, body fat percentage, height, renal function, diabetes and smoking status.

Results: The prevalence of low ASMI was 7.7%, probable sarcopenia 24%, slow GS 3%, confirmed sarcopenia 3.5%. SAF was inversely associated with ASMI (β=-0.062, 95%CI = -0.092 - -0.032), HGS (β=-0.051, 95%CI = -0.075 - -0.026) and GS (β=-0.074, 95% CI = -0.116 - -0.033). One unit increase in SAF was associated with higher odds of probable sarcopenia (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.09 -1.68) and confirmed sarcopenia (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.33- 3.06).

Conclusion: Higher skin AGEs are associated with higher sarcopenia prevalence. We call for future longitudinal studies to explore the role of SAF as a potential biomarker of sarcopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab632DOI Listing
August 2021

Deciphering osteoarthritis genetics across 826,690 individuals from 9 populations.

Cell 2021 Sep 26;184(18):4784-4818.e17. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Laboratory for Bone and Joint Diseases, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shimane University, Shimane 693-8501, Japan.

Osteoarthritis affects over 300 million people worldwide. Here, we conduct a genome-wide association study meta-analysis across 826,690 individuals (177,517 with osteoarthritis) and identify 100 independently associated risk variants across 11 osteoarthritis phenotypes, 52 of which have not been associated with the disease before. We report thumb and spine osteoarthritis risk variants and identify differences in genetic effects between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing joints. We identify sex-specific and early age-at-onset osteoarthritis risk loci. We integrate functional genomics data from primary patient tissues (including articular cartilage, subchondral bone, and osteophytic cartilage) and identify high-confidence effector genes. We provide evidence for genetic correlation with phenotypes related to pain, the main disease symptom, and identify likely causal genes linked to neuronal processes. Our results provide insights into key molecular players in disease processes and highlight attractive drug targets to accelerate translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.07.038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8459317PMC
September 2021

Vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant usage is associated with increased incidence and progression of osteoarthritis.

Ann Rheum Dis 2021 05 12;80(5):598-604. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Objectives: Vitamin K is hypothesised to play a role in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis through effects on vitamin K-dependent bone and cartilage proteins, and therefore may represent a modifiable risk factor. A genetic variant in a vitamin K-dependent protein that is an essential inhibitor for cartilage calcification, matrix Gla protein (MGP), was associated with an increased risk for OA. Vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants (VKAs), such as warfarin and acenocoumarol, act as anticoagulants through inhibition of vitamin K-dependent blood coagulation proteins. VKAs likely also affect the functioning of other vitamin K-dependent proteins such as MGP.

Methods: We investigated the effect of acenocoumarol usage on progression and incidence of radiographic OA in 3494 participants of the Rotterdam Study cohort. We also examined the effect of and single nucleotide variants on this association.

Results: Acenocoumarol usage was associated with an increased risk of OA incidence and progression (OR=2.50, 95% CI=1.94-3.20), both for knee (OR=2.34, 95% CI=1.67-3.22) and hip OA (OR=2.74, 95% CI=1.82-4.11). Among acenocoumarol users, carriers of the high ) expression haplotype together with the OA risk allele (rs1800801-T) had an increased risk of OA incidence and progression (OR=4.18, 95% CI=2.69-6.50), while this relationship was not present in non-users of that group (OR=1.01, 95% CI=0.78-1.33).

Conclusions: These findings support the importance of vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins, as MGP, in the pathogenesis of OA. Additionally, these results may have direct implications for the clinical prevention of OA, supporting the consideration of direct oral anticoagulants in favour of VKAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-219483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053344PMC
May 2021

Genetic insights into biological mechanisms governing human ovarian ageing.

Nature 2021 08 4;596(7872):393-397. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Genome Integrity and Instability Group, Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

Reproductive longevity is essential for fertility and influences healthy ageing in women, but insights into its underlying biological mechanisms and treatments to preserve it are limited. Here we identify 290 genetic determinants of ovarian ageing, assessed using normal variation in age at natural menopause (ANM) in about 200,000 women of European ancestry. These common alleles were associated with clinical extremes of ANM; women in the top 1% of genetic susceptibility have an equivalent risk of premature ovarian insufficiency to those carrying monogenic FMR1 premutations. The identified loci implicate a broad range of DNA damage response (DDR) processes and include loss-of-function variants in key DDR-associated genes. Integration with experimental models demonstrates that these DDR processes act across the life-course to shape the ovarian reserve and its rate of depletion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that experimental manipulation of DDR pathways highlighted by human genetics increases fertility and extends reproductive life in mice. Causal inference analyses using the identified genetic variants indicate that extending reproductive life in women improves bone health and reduces risk of type 2 diabetes, but increases the risk of hormone-sensitive cancers. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms that govern ovarian ageing, when they act, and how they might be targeted by therapeutic approaches to extend fertility and prevent disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03779-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611832PMC
August 2021

Genetic association study of childhood aggression across raters, instruments, and age.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 07 30;11(1):413. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Childhood aggressive behavior (AGG) has a substantial heritability of around 50%. Here we present a genome-wide association meta-analysis (GWAMA) of childhood AGG, in which all phenotype measures across childhood ages from multiple assessors were included. We analyzed phenotype assessments for a total of 328 935 observations from 87 485 children aged between 1.5 and 18 years, while accounting for sample overlap. We also meta-analyzed within subsets of the data, i.e., within rater, instrument and age. SNP-heritability for the overall meta-analysis (AGG) was 3.31% (SE = 0.0038). We found no genome-wide significant SNPs for AGG. The gene-based analysis returned three significant genes: ST3GAL3 (P = 1.6E-06), PCDH7 (P = 2.0E-06), and IPO13 (P = 2.5E-06). All three genes have previously been associated with educational traits. Polygenic scores based on our GWAMA significantly predicted aggression in a holdout sample of children (variance explained = 0.44%) and in retrospectively assessed childhood aggression (variance explained = 0.20%). Genetic correlations (r) among rater-specific assessment of AGG ranged from r = 0.46 between self- and teacher-assessment to r = 0.81 between mother- and teacher-assessment. We obtained moderate-to-strong rs with selected phenotypes from multiple domains, but hardly with any of the classical biomarkers thought to be associated with AGG. Significant genetic correlations were observed with most psychiatric and psychological traits (range [Formula: see text]: 0.19-1.00), except for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Aggression had a negative genetic correlation (r = ~-0.5) with cognitive traits and age at first birth. Aggression was strongly genetically correlated with smoking phenotypes (range [Formula: see text]: 0.46-0.60). The genetic correlations between aggression and psychiatric disorders were weaker for teacher-reported AGG than for mother- and self-reported AGG. The current GWAMA of childhood aggression provides a powerful tool to interrogate the rater-specific genetic etiology of AGG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01480-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8324785PMC
July 2021

Association of Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes With Gut Microbial Diversity: A Microbiome-Wide Analysis From Population Studies.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 07 1;4(7):e2118811. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Importance: Previous studies have indicated that gut microbiome may be associated with development of type 2 diabetes. However, these studies are limited by small sample size and insufficient for confounding. Furthermore, which specific taxa play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes remains unclear.

Objective: To examine associations of gut microbiome composition with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in a large population-based setting controlling for various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional analysis included 2166 participants from 2 Dutch population-based prospective cohorts: the Rotterdam Study and the LifeLines-DEEP study.

Exposures: The 16S ribosomal RNA method was used to measure microbiome composition in stool samples collected between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013. The α diversity (Shannon, richness, and Inverse Simpson indexes), β diversity (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix), and taxa (from domain to genus level) were identified to reflect gut microbiome composition.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Associations among α diversity, β diversity, and taxa with the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and with type 2 diabetes were examined. Glucose and insulin were measured to calculate the HOMA-IR. Type 2 diabetes cases were identified based on glucose levels and medical records from January 2012 to December 2013. Analyses were adjusted for technical covariates, lifestyle, sociodemographic, and medical factors. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2020.

Results: There were 2166 participants in this study: 1418 from the Rotterdam Study (mean [SD] age, 62.4 [5.9] years; 815 [57.5%] male) and 748 from the LifeLines-DEEP study (mean [SD] age, 44.7 [13.4] years; 431 [57.6%] male); from this total, 193 type 2 diabetes cases were identified. Lower microbiome Shannon index and richness were associated with higher HOMA-IR (eg, Shannon index, -0.06; 95% CI, -0.10 to -0.02), and patients with type 2 diabetes had a lower richness than participants without diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88-0.99). The β diversity (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix) was associated with insulin resistance (R2 = 0.004, P = .001 in the Rotterdam Study and R2 = 0.005, P = .002 in the LifeLines-DEEP study). A total of 12 groups of bacteria were associated with HOMA-IR or type 2 diabetes. Specifically, a higher abundance of Christensenellaceae (β = -0.08; 95% CI, -0.12 to -0.03: P < .001), Christensenellaceae R7 group (β = -0.07; 95% CI, -0.12 to -0.03; P < .001), Marvinbryantia (β = -0.07; 95% CI, -0.11 to -0.03; P < .001), Ruminococcaceae UCG005 (β = -0.09; 95% CI, -0.13 to -0.05; P < .001), Ruminococcaceae UCG008 (β = -0.07; 95% CI, -0.11 to -0.03; P < .001), Ruminococcaceae UCG010 (β = -0.08; 95% CI, -0.12 to -0.04; P < .001), or Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 group (β = -0.09; 95% CI, -0.13 to -0.05; P < .001) was associated with lower HOMA-IR. A higher abundance of Clostridiaceae 1 (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.41-0.65; P < .001), Peptostreptococcaceae (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.45-0.70; P < .001), C sensu stricto 1 (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.40-0.65; P < .001), Intestinibacter (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.48-0.76; P < .001), or Romboutsia (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.44-0.70; P < .001) was associated with less type 2 diabetes. These bacteria are all known to produce butyrate.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, higher microbiome α diversity, along with more butyrate-producing gut bacteria, was associated with less type 2 diabetes and with lower insulin resistance among individuals without diabetes. These findings could help provide insight into the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.18811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322996PMC
July 2021

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption May Modify Associations Between Genetic Variants in the CHREBP (Carbohydrate Responsive Element Binding Protein) Locus and HDL-C (High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol) and Triglyceride Concentrations.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2021 Aug 16;14(4):e003288. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology (R.L.G., D.O.M.-K., F.R.R., R.dM.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.

Background: ChREBP (carbohydrate responsive element binding protein) is a transcription factor that responds to sugar consumption. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and genetic variants in the locus have separately been linked to HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and triglyceride concentrations. We hypothesized that SSB consumption would modify the association between genetic variants in the locus and dyslipidemia.

Methods: Data from 11 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium (N=63 599) and the UK Biobank (N=59 220) were used to quantify associations of SSB consumption, genetic variants, and their interaction on HDL-C and triglyceride concentrations using linear regression models. A total of 1606 single nucleotide polymorphisms within or near were considered. SSB consumption was estimated from validated questionnaires, and participants were grouped by their estimated intake.

Results: In a meta-analysis, rs71556729 was significantly associated with higher HDL-C concentrations only among the highest SSB consumers (β, 2.12 [95% CI, 1.16-3.07] mg/dL per allele; <0.0001), but not significantly among the lowest SSB consumers (=0.81; <0.0001). Similar results were observed for 2 additional variants (rs35709627 and rs71556736). For triglyceride, rs55673514 was positively associated with triglyceride concentrations only among the highest SSB consumers (β, 0.06 [95% CI, 0.02-0.09] ln-mg/dL per allele, =0.001) but not the lowest SSB consumers (=0.84; =0.0005).

Conclusions: Our results identified genetic variants in the locus that may protect against SSB-associated reductions in HDL-C and other variants that may exacerbate SSB-associated increases in triglyceride concentrations. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00005133, NCT00005121, NCT00005487, and NCT00000479.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.120.003288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8373451PMC
August 2021

Genetic susceptibility, obesity and lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes: The ARIC study and Rotterdam Study.

Diabet Med 2021 Oct 2;38(10):e14639. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Aims: Both lifestyle factors and genetic background contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Estimation of the lifetime risk of diabetes based on genetic information has not been presented, and the extent to which a normal body weight can offset a high lifetime genetic risk is unknown.

Methods: We used data from 15,671 diabetes-free participants of European ancestry aged 45 years and older from the prospective population-based ARIC study and Rotterdam Study (RS). We quantified the remaining lifetime risk of diabetes stratified by genetic risk and quantified the effect of normal weight in terms of relative and lifetime risks in low, intermediate and high genetic risk.

Results: At age 45 years, the lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes in ARIC in the low, intermediate and high genetic risk category was 33.2%, 41.3% and 47.2%, and in RS 22.8%, 30.6% and 35.5% respectively. The absolute lifetime risk for individuals with normal weight compared to individuals with obesity was 24% lower in ARIC and 8.6% lower in RS in the low genetic risk group, 36.3% lower in ARIC and 31.3% lower in RS in the intermediate genetic risk group, and 25.0% lower in ARIC and 29.4% lower in RS in the high genetic risk group.

Conclusions: Genetic variants for type 2 diabetes have value in estimating the lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes. Normal weight mitigates partly the deleterious effect of high genetic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dme.14639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8429251PMC
October 2021

Multiethnic Genome-Wide Association Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2021 Aug 9;14(4):e003258. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Epidemiology (N.F., G.H.), University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

Background: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals and strong risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor that accelerates atherosclerosis.

Methods: We performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies in up to 2500 T2D individuals of European ancestry (EA) and 1590 T2D individuals of African ancestry with or without exclusion of prevalent cardiovascular disease, for CAC measured by cardiac computed tomography, and 3608 individuals of EA and 838 individuals of African ancestry with T2D for cIMT measured by ultrasonography within the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium.

Results: We replicated 2 loci (rs9369640 and rs9349379 near and rs10757278 near ) for CAC and one locus for cIMT (rs7412 and rs445925 near ) that were previously reported in the general EA populations. We identified one novel CAC locus (rs8000449 near at 13q13.3) at =2.0×10 in EA. No additional loci were identified with the meta-analyses of EA and African ancestry. The expression quantitative trait loci analysis with nearby expressed genes derived from arterial wall and metabolic tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project pinpoints , encoding a matricellular protein involved in bone formation and bone matrix organization, as the potential candidate gene at this locus. In addition, we found significant associations (<3.1×10) for 3 previously reported coronary artery disease loci for these subclinical atherosclerotic phenotypes (rs2891168 near and rs11170820 near for CAC, and rs7412 near for cIMT).

Conclusions: Our results provide potential biological mechanisms that could link CAC and cIMT to increased cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.120.003258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8435075PMC
August 2021

Genome-wide association studies identify 137 genetic loci for DNA methylation biomarkers of aging.

Genome Biol 2021 06 29;22(1):194. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Biological aging estimators derived from DNA methylation data are heritable and correlate with morbidity and mortality. Consequently, identification of genetic and environmental contributors to the variation in these measures in populations has become a major goal in the field.

Results: Leveraging DNA methylation and SNP data from more than 40,000 individuals, we identify 137 genome-wide significant loci, of which 113 are novel, from genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses of four epigenetic clocks and epigenetic surrogate markers for granulocyte proportions and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 levels, respectively. We find evidence for shared genetic loci associated with the Horvath clock and expression of transcripts encoding genes linked to lipid metabolism and immune function. Notably, these loci are independent of those reported to regulate DNA methylation levels at constituent clock CpGs. A polygenic score for GrimAge acceleration showed strong associations with adiposity-related traits, educational attainment, parental longevity, and C-reactive protein levels.

Conclusion: This study illuminates the genetic architecture underlying epigenetic aging and its shared genetic contributions with lifestyle factors and longevity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02398-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243879PMC
June 2021

A multi-ethnic epigenome-wide association study of leukocyte DNA methylation and blood lipids.

Nat Commun 2021 06 28;12(1):3987. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Here we examine the association between DNA methylation in circulating leukocytes and blood lipids in a multi-ethnic sample of 16,265 subjects. We identify 148, 35, and 4 novel associations among Europeans, African Americans, and Hispanics, respectively, and an additional 186 novel associations through a trans-ethnic meta-analysis. We observe a high concordance in the direction of effects across racial/ethnic groups, a high correlation of effect sizes between high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides, a modest overlap of associations with epigenome-wide association studies of other cardio-metabolic traits, and a largely non-overlap with lipid loci identified to date through genome-wide association studies. Thirty CpGs reached significance in at least 2 racial/ethnic groups including 7 that showed association with the expression of an annotated gene. CpGs annotated to CPT1A showed evidence of being influenced by triglycerides levels. DNA methylation levels of circulating leukocytes show robust and consistent association with blood lipid levels across multiple racial/ethnic groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23899-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238961PMC
June 2021

A comparison of genotyping arrays.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Array technology to genotype single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) is widely used in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), clinical diagnostics, and linkage studies. Arrays have undergone a tremendous growth in both number and content over recent years making a comprehensive comparison all the more important. We have compared 28 genotyping arrays on their overall content, genome-wide coverage, imputation quality, presence of known GWAS loci, mtDNA variants and clinically relevant genes (i.e., American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) actionable genes, pharmacogenetic genes, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and SNV density). Our comparison shows that genome-wide coverage is highly correlated with the number of SNVs on the array but does not correlate with imputation quality, which is the main determinant of GWAS usability. Average imputation quality for all tested arrays was similar for European and African populations, indicating that this is not a good criterion for choosing a genotyping array. Rather, the additional content on the array, such as pharmacogenetics or HLA variants, should be the deciding factor. As the research question of a study will in large part determine which class of genes are of interest, there is not just one perfect array for all different research questions. This study can thus help as a guideline to determine which array best suits a study's requirements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00917-7DOI Listing
June 2021

The trans-ancestral genomic architecture of glycemic traits.

Nat Genet 2021 06 31;53(6):840-860. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Glycemic traits are used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic health. To date, most genetic studies of glycemic traits have focused on individuals of European ancestry. Here we aggregated genome-wide association studies comprising up to 281,416 individuals without diabetes (30% non-European ancestry) for whom fasting glucose, 2-h glucose after an oral glucose challenge, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin data were available. Trans-ancestry and single-ancestry meta-analyses identified 242 loci (99 novel; P < 5 × 10), 80% of which had no significant evidence of between-ancestry heterogeneity. Analyses restricted to individuals of European ancestry with equivalent sample size would have led to 24 fewer new loci. Compared with single-ancestry analyses, equivalent-sized trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the number of estimated variants in 99% credible sets by a median of 37.5%. Genomic-feature, gene-expression and gene-set analyses revealed distinct biological signatures for each trait, highlighting different underlying biological pathways. Our results increase our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology by using trans-ancestry studies for improved power and resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00852-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610958PMC
June 2021

Plasma amyloid β levels are driven by genetic variants near APOE, BACE1, APP, PSEN2: A genome-wide association study in over 12,000 non-demented participants.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Human Genetics Center, Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas, USA.

Introduction: There is increasing interest in plasma amyloid beta (Aβ) as an endophenotype of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Identifying the genetic determinants of plasma Aβ levels may elucidate important biological processes that determine plasma Aβ measures.

Methods: We included 12,369 non-demented participants from eight population-based studies. Imputed genetic data and measured plasma Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42 levels and Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratio were used to perform genome-wide association studies, and gene-based and pathway analyses. Significant variants and genes were followed up for their association with brain positron emission tomography Aβ deposition and AD risk.

Results: Single-variant analysis identified associations with apolipoprotein E (APOE) for Aβ1-42 and Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratio, and BACE1 for Aβ1-40. Gene-based analysis of Aβ1-40 additionally identified associations for APP, PSEN2, CCK, and ZNF397. There was suggestive evidence for interaction between a BACE1 variant and APOE ε4 on brain Aβ deposition.

Discussion: Identification of variants near/in known major Aβ-processing genes strengthens the relevance of plasma-Aβ levels as an endophenotype of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12333DOI Listing
May 2021

Epigenome-wide association meta-analysis of DNA methylation with coffee and tea consumption.

Nat Commun 2021 05 14;12(1):2830. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Coffee and tea are extensively consumed beverages worldwide which have received considerable attention regarding health. Intake of these beverages is consistently linked to, among others, reduced risk of diabetes and liver diseases; however, the mechanisms of action remain elusive. Epigenetics is suggested as a mechanism mediating the effects of dietary and lifestyle factors on disease onset. Here we report the results from epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) on coffee and tea consumption in 15,789 participants of European and African-American ancestries from 15 cohorts. EWAS meta-analysis of coffee consumption reveals 11 CpGs surpassing the epigenome-wide significance threshold (P-value <1.1×10), which annotated to the AHRR, F2RL3, FLJ43663, HDAC4, GFI1 and PHGDH genes. Among them, cg14476101 is significantly associated with expression of the PHGDH and risk of fatty liver disease. Knockdown of PHGDH expression in liver cells shows a correlation with expression levels of genes associated with circulating lipids, suggesting a role of PHGDH in hepatic-lipid metabolism. EWAS meta-analysis on tea consumption reveals no significant association, only two CpGs annotated to CACNA1A and PRDM16 genes show suggestive association (P-value <5.0×10). These findings indicate that coffee-associated changes in DNA methylation levels may explain the mechanism of action of coffee consumption in conferring risk of diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22752-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8121846PMC
May 2021

Genetic analysis in European ancestry individuals identifies 517 loci associated with liver enzymes.

Nat Commun 2021 05 10;12(1):2579. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Serum concentration of hepatic enzymes are linked to liver dysfunction, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We perform genetic analysis on serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) using data on 437,438 UK Biobank participants. Replication in 315,572 individuals from European descent from the Million Veteran Program, Rotterdam Study and Lifeline study confirms 517 liver enzyme SNPs. Genetic risk score analysis using the identified SNPs is strongly associated with serum activity of liver enzymes in two independent European descent studies (The Airwave Health Monitoring study and the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966). Gene-set enrichment analysis using the identified SNPs highlights involvement in liver development and function, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and vascular formation. Mendelian randomization analysis shows association of liver enzyme variants with coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. Genetic risk score for elevated serum activity of liver enzymes is associated with higher fat percentage of body, trunk, and liver and body mass index. Our study highlights the role of molecular pathways regulated by the liver in metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22338-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110798PMC
May 2021

Multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-sleep interactions identify novel loci for blood pressure.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Long and short sleep duration are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP), possibly through effects on molecular pathways that influence neuroendocrine and vascular systems. To gain new insights into the genetic basis of sleep-related BP variation, we performed genome-wide gene by short or long sleep duration interaction analyses on four BP traits (systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure) across five ancestry groups in two stages using 2 degree of freedom (df) joint test followed by 1df test of interaction effects. Primary multi-ancestry analysis in 62,969 individuals in stage 1 identified three novel gene by sleep interactions that were replicated in an additional 59,296 individuals in stage 2 (stage 1 + 2 P < 5 × 10), including rs7955964 (FIGNL2/ANKRD33) that increases BP among long sleepers, and rs73493041 (SNORA26/C9orf170) and rs10406644 (KCTD15/LSM14A) that increase BP among short sleepers (P < 5 × 10). Secondary ancestry-specific analysis identified another novel gene by long sleep interaction at rs111887471 (TRPC3/KIAA1109) in individuals of African ancestry (P = 2 × 10). Combined stage 1 and 2 analyses additionally identified significant gene by long sleep interactions at 10 loci including MKLN1 and RGL3/ELAVL3 previously associated with BP, and significant gene by short sleep interactions at 10 loci including C2orf43 previously associated with BP (P < 10). 2df test also identified novel loci for BP after modeling sleep that has known functions in sleep-wake regulation, nervous and cardiometabolic systems. This study indicates that sleep and primary mechanisms regulating BP may interact to elevate BP level, suggesting novel insights into sleep-related BP regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01087-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8517040PMC
April 2021

Genome-wide association study in almost 195,000 individuals identifies 50 previously unidentified genetic loci for eye color.

Sci Adv 2021 Mar 10;7(11). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Key Laboratory of Genomic and Precision Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Human eye color is highly heritable, but its genetic architecture is not yet fully understood. We report the results of the largest genome-wide association study for eye color to date, involving up to 192,986 European participants from 10 populations. We identify 124 independent associations arising from 61 discrete genomic regions, including 50 previously unidentified. We find evidence for genes involved in melanin pigmentation, but we also find associations with genes involved in iris morphology and structure. Further analyses in 1636 Asian participants from two populations suggest that iris pigmentation variation in Asians is genetically similar to Europeans, albeit with smaller effect sizes. Our findings collectively explain 53.2% (95% confidence interval, 45.4 to 61.0%) of eye color variation using common single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Overall, our study outcomes demonstrate that the genetic complexity of human eye color considerably exceeds previous knowledge and expectations, highlighting eye color as a genetically highly complex human trait.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd1239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946369PMC
March 2021

Possible modification of BRSK1 on the risk of alkylating chemotherapy-related reduced ovarian function.

Hum Reprod 2021 03;36(4):1120-1133

German Childhood Cancer Registry, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany.

Study Question: Do genetic variations in the DNA damage response pathway modify the adverse effect of alkylating agents on ovarian function in female childhood cancer survivors (CCS)?

Summary Answer: Female CCS carrying a common BR serine/threonine kinase 1 (BRSK1) gene variant appear to be at 2.5-fold increased odds of reduced ovarian function after treatment with high doses of alkylating chemotherapy.

What Is Known Already: Female CCS show large inter-individual variability in the impact of DNA-damaging alkylating chemotherapy, given as treatment of childhood cancer, on adult ovarian function. Genetic variants in DNA repair genes affecting ovarian function might explain this variability.

Study Design, Size, Duration: CCS for the discovery cohort were identified from the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) LATER VEVO-study, a multi-centre retrospective cohort study evaluating fertility, ovarian reserve and risk of premature menopause among adult female 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. Female 5-year CCS, diagnosed with cancer and treated with chemotherapy before the age of 25 years, and aged 18 years or older at time of study were enrolled in the current study. Results from the discovery Dutch DCOG-LATER VEVO cohort (n = 285) were validated in the pan-European PanCareLIFE (n = 465) and the USA-based St. Jude Lifetime Cohort (n = 391).

Participants/materials, Setting, Methods: To evaluate ovarian function, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels were assessed in both the discovery cohort and the replication cohorts. Using additive genetic models in linear and logistic regression, five genetic variants involved in DNA damage response were analysed in relation to cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (CED) score and their impact on ovarian function. Results were then examined using fixed-effect meta-analysis.

Main Results And The Role Of Chance: Meta-analysis across the three independent cohorts showed a significant interaction effect (P = 3.0 × 10-4) between rs11668344 of BRSK1 (allele frequency = 0.34) among CCS treated with high-dose alkylating agents (CED score ≥8000 mg/m2), resulting in a 2.5-fold increased odds of a reduced ovarian function (lowest AMH tertile) for CCS carrying one G allele compared to CCS without this allele (odds ratio genotype AA: 2.01 vs AG: 5.00).

Limitations, Reasons For Caution: While low AMH levels can also identify poor responders in assisted reproductive technology, it needs to be emphasized that AMH remains a surrogate marker of ovarian function.

Wider Implications Of The Findings: Further research, validating our findings and identifying additional risk-contributing genetic variants, may enable individualized counselling regarding treatment-related risks and necessity of fertility preservation procedures in girls with cancer.

Study Funding/competing Interest(s): This work was supported by the PanCareLIFE project that has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 602030. In addition, the DCOG-LATER VEVO study was funded by the Dutch Cancer Society (Grant no. VU 2006-3622) and by the Children Cancer Free Foundation (Project no. 20) and the St Jude Lifetime cohort study by NCI U01 CA195547. The authors declare no competing interests.

Trial Registration Number: N/A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deaa342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7970730PMC
March 2021

Genome-wide meta-analysis of muscle weakness identifies 15 susceptibility loci in older men and women.

Nat Commun 2021 01 28;12(1):654. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Low muscle strength is an important heritable indicator of poor health linked to morbidity and mortality in older people. In a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 256,523 Europeans aged 60 years and over from 22 cohorts we identify 15 loci associated with muscle weakness (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition: n = 48,596 cases, 18.9% of total), including 12 loci not implicated in previous analyses of continuous measures of grip strength. Loci include genes reportedly involved in autoimmune disease (HLA-DQA1 p = 4 × 10), arthritis (GDF5 p = 4 × 10), cell cycle control and cancer protection, regulation of transcription, and others involved in the development and maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. Using Mendelian randomization we report possible overlapping causal pathways, including diabetes susceptibility, haematological parameters, and the immune system. We conclude that muscle weakness in older adults has distinct mechanisms from continuous strength, including several pathways considered to be hallmarks of ageing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-20918-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844411PMC
January 2021

Mendelian randomization study on vitamin D levels and osteoarthritis risk: a concise report.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 07;60(7):3409-3412

Department of Internal Medicine.

Objective: The role of vitamin D in OA is unclear and previous epidemiological studies have provided inconsistent results. We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study to investigate the causal relationship between genetically determined serum vitamin D levels and hip/knee OA.

Methods: Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with vitamin D levels in the Study of Underlying Genetic Determinants of Vitamin D and Highly Related Traits Consortium were selected as instrumental variables. Summary statistics of the SNPs effects on OA were derived from the Iceland and UK Biobank, comprising 23 877 knee OA cases, 17 151 hip OA cases and >562 000 controls. The control samples match the OA cases in age, sex and county of origin.

Results: The MR analyses showed no causal association between genetically determined vitamin D levels and knee OA [odds ratio (OR) 1.03 (95% CI 0.84, 1.26)] or hip OA [OR 1.06 (95% CI 0.83, 1.35)].

Conclusion: Genetic variations associated with low vitamin D serum levels are not associated with increased risk of hip or knee OA in community-dwelling older adults, suggesting that vitamin D levels are not causally linked to OA. It is therefore unlikely that vitamin D supplementation protects against hip or knee OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keaa697DOI Listing
July 2021

Large-scale association analyses identify host factors influencing human gut microbiome composition.

Nat Genet 2021 02 18;53(2):156-165. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Twin Research & Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, UK.

To study the effect of host genetics on gut microbiome composition, the MiBioGen consortium curated and analyzed genome-wide genotypes and 16S fecal microbiome data from 18,340 individuals (24 cohorts). Microbial composition showed high variability across cohorts: only 9 of 410 genera were detected in more than 95% of samples. A genome-wide association study of host genetic variation regarding microbial taxa identified 31 loci affecting the microbiome at a genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10) threshold. One locus, the lactase (LCT) gene locus, reached study-wide significance (genome-wide association study signal: P = 1.28 × 10), and it showed an age-dependent association with Bifidobacterium abundance. Other associations were suggestive (1.95 × 10 < P < 5 × 10) but enriched for taxa showing high heritability and for genes expressed in the intestine and brain. A phenome-wide association study and Mendelian randomization identified enrichment of microbiome trait loci in the metabolic, nutrition and environment domains and suggested the microbiome might have causal effects in ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00763-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8515199PMC
February 2021

Assessment of Advanced Glycation End Products and Receptors and the Risk of Dementia.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 01 4;4(1):e2033012. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Importance: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) are implicated in the pathophysiological processes of dementia and potentially underlie the association of diabetes with neurodegeneration. However, longitudinal studies examining this association are lacking.

Objective: To determine whether markers of the AGE-RAGE system are associated with prevalent and incident dementia and with cognition.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this population-based cohort study including participants from the prospective Rotterdam Study, extracellular newly identified RAGE binding protein (EN-RAGE) and soluble RAGE (S-RAGE) were measured in plasma collected between 1997 and 1999 in a random selection of participants, and additionally in participants with prevalent dementia. Participants without dementia were followed up for dementia until 2016. Skin AGEs, measured as skin autofluorescence, and cognition were measured between 2013 and 2016 in participants without dementia. Data analysis was performed from June 2019 to December 2019.

Exposures: EN-RAGE, S-RAGE, and skin autofluorescence.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Prevalent and incident dementia and cognition, adjusted for potential confounders, including age, sex, diabetes, educational level, APOE ε4 carrier status, smoking, and estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Results: Of 3889 included participants (mean [SD] age, 72.5 [8.9] years; 2187 [56.2%] women), 1021 participants had data on plasma markers (mean [SD] age 73.6 [7.8] years; 564 [55.2%] women), 73 participants had dementia at baseline, and during 10 711 person-years of follow-up, 161 participants developed incident dementia. Compared with low levels, high EN-RAGE level was associated with a higher prevalence of dementia (odds ratio [OR], 3.68 [95% CI, 1.50-8.03]; P = .003), while high S-RAGE level was associated with a lower prevalence of dementia (OR, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.17-0.78]; P = .01). These associations attenuated in a longitudinal setting, with hazard ratios of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.42-1.01) for high EN-RAGE (P = .05) and 1.22 (95% CI, 0.82-1.81) for high S-RAGE (P = .33). Among 2890 participants without dementia (mean [SD] age, 72.5 [9.4] years; 1640 [57%] women), higher skin autofluorescence was associated with lower global cognitive function (adjusted difference in z score per 1-SD higher skin autofluorescence, -0.07 [95% CI, -0.11 to -0.04]), especially among carriers of the APOE ε4 allele (adjusted difference in z score per 1-SD higher skin autofluorescence, -0.15 [95% CI, -0.22 to -0.07]).

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings suggest that the AGE-RAGE system is associated with cognitive decline and dementia cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. This indicates either a short-term association or reverse causality. Findings of cross-sectional associations between higher skin autofluorescence and lower cognitive function and an association with APOE status also warrant replication and prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.33012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794665PMC
January 2021
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