Publications by authors named "Anass Johayem"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Reduced uptake of [11C]-ABP688, a PET tracer for metabolic glutamate receptor 5 in hippocampus and amygdala in Alzheimer's dementia.

Brain Behav 2020 06 18;10(6):e01632. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Institute for Regenerative Medicine (IREM), University of Zurich, Schlieren, Switzerland.

Introduction: Metabotropic glutamate receptors play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease due to their involvement in processes of memory formation, neuroplasticity, and synaptotoxity. The objective of the current study was to study mGluR5 availability measured by [ C]-ABP688 (ABP) in patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's dementia (AD).

Methods: A bolus-infusion protocol of [ C]-ABP688 was applied in 9 subjects with AD and 10 cognitively healthy controls (Controls) to derive distribution volume estimates of mGluR5. Furthermore, we also estimated cerebral perfusion by averaging early frame signal of initial ABP bolus injection.

Results: Subjects with Alzheimer's dementia (mean age: 77.3/SD 5.7) were older than controls (mean age: 68.5/SD: 9.6) and scored lower on the MMSE (22.1/SD2.7 vs. 29.0/SD0.8). There were no overall differences in ABP signal. However, distribution volume ratio (DVR) for ABP was reduced in the bilateral hippocampus (AD: 1.34/SD: 0.40 vs. Control: 1.84/SD:0.31, p = .007) and the bilateral amygdala (AD:1.86/SD:0.26 vs. Control:2.33/SD:0.37 p = .006) in AD patients compared to controls. Estimate of cerebral blood flow was reduced in the bilateral hippocampus in AD (AD:0.75/SD:0.10 vs. Control:0.86/SD:0.09 p = .02).

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate reduced mGluR5 binding in the hippocampus and amygdala in Alzheimer's dementia. Whether this is due to synaptic loss and/or consecutive reduction of potential binding sites or reflects disease inherent mechanisms remains to be elucidated in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1632DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303388PMC
June 2020

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in bulimia nervosa.

Sci Rep 2020 04 14;10(1):6374. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Translational Research Center, University Hospital of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Bulimia nervosa (BN) shares central features with substance-related and addictive disorders. The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) plays an important role in addiction. Based on similarities between binge eating and substance-related and addictive disorders, we investigated mGlu5 in vivo in 15 female subjects with BN and 15 matched controls. We measured mGlu5 distribution volume ratio (DVR) with positron emission tomography (PET) using [11 C]ABP688. In BN mGlu5 DVR was higher in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), subgenual prefrontal cortex, and straight gyrus (p < 0.05). In BN, higher mGlu5 DVR in various brain regions, including ACC, pallidum, putamen, and caudate, positively correlated with "maturity fears" as assessed using the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (p < 0.05). In BN and controls, smokers had globally decreased mGlu5 DVR. We present the first evidence for increased mGlu5 DVR in BN. Our findings suggest that pharmacological agents inhibiting mGlu5 might have a therapeutic potential in BN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63389-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156702PMC
April 2020

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 binding in male patients with alcohol use disorder.

Transl Psychiatry 2018 01 10;8(1):17. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Division of Molecular Psychiatry, Translational Research Center, University Hospital of Psychiatry, University of Bern, 3000, Bern 60, Switzerland.

Glutamate signaling plays a major role in addiction. Preclinical research strongly suggests an implication of G-protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) in nicotine addiction and alcohol use disorder. In humans, smoking is related to a global reduction in mGluR5 availability. In the present study, we investigated mGluR5 in vivo in patients with alcohol use disorder without the confounding effects of smoking. A total of 14 male subjects with alcohol use disorder and at least a 25-day abstinence and 14 matched male non-smoking healthy controls were included in the study. We employed positron emission tomography (PET) with the mGluR5-specific radiotracer [11C]ABP688, using a bolus/infusion protocol. We found increased mGluR5 DVR in several regions within the temporal lobe in patients, as compared to controls. The largest between-group difference was in the amygdala. There was a marked positive relation between mGluR5 DVR in the anterior cingulate and mGluR5 DVR in the orbitofrontal cortex in patients, but not in controls. In patients, lower temptation to drink was related to higher amygdala mGluR5 DVR. We did not find altered mGluR5 DVR in the basal ganglia of subjects recovering from alcohol use disorder. In conclusion, our study provides clinical evidence for altered mGluR5 signaling in the amygdala in alcohol use disorder. This alteration was associated with the temptation to drink. In addition, this study suggests abnormal mGluR5 signaling in a network underlying reward-related behavioral flexibility. These findings strengthen the case for pharmacological agents acting on mGluR5 as promising candidates for the treatment of alcohol use disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-017-0066-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5802584PMC
January 2018

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 neuroimaging in schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2017 05 12;183:95-101. Epub 2016 Nov 12.

Psychiatric University Hospital, University of Bern, 3000 Bern 60, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is a promising drug target for the treatment of schizophrenia. In this study, we compared mGluR5 distribution volume ration (DVR) in subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Given our previous findings, we matched samples for gender, age, and smoking status. Binding to mGluR5 was determined using positron emission tomography and [C]ABP688, which binds to an allosteric site with high selectivity. DVR in the 15 individuals with schizophrenia did not differ from that of the 15 controls. In both groups, smoking was associated with marked global reductions in mGluR5 availability (on average 23.8%). In nonsmoking subjects with schizophrenia, there was a positive correlation between mGluR5 DVR in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and the use of antipsychotic drugs (r=0.9, p=0.019). Because antipsychotic drugs such as clozapine appeared to have indirect effects on mGluR5 signaling, our findings may be clinically relevant. They also provide promising leads for elucidating the high comorbidity between schizophrenia and tobacco addiction. Low mGluR5 DVR in smokers my represent a risk factor for schizophrenia. Alternatively, smoking may counteract the potential upregulation of mGluR5 by antipsychotic drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2016.11.008DOI Listing
May 2017

Association of Long-Term Nicotine Abstinence With Normal Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor-5 Binding.

Biol Psychiatry 2016 Mar 27;79(6):474-80. Epub 2015 Feb 27.

Division of Molecular Psychiatry (FA, GH), Translational Research Center, University Hospital of Psychiatry, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Nicotine addiction is a major public health problem and is associated with primary glutamatergic dysfunction. We recently showed marked global reductions in metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) binding in smokers and recent ex-smokers (average abstinence duration of 25 weeks). The goal of this study was to examine the role of mGluR5 downregulation in nicotine addiction by investigating a group of long-term ex-smokers (abstinence >1.5 years), and to explore associations between mGluR5 binding and relapse in recent ex-smokers.

Methods: Images of mGluR5 receptor binding were acquired in 14 long-term ex-smokers, using positron emission tomography with radiolabeled [11C]ABP688, which binds to an allosteric site with high specificity.

Results: Long-term ex-smokers and individuals who had never smoked showed no differences in mGluR5 binding in any of the brain regions examined. Long-term ex-smokers showed significantly higher mGluR5 binding than recent ex-smokers, most prominently in the frontal cortex (42%) and thalamus (57%).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that downregulation of mGluR5 is a pathogenetic mechanism underlying nicotine dependence and the high relapse rate in individuals previously exposed to nicotine. Therefore, mGluR5 receptor binding appears to be an effective biomarker in smoking and a promising target for the discovery of novel medication for nicotine dependence and other substance-related disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.02.027DOI Listing
March 2016

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 binding in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2014 Dec 15;17(12):1915-22. Epub 2014 May 15.

Psychiatric University Hospital, University of Bern,BernSwitzerland.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling, mostly chronic, psychiatric condition with significant social and economic impairments and is a major public health issue. However, numerous patients are resistant to currently available pharmacological and psychological interventions. Given that recent animal studies and magnetic resonance spectroscopy research points to glutamate dysfunction in OCD, we investigated the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in patients with OCD and healthy controls. We determined mGluR5 distribution volume ratio (DVR) in the brain of ten patients with OCD and ten healthy controls by using [11C]ABP688 positron-emission tomography. As a clinical measure of OCD severity, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was employed. We found no significant global difference in mGluR5 DVR between patients with OCD and healthy controls. We did, however, observe significant positive correlations between the Y-BOCS obsession sub-score and mGluR5 DVR in the cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical brain circuit, including regions of the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, and medial orbitofrontal cortex (Spearman's ρ's⩾ = 0.68, p < 0.05). These results suggest that obsessions in particular might have an underlying glutamatergic pathology related to mGluR5. The research indicates that the development of metabotropic glutamate agents would be useful as a new treatment for OCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1461145714000716DOI Listing
December 2014

Tumor imaging in patients with advanced tumors using a new (99m) Tc-radiolabeled vitamin B12 derivative.

J Nucl Med 2014 Jan 12;55(1):43-9. Epub 2013 Dec 12.

Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department Medical Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Unlabelled: Targeting cancer cells with vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is hampered by unwanted physiologic tissue uptake mediated by transcobalamin. Adhering to good manufacturing practice, we have developed a new (99m)Tc-cobalamin derivative ((99m)Tc(CO)3-[(4-amido-butyl)-pyridin-2-yl-methyl-amino-acetato] cobalamin, (99m)Tc-PAMA-cobalamin). The derivative shows no binding to transcobalamin but is recognized by haptocorrin, a protein present in the circulation and notably expressed in many tumor cells. In this prospective study, we investigated cancer-specific uptake of (99m)Tc-PAMA-cobalamin in 10 patients with various metastatic tumors.

Methods: Ten patients with biopsy-proven metastatic cancer were included. Dynamic imaging was started immediately after injection of 300-500 MBq of (99m)Tc-PAMA-cobalamin, and whole-body scintigrams were obtained at 10, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min and after 24 h. The relative tumor activity using SPECT/CT over the tumor region after 4 h was measured in comparison to disease-free lung parenchyma. Patients 3-10 received between 20 and 1,000 μg of cobalamin intravenously before injection of (99m)Tc-PAMA-cobalamin. The study population comprised 4 patients with adenocarcinomas of the lung, 3 with squamous cell carcinomas of the hypopharyngeal region, 1 with prostate adenocarcinoma, 1 with breast, and 1 with colon adenocarcinoma.

Results: The median age of the study group was 61 ± 11 y. Six of 10 patients showed positive tumor uptake on (99m)Tc-PAMA-cobalamin whole-body scintigraphy. The scan was positive in 1 patient with colon adenocarcinoma, in 3 of 4 lung adenocarcinomas, in 1 of 3 hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas, and in 1 breast adenocarcinoma. Renal uptake was between 1% and 3% for the left kidney. Predosing with cobalamin increased the tumor uptake and improved blood-pool clearance. The best image quality was achieved with a predose of 20-100 ug of cold cobalamin. The mean patient dose was 2.7 ± 0.9 mSv/patient.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, we report for the first time on (99m)Tc-PAMA-cobalamin imaging in patients with metastatic cancer disease and show that tumor targeting is feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.113.122499DOI Listing
January 2014

In vivo imaging of prostate cancer using [68Ga]-labeled bombesin analog BAY86-7548.

Clin Cancer Res 2013 Oct 9;19(19):5434-43. Epub 2013 Aug 9.

Authors' Affiliations: Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Departments of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oncology and Radiotherapy, and Pathology, Turku University Hospital; Turku PET Centre; Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Departments of Medical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Zurich; Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany.

Purpose: A novel [(68)Ga]-labeled DOTA-4-amino-1-carboxymethyl-piperidine-D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2 peptide (BAY86-7548) having high affinity to bombesin receptor subtype II to detect primary and metastatic prostate carcinoma using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) was synthesized and evaluated for prostate cancer.

Experimental Design: In this first human study with BAY86-7548, 14 men scheduled for radical prostatectomy (n = 11) or with biochemical recurrence after surgery or hormonal therapy (n = 3) were enrolled. The patients received an intravenous injection of BAY86-7548 followed by over 60-minute dynamic imaging of prostate gland (n = 10) and/or subsequent whole-body imaging (n = 14). The visual assessment of PET/CT images included evaluation of intraprostatic (12 subsextants) and pelvic nodal uptake of BAY86-7548 in 11 surgical patients and detection of potential metastatic foci in all patients. In patients with biochemical recurrence, results were compared with those of either [(11)C]-acetate (n = 2) or [(18)F]-fluoromethylcholine (n = 1) PET/CT.

Results: We found a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 88%, 81% and 83%, respectively, for detection of primary PCa and sensitivity of 70% for metastatic lymph nodes using histology as gold standard. BAY86-7548 correctly detected local recurrence in prostate bed and showed nodal relapse in accordance with [(11)C]-acetate PET/CT in 2 patients with biochemical relapse. In the third hormone refractory patient, BAY86-7548 failed to show multiple bone metastases evident on [(18)F]-fluoromethylcholine PET/CT.

Conclusion: BAY86-7548 PET/CT is a promising molecular imaging technique for detecting intraprostatic prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-3490DOI Listing
October 2013

Marked global reduction in mGluR5 receptor binding in smokers and ex-smokers determined by [11C]ABP688 positron emission tomography.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 Jan 17;110(2):737-42. Epub 2012 Dec 17.

Psychiatric University Hospital, University of Bern, 3000 Bern 60, Switzerland.

Nicotine addiction is a major public health problem, resulting in primary glutamatergic dysfunction. We measured the glutamate receptor binding in the human brain and provided direct evidence for the abnormal glutamate system in smokers. Because antagonism of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) reduced nicotine self-administration in rats and mice, mGluR5 is suggested to be involved in nicotine addiction. mGluR5 receptor binding specifically to an allosteric site was observed by using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]ABP688. We found a marked global reduction (20.6%; P < 0.0001) in the mGluR5 distribution volume ratio (DVR) in the gray matter of 14 smokers. The most prominent reductions were found in the bilateral medial orbitofrontal cortex. Compared with 14 nonsmokers, 14 ex-smokers had global reductions in the average gray matter mGluR5 DVR (11.5%; P < 0.005), and there was a significant difference in average gray matter mGluR5 DVR between smokers and ex-smokers (9.2%; P < 0.01). Clinical variables reflecting current nicotine consumption, dependence and abstinence were not correlated with mGluR5 DVR. This decrease in mGluR5 receptor binding may be an adaptation to chronic increases in glutamate induced by chronic nicotine administration, and the decreased down-regulation seen in the ex-smokers could be due to incomplete recovery of the receptors, especially because the ex-smokers were abstinent for only 25 wk on average. These results encourage the development and testing of drugs against addiction that directly target the glutamatergic system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1210984110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3545768PMC
January 2013

Identification, characterization and suppression of side-products formed during the synthesis of high dose ⁶⁸Ga-DOTA-TATE.

Appl Radiat Isot 2013 Jun 5;76:63-9. Epub 2012 Aug 5.

Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland.

In the course of the establishment of (68)Ga-DOTA-TATE production for clinical use a shoulder comprising presumably several impurities was observed in the chromatogram of the analytical radio-HPLC. LC-MS/MS results support the hypothesis that some of these radioimpurities are radiolytic oxidation by-products of (68)Ga-DOTA-TATE. A new HPLC method was developed for quality control of (68)Ga-DOTA-TATE. Significant improvement on the radiochemical purity of (68)Ga-DOTA-TATE was achieved by the addition of ascorbic acid or ethanol to the reaction mixture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2012.07.022DOI Listing
June 2013

Reduced metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 density in major depression determined by [(11)C]ABP688 PET and postmortem study.

Am J Psychiatry 2011 Jul 15;168(7):727-34. Epub 2011 Apr 15.

PET Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich.

Objective: Clinical and preclinical evidence suggests a hyperactive glutamatergic system in clinical depression. Recently, the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) has been proposed as an attractive target for novel therapeutic approaches to depression. The goal of this study was to compare mGluR5 binding (in a positron emission tomography [PET] study) and mGluR5 protein expression (in a postmortem study) between individuals with major depressive disorder and psychiatrically healthy comparison subjects.

Method: Images of mGluR5 receptor binding were acquired using PET with [(11)C]ABP688, which binds to an allosteric site with high specificity, in 11 unmedicated individuals with major depression and 11 matched healthy comparison subjects. The amount of mGluR5 protein was investigated using Western blot in postmortem brain samples of 15 depressed individuals and 15 matched comparison subjects.

Results: The PET study revealed lower levels of regional mGluR5 binding in the prefrontal cortex, the cingulate cortex, the insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus in the depression group relative to the comparison group. Severity of depression was negatively correlated with mGluR5 binding in the hippocampus. The postmortem study showed lower levels of mGluR5 protein expression in the prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10) in the depression group relative to the comparison group, while prefrontal mGluR1 protein expression did not differ between groups.

Conclusions: The lower levels of mGluR5 binding observed in the depression group are consonant with the lower levels of protein expression in brain tissue in the postmortem depression group. Thus, both studies suggest that basal or compensatory changes in excitatory neurotransmission play roles in the pathophysiology of major depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.09111607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3129412PMC
July 2011

Evaluation of a bolus/infusion protocol for 11C-ABP688, a PET tracer for mGluR5.

Nucl Med Biol 2010 Oct 29;37(7):845-51. Epub 2010 Jun 29.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, PET Center, 8091 Zürich, Switzerland.

Unlabelled: (11)C-ABP-688 is a selective tracer for the mGluR5 receptor. Its kinetics is fast and thus favourable for an equilibrium approach to determine receptor-related parameters. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the pattern of the (11)C-ABP688 uptake using a bolus-plus-infusion (B/I) protocol at early time points corresponds to the perfusion and at a later time point to the total distribution volume.

Methods: A bolus and a B/I study (1 h each) was performed in five healthy male volunteers. With the B/I protocol, early and late scans were normalized to gray matter, cerebellum and white matter. The same normalization was done on the maps of the total distribution volume (Vt) and K(1) which were calculated in the study with bolus only injection and the Logan method (Vt) and a two-tissue compartment model (K(1)).

Results: There was an excellent correlation close to the identity line between the pattern of the late uptake in the B/I study and Vt of the bolus-only study for all three normalizations. The pattern of the early uptake in the B/I study correlated well with the K(1) maps, but only when normalized to gray matter and cerebellum, not to white matter.

Conclusion: It is demonstrated that with a B/I protocol the (11)C-ABP688 distribution in late scans reflects the pattern of the total distribution volume and is therefore a measure for the density pattern of mGluR5. The early scans following injection are related to blood flow, although not in a fully quantitative manner. The advantage of the B/I protocol is that no arterial blood sampling is required, which is advantageous in clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2010.04.107DOI Listing
October 2010

Therapeutic impact of [(18)F]fluoride positron-emission tomography/computed tomography on patients with unclear foot pain.

Skeletal Radiol 2010 Oct 23;39(10):987-97. Epub 2010 Feb 23.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Zurich, Rämistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland.

Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic impact of [(18)F]fluoride positron-emission tomography/computed tomography ([(18)F]fluoride PET/CT) imaging on patients with unclear foot pain.

Methods: Twenty-eight patients were prospectively included in this study. Therapeutic management was defined by two experienced dedicated foot surgeons before and after [(18)F]fluoride PET/CT imaging. Twenty-six patients underwent cross-sectional imaging [CT, magnetic resonance (MR)] prior to PET/CT. A retrospective analysis of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnoses was performed when a therapy change occurred after PET/CT imaging.

Results: In 13/28 (46%) patients therapeutic management was changed due to PET/CT results. Management changes occurred in patients with the following diagnoses: os trigonum syndrome; sinus tarsi syndrome; os tibiale externum syndrome; osteoarthritis of several joints; non-consolidated fragments; calcaneo-navicular coalition; plantar fasciitis; insertional tendinopathy; suggestion of periostitis; neoarticulations between metatarsal bones. Os trigonum, os tibiale externum, subtalar osteoarthritis and plantar fasciitis were only seen to be active on PET/CT images but not on MR images.

Conclusion: [(18)F]fluoride PET/CT has a substantial therapeutic impact on management in patients with unclear foot pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00256-010-0875-7DOI Listing
October 2010

Synthesis and characterization of a C6 nucleoside analogue for the in vivo imaging of the gene expression of herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1 TK).

Chem Biodivers 2006 Mar;3(3):274-83

Center for Radiopharmaceutical Science of the ETH, PSI, USZ, and D-CHAB, ETH Hönggerberg, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zurich.

The synthesis and biological evaluation of '6-(1,3-dihydroxyisobutyl)thymine' (DHBT; 1), which corresponds to 6-[3-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)propyl]-5-methylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, is reported. DHBT (1) was designed as a new substrate for herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1 TK). The compound was found to be exclusively phosphorylated by HSV1 TK, and to exhibit good binding affinity (Ki = 35.3+/-1.3 microM). Cell-proliferation assays with HSV1-TK-transduced human osteosarcoma cells (143B-TK+-HSV1-WT) and with both human-thymidine-kinase-1-negative (143B-TK-) and non-transduced parental (MG-63) cells indicate that 1 is less cytotoxic than the standard drug Ganciclovir. Thus, DHBT (1) represents a promising precursor of a nontoxic reporter probe for the monitoring of HSV1 TK gene expression by means of positron-emission tomography (PET).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.200690030DOI Listing
March 2006

Synthesis, 18F-radiolabelling and biological evaluations of C-6 alkylated pyrimidine nucleoside analogues.

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2004 ;23(11):1707-21

Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.

Synthesis of pyrimidine derivatives with a side-chain attached to the C-6 of pyrimidine ring (6-14) is reported. Target compounds 8 and 12 were subjected to in vitro phosphorylation tests, determination of their binding affinities to herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) thymidine kinase (TK) and catalytic turnover constants. Fluorinated pyrimidine derivative 12 (40 microM) exhibited better binding affinity for HSV-1 TK than acyclovir (ACV, 170 microM) and ganciclovir (GCV, 48 microM). Catalytic turnover constant (k(cat)) of 12 (0.08 s(-1)) was close to the k(cat) values of ACV (0.10 s(-1)) and GCV (0.10 s(-1)). Furthermore, compounds 8 and 12 showed no cytotoxic effects in HSV-1 TK-transduced and non-transduced cell lines. Besides, compounds 8 and 12 did not exhibit antiviral or cytostatic activities against several viruses and malignant tumor cell lines that were evaluated. The new fluorinated pyrimidine derivative 16 that is phosphorylated by HSV-1 TK could be developed as non-toxic PET-tracer molecule. Thus, 18F labelling of the precursor 14 was performed by nucleophilic substitution using [18F] tetrabutylammonium fluoride as the fluorinating reagent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/NCN-200033914DOI Listing
April 2005
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