Publications by authors named "Anastasia Kalinovich"

11 Publications

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Prolonged β-adrenergic agonist treatment improves glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese UCP1 mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 03 1;320(3):E619-E628. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Nutrition and Movement Sciences, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Prolonged supplementation with the β-agonist clenbuterol improves glucose homeostasis in diabetic rodents, likely via β-adrenoceptor (β-AR)-mediated effects in the skeletal muscle and liver. However, since rodents have, in contrast to-especially diabetic-humans, substantial quantities of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and clenbuterol has affinity to β- and β-ARs, the contribution of BAT to these improvements is unclear. Therefore, we investigated clenbuterol-mediated improvements in glucose homeostasis in uncoupling protein 1-deficient () mice, lacking thermogenic BAT, versus wild-type (WT) mice. Anesthetized WT and C57Bl/6 mice were injected with saline or clenbuterol and whole body oxygen consumption was measured. Furthermore, male WT and C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to 17-wk of chow feeding, high-fat feeding, or high-fat feeding with clenbuterol treatment between and . Body composition was measured weekly with MRI. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests were performed in and , respectively. Clenbuterol increased oxygen consumption approximately twofold in WT mice. This increase was blunted in mice, indicating clenbuterol-mediated activation of BAT thermogenesis. High-fat feeding induced diabetogenic phenotypes in both genotypes. However, low-dose clenbuterol treatment for 2 wk significantly reduced fasting blood glucose by 12.9% in WT and 14.8% in mice. Clenbuterol treatment improved glucose and insulin tolerance in both genotypes compared with HFD controls and normalized to chow-fed control mice independent of body mass and composition alterations. Clenbuterol improved whole body glucose homeostasis independent of UCP1. Given the low human abundancy of BAT, β-AR agonist treatment provides a potential novel route for glucose disposal in diabetic humans. Improvements in whole body glucose homeostasis of rodents upon prolonged β-adrenergic agonist supplementation could potentially be attributed to UCP1-mediated BAT thermogenesis. Indeed, we show that acute injection with the β-AR agonist clenbuterol induces BAT activation in mice. However, we also demonstrate that prolonged clenbuterol supplementation robustly improves whole body glucose and insulin tolerance in a similar way in both DIO WT and mice, indicating that β-AR agonist supplementation improves whole body glucose homeostasis independent of UCP1-mediated BAT thermogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00324.2020DOI Listing
March 2021

The metabolic effects of mirabegron are mediated primarily by β -adrenoceptors.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2020 10;8(5):e00643

Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Vic., Australia.

The β -adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron is approved for use for overactive bladder and has been purported to be useful in the treatment of obesity-related metabolic diseases in humans, including those involving disturbances of glucose homeostasis. We investigated the effect of mirabegron on glucose homeostasis with in vitro and in vivo models, focusing on its selectivity at β-adrenoceptors, ability to cause browning of white adipocytes, and the role of UCP1 in glucose homeostasis. In mouse brown, white, and brite adipocytes, mirabegron-mediated effects were examined on cyclic AMP, UCP1 mRNA, [ H]-2-deoxyglucose uptake, cellular glycolysis, and O consumption. Mirabegron increased cyclic AMP levels, UCP1 mRNA content, glucose uptake, and cellular glycolysis in brown adipocytes, and these effects were either absent or reduced in white adipocytes. In brite adipocytes, mirabegron increased cyclic AMP levels and UCP1 mRNA content resulting in increased UCP1-mediated oxygen consumption, glucose uptake, and cellular glycolysis. The metabolic effects of mirabegron in both brown and brite adipocytes were primarily due to actions at β -adrenoceptors as they were largely absent in adipocytes derived from β -adrenoceptor knockout mice. In vivo, mirabegron increased whole body oxygen consumption, glucose uptake into brown and inguinal white adipose tissue, and improved glucose tolerance, all effects that required the presence of the β -adrenoceptor. Furthermore, in UCP1 knockout mice, the effects of mirabegron on glucose tolerance were attenuated. Thus, mirabegron had effects on cellular metabolism in adipocytes that improved glucose handling in vivo, and were primarily due to actions at the β -adrenoceptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prp2.643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7437350PMC
October 2020

Treatment with a β-2-adrenoceptor agonist stimulates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and improves glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in mice with diet-induced obesity.

Diabetologia 2020 08 29;63(8):1603-1615. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, the Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Svante Arrhenius väg 20B, Arrhenius laboratories F3, 10691, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims/hypothesis: Chronic stimulation of β-adrenoceptors, opposite to acute treatment, was reported to reduce blood glucose levels, as well as to improve glucose and insulin tolerance in rodent models of diabetes by essentially unknown mechanisms. We recently described a novel pathway that mediates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells via stimulation of β-adrenoceptors. In the current study we further explored the potential therapeutic relevance of β-adrenoceptor stimulation to improve glucose homeostasis and the mechanisms responsible for the effect.

Methods: C57Bl/6N mice with diet-induced obesity were treated both acutely and for up to 42 days with a wide range of clenbuterol dosages and treatment durations. Glucose homeostasis was assessed by glucose tolerance test. We also measured in vivo glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, insulin sensitivity by insulin tolerance test, plasma insulin levels, hepatic lipids and glycogen.

Results: Consistent with previous findings, acute clenbuterol administration increased blood glucose and insulin levels. However, already after 4 days of treatment, beneficial effects of clenbuterol were manifested in glucose homeostasis (32% improvement of glucose tolerance after 4 days of treatment, p < 0.01) and these effects persisted up to 42 days of treatment. These favourable metabolic effects could be achieved with doses as low as 0.025 mg kg day (40 times lower than previously studied). Mechanistically, these effects were not due to increased insulin levels, but clenbuterol enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in vivo both acutely in lean mice (by 64%, p < 0.001) as well as during chronic treatment in diet-induced obese mice (by 74%, p < 0.001). Notably, prolonged treatment with low-dose clenbuterol improved whole-body insulin sensitivity (glucose disposal rate after insulin injection increased up to 1.38 ± 0.31%/min in comparison with 0.15 ± 0.36%/min in control mice, p < 0.05) and drastically reduced hepatic steatosis (by 40%, p < 0.01) and glycogen (by 23%, p < 0.05).

Conclusions/interpretation: Clenbuterol improved glucose tolerance after 4 days of treatment and these effects were maintained for up to 42 days. Effects were achieved with doses in a clinically relevant microgram range. Mechanistically, prolonged treatment with a low dose of clenbuterol improved glucose homeostasis in insulin resistant mice, most likely by stimulating glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and improving whole-body insulin sensitivity as well as by reducing hepatic lipids and glycogen. We conclude that selective β-adrenergic agonists might be an attractive potential treatment for type 2 diabetes. This remains to be confirmed in humans. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-020-05171-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7351816PMC
August 2020

Alternatively activated macrophages do not synthesize catecholamines or contribute to adipose tissue adaptive thermogenesis.

Nat Med 2017 May 17;23(5):623-630. Epub 2017 Apr 17.

Diabetes, Metabolism and Obesity Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY 10029, USA.

Adaptive thermogenesis is the process of heat generation in response to cold stimulation. It is under the control of the sympathetic nervous system, whose chief effector is the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE). NE enhances thermogenesis through β3-adrenergic receptors to activate brown adipose tissue and by 'browning' white adipose tissue. Recent studies have reported that alternative activation of macrophages in response to interleukin (IL)-4 stimulation induces the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a key enzyme in the catecholamine synthesis pathway, and that this activation provides an alternative source of locally produced catecholamines during the thermogenic process. Here we report that the deletion of Th in hematopoietic cells of adult mice neither alters energy expenditure upon cold exposure nor reduces browning in inguinal adipose tissue. Bone marrow-derived macrophages did not release NE in response to stimulation with IL-4, and conditioned media from IL-4-stimulated macrophages failed to induce expression of thermogenic genes, such as uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), in adipocytes cultured with the conditioned media. Furthermore, chronic treatment with IL-4 failed to increase energy expenditure in wild-type, Ucp1 and interleukin-4 receptor-α double-negative (Il4ra) mice. In agreement with these findings, adipose-tissue-resident macrophages did not express TH. Thus, we conclude that alternatively activated macrophages do not synthesize relevant amounts of catecholamines, and hence, are not likely to have a direct role in adipocyte metabolism or adaptive thermogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.4316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5420449PMC
May 2017

UCP1 in adipose tissues: two steps to full browning.

Biochimie 2017 Mar 18;134:127-137. Epub 2017 Jan 18.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

The possibility that brown adipose tissue thermogenesis can be recruited in order to combat the development of obesity has led to a high interest in the identification of "browning agents", i.e. agents that increase the amount and activity of UCP1 in brown and brite/beige adipose tissues. However, functional analysis of the browning process yields confusingly different results when the analysis is performed in one of two alternative steps. Thus, in one of the steps, using cold acclimation as a potent model browning agent, we find that if the browning process is followed in mice initially housed at 21 °C (the most common procedure), there is only weak molecular evidence for increases in UCP1 gene expression or UCP1 protein abundance in classical brown adipose tissue; however, in brite/beige adipose depots, there are large increases, apparently associating functional browning with events only in the brite/beige tissues. Contrastingly, in another step, if the process is followed starting with mice initially housed at 30 °C (thermoneutrality for mice, thus similar to normal human conditions), large increases in UCP1 gene expression and UCP1 protein abundance are observed in the classical brown adipose tissue depots; there is then practically no observable UCP1 gene expression in brite/beige tissues. This apparent conundrum can be resolved when it is realized that the classical brown adipose tissue at 21 °C is already essentially fully differentiated and thus expands extensively through proliferation upon further browning induction, rather than by further enhancing cellular differentiation. When the limiting factor for thermogenesis, i.e. the total amount of UCP1 protein per depot, is analyzed, classical brown adipose tissue is by far the predominant site for the browning process, irrespective of which of the two steps is analyzed. There are to date no published data demonstrating that alternative browning agents would selectively promote brite/beige tissues versus classical brown tissue to a higher degree than does cold acclimation. Thus, to restrict investigations to examine adipose tissue depots where only a limited part of the adaptation process occurs (i.e. the brite/beige tissues) and to use initial conditions different from the thermoneutrality normally experienced by adult humans may seriously hamper the identification of therapeutically valid browning agents. The data presented here have therefore important implications for the analysis of the potential of browning agents and the nature of human brown adipose tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2017.01.007DOI Listing
March 2017

The expression of UCP3 directly correlates to UCP1 abundance in brown adipose tissue.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2016 Jan 27;1857(1):72-78. Epub 2015 Oct 27.

Institute of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Biophysics, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

UCP1 and UCP3 are members of the uncoupling protein (UCP) subfamily and are localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Whereas UCP1's central role in non-shivering thermogenesis is acknowledged, the function and even tissue expression pattern of UCP3 are still under dispute. Because UCP3 properties regarding transport of protons are qualitatively identical to those of UCP1, its expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) alongside UCP1 requires justification. In this work, we tested whether any correlation exists between the expression of UCP1 and UCP3 in BAT by quantification of protein amounts in mouse tissues at physiological conditions, in cold-acclimated and UCP1 knockout mice. Quantification using recombinant UCP3 revealed that the UCP3 amount in BAT (0.51ng/(μg total tissue protein)) was nearly one order of magnitude higher than that in muscles and heart. Cold-acclimated mice showed an approximate three-fold increase in UCP3 abundance in BAT in comparison to mice in thermoneutral conditions. Surprisingly, we found a significant decrease of UCP3 in BAT of UCP1 knockout mice, whereas the protein amount in skeletal and heart muscles remained constant. UCP3 abundance decreased even more in cold-acclimated UCP1 knockout mice. Protein quantification in UCP3 knockout mice revealed no compensatory increase in UCP1 or UCP2 expression. Our results do not support the participation of UCP3 in thermogenesis in the absence of UCP1 in BAT, but clearly demonstrate the correlation in abundance between both proteins. The latter is important for understanding UCP3's function in BAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbabio.2015.10.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115856PMC
January 2016

Metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids directly activate uncoupling protein 1 in brown-fat mitochondria.

Arch Toxicol 2016 May 4;90(5):1117-28. Epub 2015 Jun 4.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, The Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.

The metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) can display fatty acid-like activity in biological systems. The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue is physiologically (re)activated by fatty acids, including octanoate. This leads to bioenergetically uncoupled energy dissipation (heat production, thermogenesis). We have examined here the possibility that PFOA/PFOS can directly (re)activate UCP1 in isolated mouse brown-fat mitochondria. In wild-type brown-fat mitochondria, PFOS and PFOA overcame GDP-inhibited thermogenesis, leading to increased oxygen consumption and dissipated membrane potential. The absence of this effect in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-ablated mice indicated that it occurred through activation of UCP1. A competitive type of inhibition by increased GDP concentrations indicated interaction with the same mechanistic site as that utilized by fatty acids. No effect was observed in heart mitochondria, i.e., in mitochondria without UCP1. The stimulatory effect of PFOA/PFOS was not secondary to non-specific mitochondrial membrane permeabilization or to ROS production. Thus, metabolic effects of perfluorinated fatty acids could include direct brown adipose tissue (UCP1) activation. The possibility that this may lead to unwarranted extra heat production and thus extra utilization of food resources, leading to decreased fitness in mammalian wildlife, is discussed, as well as possible negative effects in humans. However, a possibility to utilize PFOA-/PFOS-like substances for activating UCP1 therapeutically in obesity-prone humans may also be envisaged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-015-1535-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4830884PMC
May 2016

ROS production in brown adipose tissue mitochondria: the question of UCP1-dependence.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2014 Dec 24;1837(12):2017-2030. Epub 2014 Apr 24.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, The Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

Whether active UCP1 can reduce ROS production in brown-fat mitochondria is presently not settled. The issue is of principal significance, as it can be seen as a proof- or disproof-of-principle concerning the ability of any protein to diminish ROS production through membrane depolarization. We therefore undertook a comprehensive investigation of the significance of UCP1 for ROS production, by comparing the ROS production in brown-fat mitochondria isolated from wildtype mice (that display membrane depolarization) or from UCP1(-/-) mice (with a high membrane potential). We tested the significance of UCP1 for glycerol-3-phosphate-supported ROS production by three methods (fluorescent dihydroethidium and the ESR probe PHH for superoxide, and fluorescent Amplex Red for hydrogen peroxide), and followed ROS production also with succinate, acyl-CoA or pyruvate as substrate. We studied the effects of the reverse electron flow inhibitor rotenone, the UCP1 activity inhibitor GDP, and the uncoupler FCCP. We also examined the effect of a physiologically induced increase in UCP1 amount. We noted GDP effects that were not UCP1-related. We conclude that only ROS production supported by exogenously added succinate was affected by the presence of active UCP1; ROS production supported by any other tested substrate (including endogenously generated succinate) was unaffected. This conclusion indicates that UCP1 is not involved in control of ROS production in brown-fat mitochondria. Extrapolation of these data to other tissues would imply that membrane depolarization may not necessarily decrease physiologically relevant ROS production. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled: 18th European Bioenergetics Conference (Biochim. Biophys. Acta, Volume 1837, Issue 7, July 2014).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbabio.2014.04.005DOI Listing
December 2014

In vivo levels of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide increase with age in mtDNA mutator mice.

Aging Cell 2014 Aug 13;13(4):765-8. Epub 2014 Mar 13.

MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Cambridge, CB2 0XY, UK.

In mtDNA mutator mice, mtDNA mutations accumulate leading to a rapidly aging phenotype. However, there is little evidence of oxidative damage to tissues, and when analyzed ex vivo, no change in production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide and hydrogen peroxide by mitochondria has been reported, undermining the mitochondrial oxidative damage theory of aging. Paradoxically, interventions that decrease mitochondrial ROS levels in vivo delay onset of aging. To reconcile these findings, we used the mitochondria-targeted mass spectrometry probe MitoB to measure hydrogen peroxide within mitochondria of living mice. Mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide was the same in young mutator and control mice, but as the mutator mice aged, hydrogen peroxide increased. This suggests that the prolonged presence of mtDNA mutations in vivo increases hydrogen peroxide that contributes to an accelerated aging phenotype, perhaps through the activation of pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory redox signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.12212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4326952PMC
August 2014

UCP1 in brite/beige adipose tissue mitochondria is functionally thermogenic.

Cell Rep 2013 Dec 27;5(5):1196-203. Epub 2013 Nov 27.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

The phenomenon of white fat "browning," in which certain white adipose tissue depots significantly increase gene expression for the uncoupling protein UCP1 and thus supposedly acquire thermogenic, fat-burning properties, has attracted considerable attention. Because the mRNA increases are from very low initial levels, the metabolic relevance of the change is unclear: is the UCP1 protein thermogenically competent in these brite/beige-fat mitochondria? We found that, in mitochondria isolated from the inguinal "white" adipose depot of cold-acclimated mice, UCP1 protein levels almost reached those in brown-fat mitochondria. The UCP1 was thermogenically functional, in that these mitochondria exhibited UCP1-dependent thermogenesis with lipid or carbohydrate substrates with canonical guanosine diphosphate (GDP) sensitivity and loss of thermogenesis in UCP1 knockout (KO) mice. Obesogenic mouse strains had a lower thermogenic potential than obesity-resistant strains. The thermogenic density (UCP1-dependent oxygen consumption per g tissue) of inguinal white adipose tissue was maximally one-fifth of interscapular brown adipose tissue, and the total quantitative contribution of all inguinal mitochondria was maximally one-third of all interscapular brown-fat mitochondria, indicating that the classical brown adipose tissue depots would still predominate in thermogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2013.10.044DOI Listing
December 2013

Circular dichroism spectra of cytochrome c oxidase.

Metallomics 2011 Apr 2;3(4):417-32. Epub 2011 Feb 2.

AN Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992, Russia.

Circular dichroism spectra of bovine heart aa(3)-type cytochrome c oxidase have been studied with a major focus on the Soret band π → π* transitions, B(0(x,y)), in the two iron porphyrin groups of the enzyme. The spectra of the fully reduced and fully oxidized enzyme as well as of its carbon monoxide and cyanide complexes have been explored. In addition, CD spectra of the reduced and oxidized ba(3)-type cytochrome c oxidase from Thermus thermophilus were recorded for comparison. An attempt is made to interpret the CD spectra of cytochrome c oxidase with the aid of a classical model of dipole-dipole coupled oscillators taking advantage of the known 3D crystal structure of the enzyme. Simultaneous modeling of the CD and absorption spectra shows that in the bovine oxidase, the dipole-dipole interactions between the hemes a and a(3), although contributing significantly, cannot account either for the lineshape or the magnitude of the experimental spectra. However, adding the interactions of the hemes with 22 aromatic amino acid residues located within 12 Å from either of the two heme groups can be used to model the CD curves for the fully reduced and fully oxidized oxidase with reasonable accuracy. Interaction of the hemes with the peptide bond transition dipoles is found to be insignificant. The modeling indicates that the CD spectra of cytochrome oxidase in both the reduced and oxidized states are influenced significantly by interaction with Tyr244 in the oxygen-reducing center of the enzyme. Hence, CD spectroscopy may provide a useful tool for monitoring the redox/ionization state of this residue. The modeling confirms wide energy splitting of the orthogonal B(x) and B(y) transitions in the porphyrin ring of heme a.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c0mt00099jDOI Listing
April 2011