Publications by authors named "Andre Landin Malt"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Non-Canonical Wnt Signaling Regulates Cochlear Outgrowth and Planar Cell Polarity via Gsk3β Inhibition.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 16;9:649830. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Cell Biology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, United States.

During development, sensory hair cells (HCs) in the cochlea assemble a stereociliary hair bundle on their apical surface with planar polarized structure and orientation. We have recently identified a non-canonical, Wnt/G-protein/PI3K signaling pathway that promotes cochlear outgrowth and coordinates planar polarization of the HC apical cytoskeleton and alignment of HC orientation across the cochlear epithelium. Here, we determined the involvement of the kinase Gsk3β and the small GTPase Rac1 in non-canonical Wnt signaling and its regulation of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway in the cochlea. We provided the first evidence for Wnt regulation of Gsk3β activity via inhibitory Ser9 phosphorylation. Furthermore, we carried out genetic rescue experiments of cochlear defects caused by blocking Wnt secretion. We showed that cochlear outgrowth was partially rescued by genetic ablation of Gsk3β but not by expression of stabilized β-catenin; while PCP defects, including hair bundle polarity and junctional localization of the core PCP proteins Fzd6 and Dvl2, were partially rescued by either Gsk3β ablation or constitutive activation of Rac1. Our results identify Gsk3β and likely Rac1 as downstream components of non-canonical Wnt signaling and mediators of cochlear outgrowth, HC planar polarity, and localization of a subset of core PCP proteins in the cochlea.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.649830DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086559PMC
April 2021

Wnts regulate planar cell polarity via heterotrimeric G protein and PI3K signaling.

J Cell Biol 2020 10;219(10)

Department of Cell Biology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA.

In the mammalian cochlea, the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway aligns hair cell orientation along the plane of the sensory epithelium. Concurrently, multiple cell intrinsic planar polarity (referred to as iPCP) modules mediate planar polarization of the hair cell apical cytoskeleton, including the kinocilium and the V-shaped hair bundle essential for mechanotransduction. How PCP and iPCP are coordinated during development and the roles of Wnt ligands in this process remain unresolved. Here we show that genetic blockade of Wnt secretion in the cochlear epithelium resulted in a shortened cochlear duct and misoriented and misshapen hair bundles. Mechanistically, Wnts stimulate Gi activity by regulating the localization of Daple, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Gαi. In turn, the Gβγ complex signals through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) to regulate kinocilium positioning and asymmetric localizations of a subset of core PCP proteins, thereby coordinating PCP and iPCP. Thus, our results identify a putative Wnt/heterotrimeric G protein/PI3K pathway for PCP regulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201912071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7659710PMC
October 2020

Par3 is essential for the establishment of planar cell polarity of inner ear hair cells.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 03 27;116(11):4999-5008. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Cell Biology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908;

In the inner ear sensory epithelia, stereociliary hair bundles atop sensory hair cells are mechanosensory apparatus with planar polarized structure and orientation. This is established during development by the concerted action of tissue-level, intercellular planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling and a hair cell-intrinsic, microtubule-mediated machinery. However, how various polarity signals are integrated during hair bundle morphogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we show that the conserved cell polarity protein Par3 is essential for planar polarization of hair cells. Par3 deletion in the inner ear disrupted cochlear outgrowth, hair bundle orientation, kinocilium positioning, and basal body planar polarity, accompanied by defects in the organization and cortical attachment of hair cell microtubules. Genetic mosaic analysis revealed that Par3 functions both cell-autonomously and cell-nonautonomously to regulate kinocilium positioning and hair bundle orientation. At the tissue level, intercellular PCP signaling regulates the asymmetric localization of Par3, which in turn maintains the asymmetric localization of the core PCP protein Vangl2. Mechanistically, Par3 interacts with and regulates the localization of Tiam1 and Trio, which are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rac, thereby stimulating Rac-Pak signaling. Finally, constitutively active Rac1 rescued the PCP defects in -deficient cochleae. Thus, a Par3-GEF-Rac axis mediates both tissue-level and hair cell-intrinsic PCP signaling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1816333116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6421412PMC
March 2019

Anti-osteogenic function of a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor LMX1B is essential to early patterning of the calvaria.

Dev Biol 2018 11 28;443(2):103-116. Epub 2018 May 28.

Department of Basic Science and Craniofacial Biology, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

The calvaria (upper part of the skull) is made of plates of bone and fibrous joints (sutures and fontanelles), and the proper balance and organization of these components are crucial to normal development of the calvaria. In a mouse embryo, the calvaria develops from a layer of head mesenchyme that surrounds the brain from shortly after mid-gestation. The mesenchyme just above the eye (supra-orbital mesenchyme, SOM) generates ossification centers for the bones, which then grow toward the apex gradually. In contrast, the mesenchyme apical to SOM (early migrating mesenchyme, EMM), including the area at the vertex, does not generate an ossification center. As a result, the dorsal midline of the head is occupied by sutures and fontanelles at birth. To date, the molecular basis for this regional difference in developmental programs is unknown. The current study provides vital insights into the genetic regulation of calvarial patterning. First, we showed that osteogenic signals were active in both EMM and SOM during normal development, which suggested the presence of an anti-osteogenic factor in EMM to counter the effect of these signals. Subsequently, we identified Lmx1b as an anti-osteogenic gene that was expressed in EMM but not in SOM. Furthermore, head mesenchyme-specific deletion of Lmx1b resulted in heterotopic ossification from EMM at the vertex, and craniosynostosis affecting multiple sutures. Conversely, forced expression of Lmx1b in SOM was sufficient to inhibit osteogenic specification. Therefore, we conclude that Lmx1b plays a key role as an anti-osteogenic factor in patterning the head mesenchyme into areas with different osteogenic competence. In turn, this patterning event is crucial to generating the proper organization of the bones and soft tissue joints of the calvaria.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2018.05.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6197925PMC
November 2018

An evolutionary, structural and functional overview of the mammalian TEAD1 and TEAD2 transcription factors.

Gene 2016 Oct 14;591(1):292-303. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Team Regulation of Cell-Fate Specification in the Mouse, IJM, UMR 7592 CNRS, Paris, France. Electronic address:

TEAD proteins constitute a family of highly conserved transcription factors, characterized by a DNA-binding domain called the TEA domain and a protein-binding domain that permits association with transcriptional co-activators. TEAD proteins are unable to induce transcription on their own. They have to interact with transcriptional cofactors to do so. Once TEADs bind their co-activators, the different complexes formed are known to regulate the expression of genes that are crucial for embryonic development, important for organ formation (heart, muscles), and involved in cell death and proliferation. In the first part of this review we describe what is known of the structure of TEAD proteins. We then focus on two members of the family: TEAD1 and TEAD2. First the different transcriptional cofactors are described. These proteins can be classified in three categories: i), cofactors regulating chromatin conformation, ii), cofactors able to bind DNA, and iii), transcriptional cofactors without DNA binding domain. Finally we discuss the recent findings that identified TEAD1 and 2 and its coactivators involved in cancer progression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2016.07.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7034536PMC
October 2016

Lhx6 and Lhx8 promote palate development through negative regulation of a cell cycle inhibitor gene, p57Kip2.

Hum Mol Genet 2015 Sep 12;24(17):5024-39. Epub 2015 Jun 12.

Department of Basic Science and Craniofacial Biology, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY 10010, USA,

Cleft palate is a common birth defect in humans. Therefore, understanding the molecular genetics of palate development is important from both scientific and medical perspectives. Lhx6 and Lhx8 encode LIM homeodomain transcription factors, and inactivation of both genes in mice resulted in profound craniofacial defects including cleft secondary palate. The initial outgrowth of the palate was severely impaired in the mutant embryos, due to decreased cell proliferation. Through genome-wide transcriptional profiling, we discovered that p57(Kip2) (Cdkn1c), encoding a cell cycle inhibitor, was up-regulated in the prospective palate of Lhx6(-/-);Lhx8(-/-) mutants. p57(Kip2) has been linked to Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and IMAGe syndrome in humans, which are developmental disorders with increased incidents of palate defects among the patients. To determine the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of p57(Kip2) by the Lhx genes, we combined chromatin immunoprecipitation, in silico search for transcription factor-binding motifs, and in vitro reporter assays with putative cis-regulatory elements. The results of these experiments indicated that LHX6 and LHX8 regulated p57(Kip2) via both direct and indirect mechanisms, with the latter mediated by Forkhead box (FOX) family transcription factors. Together, our findings uncovered a novel connection between the initiation of palate development and a cell cycle inhibitor via LHX. We propose a model in which Lhx6 and Lhx8 negatively regulate p57(Kip2) expression in the prospective palate area to allow adequate levels of cell proliferation and thereby promote normal palate development. This is the first report elucidating a molecular genetic pathway downstream of Lhx in palate development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddv223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4527495PMC
September 2015

Identification of a face enhancer reveals direct regulation of LIM homeobox 8 (Lhx8) by wingless-int (WNT)/β-catenin signaling.

J Biol Chem 2014 Oct 4;289(44):30289-30301. Epub 2014 Sep 4.

Department of Basic Science and Craniofacial Biology, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, New York 10010 and. Electronic address:

Development of the mammalian face requires a large number of genes that are expressed with spatio-temporal specificity, and transcriptional regulation mediated by enhancers plays a key role in the precise control of gene expression. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation for a histone marker of active enhancers, we generated a genome-wide map of candidate enhancers from the maxillary arch (primordium for the upper jaw) of mouse embryos. Furthermore, we confirmed multiple novel craniofacial enhancers near the genes implicated in human palate defects through functional assays. We characterized in detail one of the enhancers (Lhx8_enh1) located upstream of Lhx8, a key regulatory gene for craniofacial development. Lhx8_enh1 contained an evolutionarily conserved binding site for lymphoid enhancer factor/T-cell factor family proteins, which mediate the transcriptional regulation by the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway. We demonstrated in vitro that WNT/β-catenin signaling was indeed essential for the expression of Lhx8 in the maxillary arch cells and that Lhx8_enh1 was a direct target of the WNT/β-catenin pathway. Together, we uncovered a molecular mechanism for the regulation of Lhx8, and we provided valuable resources for further investigation into the gene regulatory network of craniofacial development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.592014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4215213PMC
October 2014

Neural crest-specific deletion of Ldb1 leads to cleft secondary palate with impaired palatal shelf elevation.

BMC Dev Biol 2014 Jan 17;14. Epub 2014 Jan 17.

Department of Basic Science and Craniofacial Biology, New York University College of Dentistry, 10010 New York, NY, USA.

Background: LIM domain binding protein 1 (LDB1) is a transcriptional co-factor, which interacts with multiple transcription factors and other proteins containing LIM domains. Complete inactivation of Ldb1 in mice resulted in early embryonic lethality with severe patterning defects during gastrulation. Tissue-specific deletions using a conditional knockout allele revealed additional roles of Ldb1 in the development of the central nervous system, hematopoietic system, and limbs. The goal of the current study was to determine the importance of Ldb1 function during craniofacial development in mouse embryos.

Results: We generated tissue-specific Ldb1 mutants using Wnt1-Cre, which causes deletion of a floxed allele in the neural crest; neural crest-derived cells contribute to most of the mesenchyme of the developing face. All examined Wnt1-Cre;Ldb1(fl/-) mutants suffered from cleft secondary palate. Therefore, we performed a series of experiments to investigate how Ldb1 regulated palate development. First, we examined the expression of Ldb1 during normal development, and found that Ldb1 was expressed broadly in the palatal mesenchyme during early stages of palate development. Second, we compared the morphology of the developing palate in control and Ldb1 mutant embryos using sections. We found that the mutant palatal shelves had abnormally blunt appearance, and failed to elevate above the tongue at the posterior domain. An in vitro head culture experiment indicated that the elevation defect was not due to interference by the tongue. Finally, in the Ldb1 mutant palatal shelves, cell proliferation was abnormal in the anterior, and the expression of Wnt5a, Pax9 and Osr2, which regulate palatal shelf elevation, was also altered.

Conclusions: The function of Ldb1 in the neural crest-derived palatal mesenchyme is essential for normal morphogenesis of the secondary palate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-213X-14-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3899388PMC
January 2014

Interaction with the Yes-associated protein (YAP) allows TEAD1 to positively regulate NAIP expression.

FEBS Lett 2013 Oct 28;587(19):3216-23. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Equipe de Génétique Moléculaire de la Différenciation, IJM, UMR 7592 CNRS, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Although the expression of the neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene is considered involved in apoptosis suppression as well as in inflammatory response, the molecular basis of the NAIP gene expression is poorly understood. Here we show that the TEA domain protein 1 (TEAD1) is able to positively activate the transcription of NAIP. We further demonstrate that this regulation is mediated by the presence of the endogenous Yes associated protein (YAP) cofactor, and requires the interaction with YAP. We finally identified an intronic region of the NAIP gene responding to TEAD1/YAP activity, suggesting that regulation of NAIP by TEAD1/YAP is at the transcriptional level.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2013.08.013DOI Listing
October 2013

Alteration of TEAD1 expression levels confers apoptotic resistance through the transcriptional up-regulation of Livin.

PLoS One 2012 24;7(9):e45498. Epub 2012 Sep 24.

Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Equipe de Génétique Moléculaire de la Différenciation, IJM, UMR 7592 CNRS, Paris, France.

Background: TEA domain (TEAD) proteins are highly conserved transcription factors involved in embryonic development and differentiation of various tissues. More recently, emerging evidences for a contribution of these proteins towards apoptosis and cell proliferation regulation have also been proposed. These effects appear to be mediated by the interaction between TEAD and its co-activator Yes-Associated Protein (YAP), the downstream effector of the Hippo tumour suppressor pathway.

Methodology/principal Findings: We further investigated the mechanisms underlying TEAD-mediated apoptosis regulation and showed that overexpression or RNAi-mediated silencing of the TEAD1 protein is sufficient to protect mammalian cell lines from induced apoptosis, suggesting a proapoptotic function for TEAD1 and a non physiological cytoprotective effect for overexpressed TEAD1. Moreover we show that the apoptotic resistance conferred by altered TEAD1 expression is mediated by the transcriptional up-regulation of Livin, a member of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family. In addition, we show that overexpression of a repressive form of TEAD1 can induce Livin up-regulation, indicating that the effect of TEAD1 on Livin expression is indirect and favoring a model in which TEAD1 activates a repressor of Livin by interacting with a limiting cofactor that gets titrated upon TEAD1 up-regulation. Interestingly, we show that overexpression of a mutated form of TEAD1 (Y421H) implicated in Sveinsson's chorioretinal atrophy that strongly reduces its interaction with YAP as well as its activation, can induce Livin expression and protect cells from induced apoptosis, suggesting that YAP is not the cofactor involved in this process.

Conclusions/significance: Taken together our data reveal a new, Livin-dependent, apoptotic role for TEAD1 in mammals and provide mechanistic insight downstream of TEAD1 deregulation in cancers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0045498PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3454436PMC
March 2013
-->