Publications by authors named "Anatoliy Samoylenko"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Identification of extracellular nanoparticle subsets by nuclear magnetic resonance.

Chem Sci 2021 Apr 29;12(24):8311-8319. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

NMR Research Unit, University of Oulu Finland

Exosomes are a subset of secreted lipid envelope-encapsulated extracellular vesicles (EVs) of 50-150 nm diameter that can transfer cargo from donor to acceptor cells. In the current purification protocols of exosomes, many smaller and larger nanoparticles such as lipoproteins, exomers and microvesicles are typically co-isolated as well. Particle size distribution is one important characteristics of EV samples, as it reflects the cellular origin of EVs and the purity of the isolation. However, most of the physicochemical analytical methods today cannot illustrate the smallest exosomes and other small particles like the exomers. Here, we demonstrate that diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method enables the determination of a very broad distribution of extracellular nanoparticles, ranging from 1 to 500 nm. The range covers sizes of all particles included in EV samples after isolation. The method is non-invasive, as it does not require any labelling or other chemical modification. We investigated EVs secreted from milk as well as embryonic kidney and renal carcinoma cells. Western blot analysis and immuno-electron microscopy confirmed expression of exosomal markers such as ALIX, TSG101, CD81, CD9, and CD63 in the EV samples. In addition to the larger particles observed by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) in the range of 70-500 nm, the DOSY distributions include a significant number of smaller particles in the range of 10-70 nm, which are visible also in transmission electron microscopy images but invisible in NTA. Furthermore, we demonstrate that hyperpolarized chemical exchange saturation transfer (Hyper-CEST) with Xe NMR indicates also the existence of smaller and larger nanoparticles in the EV samples, providing also additional support for DOSY results. The method implies also that the Xe exchange is significantly faster in the EV pool than in the lipoprotein/exomer pool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sc01402aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8221169PMC
April 2021

Characterization of nucleic acids from extracellular vesicle-enriched human sweat.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jun 9;22(1):425. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Disease Networks Research Unit, Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Kvantum Institute, Infotech Oulu, University of Oulu, 90014 University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

Background: The human sweat is a mixture of secretions from three types of glands: eccrine, apocrine, and sebaceous. Eccrine glands open directly on the skin surface and produce high amounts of water-based fluid in response to heat, emotion, and physical activity, whereas the other glands produce oily fluids and waxy sebum. While most body fluids have been shown to contain nucleic acids, both as ribonucleoprotein complexes and associated with extracellular vesicles (EVs), these have not been investigated in sweat. In this study we aimed to explore and characterize the nucleic acids associated with sweat particles.

Results: We used next generation sequencing (NGS) to characterize DNA and RNA in pooled and individual samples of EV-enriched sweat collected from volunteers performing rigorous exercise. In all sequenced samples, we identified DNA originating from all human chromosomes, but only the mitochondrial chromosome was highly represented with 100% coverage. Most of the DNA mapped to unannotated regions of the human genome with some regions highly represented in all samples. Approximately 5 % of the reads were found to map to other genomes: including bacteria (83%), archaea (3%), and virus (13%), identified bacteria species were consistent with those commonly colonizing the human upper body and arm skin. Small RNA-seq from EV-enriched pooled sweat RNA resulted in 74% of the trimmed reads mapped to the human genome, with 29% corresponding to unannotated regions. Over 70% of the RNA reads mapping to an annotated region were tRNA, while misc. RNA (18,5%), protein coding RNA (5%) and miRNA (1,85%) were much less represented. RNA-seq from individually processed EV-enriched sweat collection generally resulted in fewer percentage of reads mapping to the human genome (7-45%), with 50-60% of those reads mapping to unannotated region of the genome and 30-55% being tRNAs, and lower percentage of reads being rRNA, LincRNA, misc. RNA, and protein coding RNA.

Conclusions: Our data demonstrates that sweat, as all other body fluids, contains a wealth of nucleic acids, including DNA and RNA of human and microbial origin, opening a possibility to investigate sweat as a source for biomarkers for specific health parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07733-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188706PMC
June 2021

MicroRNAs in Extracellular Vesicles in Sweat Change in Response to Endurance Exercise.

Front Physiol 2020 15;11:676. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.

Background: To date, microRNAs (miRs) carried in extracellular vesicles (EVs) in response to exercise have been studied in blood but not in non-invasively collectable body fluids. In the present study, we examined whether six exercise-responsive miRs, miRs-21, -26, -126, -146, -221, and -222, respond to acute endurance exercise stimuli of different intensities in sweat.

Methods: We investigated the response of miRs isolated from sweat and serum EVs to three endurance exercise protocols: (1) maximal aerobic capacity (VO ), (2) anaerobic threshold (AnaT), and (3) aerobic threshold (AerT) tests. Sauna bathing was used as a control test to induce sweating through increased body temperature in the absence of exercise. All protocols were performed by the same subjects ( = 8, three males and five females). The occurrence of different miR carriers in sweat and serum was investigated via EV markers (CD9, CD63, and TSG101), an miR-carrier protein (AGO2), and an HDL-particle marker (APOA1) with Western blot. Correlations between miRs in sweat and serum (post-sample) were examined.

Results: Of the studied miR carrier markers, sweat EV fractions expressed CD63 and, very weakly, APOA1, while the serum EV fraction expressed all the studied markers. In sweat EVs, miR-21 level increased after AerT and miR-26 after all the endurance exercise tests compared with the Sauna ( < 0.050). miR-146 after AnaT correlated to sweat and serum EV samples ( = 0.881, = 0.004).

Conclusion: Our preliminary study is the first to show that, in addition to serum, sweat EVs carry miRs. Interestingly, we observed that miRs-21 and -26 in sweat EVs respond to endurance exercise of different intensities. Our data further confirmed that miR responses to endurance exercise in sweat and serum were triggered by exercise and not by increased body temperature. Our results highlight that sweat possesses a unique miR carrier content that should be taken into account when planning analyses from sweat as a substitute for serum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7373804PMC
July 2020

Exosomes as renal inductive signals in health and disease, and their application as diagnostic markers and therapeutic agents.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2015 20;3:65. Epub 2015 Oct 20.

Biocenter Oulu, Infotech Oulu, Developmental Biology Lab, Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Center for Cell Matrix Research, University of Oulu Oulu, Finland.

Cells secrete around 30-1000 nm membrane-enclosed vesicles, of which members of the subgroup between 30 and 100 nm are termed exosomes (EXs). EXs are released into the extracellular space and are widely present in body fluids and incorporated mRNA, miRNA, proteins, and signaling molecules. Increasing amounts of evidence suggest that EXs play an important role not only in cell-to-cell communication but also in various physiological and disease processes. EXs secreted by kidney cells control nephron function and are involved in kidney diseases and cancers. This makes them potential targets for diagnostic and therapeutic applications such as non-invasive biomarkers and cell-free vaccines and for use as drug delivery vehicles. This review provides an overview on the known roles of EXs in kidney development and diseases, including renal cancer. Additionally, it covers recent findings on their significance as diagnostic markers and on therapeutic applications to renal diseases and cancers. The intention is to promote an awareness of how many questions still remain open but are certainly worth investigating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2015.00065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4611857PMC
November 2015

Increased levels of the HER1 adaptor protein Rukl/CIN85 contribute to breast cancer malignancy.

Carcinogenesis 2012 Oct 12;33(10):1976-84. Epub 2012 Jul 12.

Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine.

The adaptor protein regulator for ubiquitous kinase/c-Cbl-interacting protein of 85kDa (Ruk/CIN85) was found to modulate HER1/EGFR signaling and processes like cell adhesion and apoptosis. Although these features imply a role in carcinogenesis, it is so far unknown how and by which molecular mechanisms Ruk/CIN85 could affect a certain tumor phenotype. By analyzing samples from breast cancer patients, we found high levels of Ruk(l)/CIN85 especially in lymph node metastases from patients with invasive breast adenocarcinomas, suggesting that Ruk(l)/CIN85 contributes to malignancy. Expression of Ruk(l)/CIN85 in weakly invasive breast adenocarcinoma cells deficient of Ruk(l)/CIN85 indeed converted them into more malignant cells. In particular, Ruk(l)/CIN85 reduced the growth rate, decreased cell adhesion, enhanced anchorage-independent growth, increased motility in both transwell migration and wound healing assays as well as affected the response to epidermal growth factor. Thereby, Ruk(l)/CIN85 led to a more rapid and prolonged epidermal growth factor-dependent activation of Src, Akt and ERK1/2 and treatment with the Src inhibitor PP2 and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 abolished the Ruk(l)/CIN85-dependent changes in cell motility. Together, this study indicates that high levels of Ruk(l)/CIN85 contribute to the conversion of breast adenocarcinoma cells into a more malignant phenotype via modulation of the Src/Akt pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgs228DOI Listing
October 2012