Publications by authors named "Anand Mohan"

55 Publications

Effects of 4-Oxo-2-nonenal on biochemical properties of bovine heart mitochondria.

Food Sci Nutr 2022 Jun 9;10(6):1830-1840. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Department of Food Science and Technology College of Agricultural and Environmental Science University of Georgia Athens Georgia USA.

The effects of lipid peroxidation products 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and 4-oxo-2-nonenal (4-ONE) were evaluated using bovine heart mitochondria. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ultrastructure, antioxidant activity, and membrane permeability were examined to compare their effects on isolated mitochondria from beef cardiac muscle. For the mitochondrial morphology, the final concentration of mitochondria and 4-ONE or 4-HNE in the reaction tube were 10 mg/ml and 1 mM, respectively. For the OCR experiment, mitochondria (2.5 mg/ml) were incubated with 0.20 mM ONE or in a Clark electrode chamber at 25°C. Mitochondrial membrane permeability was determined by incubating 0.5 mg/ml of mitochondrial protein with either 0.05 mM ONE or HNE or ethanol control at pH 5.6 and 7.4 at 25°C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the size of 4-ONE treated mitochondria at pH 7.4 increased ( < .05), as did permeability ( < .05), unlike ethanol controls. However, mitochondria incubated with 4-ONE at pH 5.6 showed a decrease in volume ( < .05). Incubating mitochondria with 4-ONE at pH 5.6 and pH increased oxygen consumption rate 7.4 caused less oxygen consumption than either 4-HNE treatment or ethanol control. The hydrogen peroxide assay (HO), ferric reducing antioxidant properties (FRAP), and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS.) assays revealed that 4-ONE is a more potent inhibitor of the endogenous antioxidant system of mitochondria than 4-HNE ( < .05).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9179123PMC
June 2022

Laparoscopic extended inter-sphincteric resection for low rectal cancer involving the levator-ani muscle complex: A video vignette.

Colorectal Dis 2022 May 30. Epub 2022 May 30.

Unit of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/codi.16200DOI Listing
May 2022

Laparoscopic colonic pull-through and delayed coloanal anastomosis for colonic necrosis after robotic intersphincteric resection - a video vignette.

Colorectal Dis 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/codi.16192DOI Listing
May 2022

A Model for Assessing the Electromagnetic Safety of an Inductively Coupled, Modular Brain-Machine Interface.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2022 17;30:1267-1276. Epub 2022 May 17.

Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMI) offer the potential to modulate dysfunctional neurological networks by electrically stimulating the cerebral cortex via chronically-implanted microelectrodes. Wireless transmitters worn by BMI recipients must operate within electromagnetic emission and tissue heating limits, such as those prescribed by the IEEE and International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), to ensure that radiofrequency emissions of BMI systems are safe. Here, we describe an approach to generating pre-compliance safety data by simulating the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and tissue heating of a multi-layered human head model containing a system of wireless, modular BMIs powered and controlled by an externally worn telemetry unit. We explore a number of system configurations such that our approach can be utilized for similar BMI systems, and our results provide a benchmark for the electromagnetic emissions of similar telemetry units. Our results show that the volume-averaged SAR per 10g of tissue exposed to our telemetry field complies with ICNIRP and IEEE reference levels, and that the maximum temperature increase in tissues was within permissible limits. These results were unaffected by the number of implants in the system model, and therefore we conclude that the electromagnetic emissions our BMI in any configuration are safe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2022.3173682DOI Listing
May 2022

Effect of Dietary L-Threonine and Toxin Binder on Performance, Blood Parameters, and Immune Response of Broilers Exposed to Aflatoxin B.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 03 4;14(3). Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

To evaluate the effect of L-Threonine (L-Thr) and Mycofix Plus (MP) on aflatoxicosis, an experiment with a 3-way ANOVA model was carried out with 8 replicates and 640 birds. Treatments included two levels of L-Thr (100% and 125% of the requirements, Cobb 500, Cobb-Vantress), Aflatoxin B (AFB) (0, 500 ppb), and MP (0, 1 g/kg). As the main effects showed, AFB decreased breast meat yield and carcass percentage ( < 0.001), serum urea, antibody titer against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and bone density ( < 0.05), while it increased the plasma concentrations of glucose and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) ( < 0.05). Mycofix Plus improved the grower feed intake (FI), tibia fresh weight, and body weight (BW) to bone weight ( < 0.05). L-Threonine increased the grower FI, breast meat yield, serum aspartate transaminase (AST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) ( < 0.05). There were positive interactions with breast meat yield, cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and IBV titer. Of the treatments used, the combination of L-Thr and MP without AFB improved breast meat and carcass percentage. L-Threonine and MP significantly improved IBV titer in birds challenged with AFB ( < 0.001). In conclusion, L-Thr and MP were beneficial to improve immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins14030192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8951136PMC
March 2022

Association of Intra-Operative Bile Culture with Post-Operative Complications after Pancreaticoduodenectomy.

Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2022 May 28;23(4):351-356. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Infectious complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) are a major cause of morbidity. The association of bactibilia with the occurrence of surgical site infection (SSI) is debatable. Consecutive patients who underwent PD between July 2019 and December 2020 were included. All patients underwent standard pre-operative preparation and imaging. Pre-operative biliary drainage (PBD) was done as clinically indicated. A bile sample was collected just before the transection of common bile duct (CBD). Post-operative outcomes including SSI were analyzed. Fifty-four patients were assessed for enrollment; 50 were found to be resectable during surgery and were included. The incidence of bactibilia was 46%. Nineteen (38%) patients developed SSIs and the occurrence was higher in patients who had positive bile culture (14 [60.8%] vs. 5 [18.5%]; p = 0.002). A similar organism between bile culture and SSI was seen in nine (64.2%) of 14 patients. Patients who had positive bile culture had more frequent change of antibiotic (16 [69%] vs. 8 [29.6%]; p = 0.005) and required prolonged duration of postoperative antibiotic agents (12 days [IQR, 8-14] vs. 8 days [IQR, 6-10]; p = 0.003). There was no association between bile culture growth and development of post-operative pancreatic fistula, delayed gastric emptying, and post-operative pancreatic hemorrhage. Patients with bactibilia had prolonged post-operative stay (17 days [IQR, 11-20] vs. 11 days [IQR, 8-14]; p = 0.010) and severe post-operative complications (8 [34.7%] vs. 2 [7.4%]; p = 0.008). Bactibilia is associated with the development of SSI and may provide a guide in selection of antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/sur.2021.215DOI Listing
May 2022

Corrigendum to: Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Melioidosis Caused by Gentamicin-Susceptible  in Sarawak, Malaysia.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2022 Feb 27;9(2):ofab653. Epub 2022 Jan 27.

Institute of Health and Community Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Sarawak, Malaysia.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofab460.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofab653DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8794067PMC
February 2022

Effect of front-of-package labels on consumer product evaluation and preferences.

Curr Res Food Sci 2022 5;5:131-140. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Front-of-Package (FOP) labels highlight important nutrients and help consumers make informed decisions about food purchases. In this study, we investigated consumer comprehension, opinion, and preference associated with two different formats of FOP labels and compared consumer shopping behavior and general trends related to nutrition labeling. Consumer eye-tracking was used for measuring perceived understanding of nutritional information objectively. Results revealed that a color-coded FOP label would garner more attention than a black and white FOP label. Subjects found color-coded FOP labels more straightforward than black and white labels. Participants used the information provided on the FOP for shopping goals. Still, FOPs did not affect objective consumer attention to labels, and labeling schemes did not significantly affect participants' decisions. Participating subjects did use FOP labels instead of the nutrition facts panels. Still, FOP groups scored lower on a nutrition literacy quiz, indicating that their perceived and actual understanding of nutritional information differed. Our findings suggest that subjects pay attention to FOP labels but do not make decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crfs.2021.12.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8749384PMC
January 2022

Leiomyosarcoma of inferior vena cava (IVC): do we really need to reconstruct IVC post resection? Single institution experience.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2022 May 13;407(3):1209-1216. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Tata Memorial Hospital, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, India.

Background: Inferior vena cava (IVC) leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are a rare group of retroperitoneal tumors. R0 surgical resection is the only curative modality of treatment. IVC resection for retroperitoneal sarcoma is a complex surgery with no definitive guidelines for reconstruction.

Methods: Retrospective review of all patients who underwent surgical resection of primary leiomyosarcoma of the IVC requiring resection from 2010 to 2020 at our tertiary care center was performed.

Results: Among 24 patients who required IVC resection for LMS, only 7 (29%) required reconstruction of IVC. According to Clavien-Dindo classification, there was one grade 3 or more morbidity and 1 post-operative mortality. Seventeen patients underwent R0 resection whereas 7 patients had R1 resection on final histopathology. At a median follow-up of 25 months (range 8-91 months), the median OS was 40 months with median DFS of 28 months. Two patients presented with local recurrence while 13 patients developed systemic recurrence on follow-up.

Conclusion: Careful preoperative multidisciplinary planning can make IVC resection without reconstruction feasible with acceptable perioperative morbidity, mortality, and oncological outcomes for IVC LMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00423-021-02408-1DOI Listing
May 2022

Polyhydroxybutyrate-Based Nanocomposites for Bone Tissue Engineering.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Nov 15;14(11). Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Chemistry and Nanotechnology, School of Engineering and Science, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Monterrey 64849, Mexico.

Bone-related diseases have been increasing worldwide, and several nanocomposites have been used to treat them. Among several nanocomposites, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-based nanocomposites are widely used in drug delivery and tissue engineering due to their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, PHB use in bone tissue engineering is limited due to its inadequate physicochemical and mechanical properties. In the present work, we synthesized PHB-based nanocomposites using a nanoblend and nano-clay with modified montmorillonite (MMT) as a filler. MMT was modified using trimethyl stearyl ammonium (TMSA). Nanoblend and nano-clay were fabricated using the solvent-casting technique. Inspection of the composite structure revealed that the basal spacing of the polymeric matrix material was significantly altered depending on the loading percentage of organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) nano-clay. The PHB/OMMT nanocomposite displayed enhanced thermal stability and upper working temperature upon heating as compared to the pristine polymer. The dispersed (OMMT) nano-clay assisted in the formation of pores on the surface of the polymer. The pore size was proportional to the weight percentage of OMMT. Further morphological analysis of these blends was carried out through FESEM. The obtained nanocomposites exhibited augmented properties over neat PHB and could have an abundance of applications in the industry and medicinal sectors. In particular, improved porosity, non-immunogenic nature, and strong biocompatibility suggest their effective application in bone tissue engineering. Thus, PHB/OMMT nanocomposites are a promising candidate for 3D organ printing, lab-on-a-chip scaffold engineering, and bone tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph14111163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8622693PMC
November 2021

The European Genome-phenome Archive in 2021.

Nucleic Acids Res 2022 01;50(D1):D980-D987

European Molecular Biology Laboratory - European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), Hinxton CB10 1SD, UK.

The European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA - https://ega-archive.org/) is a resource for long term secure archiving of all types of potentially identifiable genetic, phenotypic, and clinical data resulting from biomedical research projects. Its mission is to foster hosted data reuse, enable reproducibility, and accelerate biomedical and translational research in line with the FAIR principles. Launched in 2008, the EGA has grown quickly, currently archiving over 4,500 studies from nearly one thousand institutions. The EGA operates a distributed data access model in which requests are made to the data controller, not to the EGA, therefore, the submitter keeps control on who has access to the data and under which conditions. Given the size and value of data hosted, the EGA is constantly improving its value chain, that is, how the EGA can contribute to enhancing the value of human health data by facilitating its submission, discovery, access, and distribution, as well as leading the design and implementation of standards and methods necessary to deliver the value chain. The EGA has become a key GA4GH Driver Project, leading multiple development efforts and implementing new standards and tools, and has been appointed as an ELIXIR Core Data Resource.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab1059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8728218PMC
January 2022

Fine-needle aspiration to improve diagnosis of melioidosis of the head and neck in children: a study from Sarawak, Malaysia.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Oct 15;21(1):1069. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Institute of Health and Community Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Background: Melioidosis, the infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is associated with a high case fatality rate, due in part to difficulties in clinical recognition and diagnostic confirmation of the disease. Although head and neck involvement is common in children, specific disease manifestations differ between geographic regions. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of melioidosis of the head and neck among children in Sarawak, Malaysia, and determine if fine-needle aspiration of suspected head or neck lesions could improve melioidosis diagnosis.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of all children aged < 12 years with culture-confirmed melioidosis presenting with head and neck manifestations and admitted to Bintulu Hospital in Sarawak, Malaysia, from January 2011 until December 2020. Fine-needle aspiration of head and neck lesions suspected to be due to melioidosis with inoculation in blood culture bottles (FNA + BCB) was used from the beginning of 2016.

Results: Of 34 children with culture-confirmed melioidosis, 20 (59%) had an infection involving one or more sites in the head and neck. Of these, 17 (85%) were diagnosed in or after 2016. Cervical lymph nodes were the most common organ or site affected, involved in 19 (95%) children. Clinical presentations of B. pseudomallei lymph node infections were highly variable. Five (25%) children had salivary gland involvement. Lacrimal gland involvement (dacryocystitis) and skin or soft tissue infection (scalp abscess) were less frequent. B. pseudomallei was isolated from the head or neck using FNA + BCB in 15 (75%) children and by standard culture methods of direct plating of pus on agar following incision and drainage in only 2 (10%) children. B. pseudomallei was isolated from non-head or neck specimens or blood in 3 (15%) children.

Conclusions: Manifestations of pediatric head and neck melioidosis in Sarawak, Malaysia, differ from those of other regions. Fine-needle aspiration, mainly of affected cervical lymph nodes, facilitates B. pseudomallei detection and enables confirmation of melioidosis infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06754-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8520244PMC
October 2021

Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Melioidosis Caused by Gentamicin-Susceptible in Sarawak, Malaysia.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Oct 3;8(10):ofab460. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Institute of Health and Community Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Background: , the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to a broad range of antibiotics, including aminoglycosides. In Sarawak, Malaysia, a high proportion of melioidosis cases are caused by gentamicin-susceptible isolates. There are limited epidemiological and clinical data on these infections.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of culture-confirmed melioidosis among adults admitted to Bintulu Hospital in Sarawak, Malaysia, from January 2011 until December 2016.

Results: One hundred forty-eight adults with culture-confirmed melioidosis were identified. Of 129 (87%) tested, 84 (65%) had gentamicin-susceptible . The average annual incidence of melioidosis was 12.3 per 100 000 population, with marked variation between districts ranging from 5.8 to 29.3 per 100 000 population. Rural districts had higher incidences of melioidosis and overwhelmingly larger proportions of gentamicin-susceptible infection. Significantly more patients with gentamicin-susceptible infection had no identified risk factors, with diabetes less frequently present in this group. Ninety-eight percent had acute presentations. Pneumonia, reported in 71%, was the most common presentation. Splenic abscesses were found in 54% of those imaged. Bacteremia was present in 88%; septic shock occurred in 47%. Forty-five (35%) patients died. No differences in clinical, laboratory, or outcome characteristics were noted between gentamicin-susceptible and gentamicin-resistant infections.

Conclusions: Gentamicin-susceptible infections are common in Sarawak and dominate in the high-incidence rural interior regions. Clinical manifestations and outcomes are the same as for gentamicin-resistant infections. Further studies are required to determine if all gentamicin-susceptible infections in Sarawak are clonal and to ascertain their environmental drivers and niches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofab460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8500297PMC
October 2021

Using farm management practices to predict Campylobacter prevalence in pastured poultry farms.

Poult Sci 2021 Jun 11;100(6):101122. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Contamination of poultry products by Campylobacter is often associated with farm management practices and processing plant practices. A longitudinal study was conducted on 11 pastured poultry farms in southeastern United States from 2014 to 2017. In this study, farm practices and processing variables were used as predictors for a random forest (RF) model to predict Campylobacter prevalence in pastured poultry farms and processing environments. Individual RF models were constructed for fecal, soil and whole carcass rinse after processing (WCR-P) samples. The performance of models was evaluated by the area under curve (AUC) from the receiver operating characteristics curve. The AUC values were 0.902, 0.894, and 0.864 for fecal, soil, and WCR-P models, respectively. Relative importance plots were generated to predict the most important variable in each RF model. Animal source of feces was identified as the most important variable in fecal model and the soy content of the brood feed was the most important variable for soil model. For WCR-P model, the average flock age showed the strongest impact on RF model. These RF models can help pastured poultry growers with food safety control strategies to reduce Campylobacter prevalence in pastured poultry farms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131732PMC
June 2021

Nerve-sparing laparoscopic low anterior rectal resection - a video vignette.

Colorectal Dis 2021 06 5;23(6):1605. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Colorectal Division, Department of GI and HPB Surgery, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/codi.15648DOI Listing
June 2021

Tissue response to a chronically implantable wireless intracortical visual prosthesis (Gennaris array).

J Neural Eng 2020 07 10;17(4):046001. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Monash Vision Group, Monash University, Clayton Vic 3800, Australia. Monash Institute of Medical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton Vic 3800, Australia. Department of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, Monash University, Clayton Vic 3800, Australia. Department of Surgery, Monash University, Clayton Vic 3800, Australia. Author to whom any correspondence should be addressed.

Objective: Cortical vision prostheses aim to restore visual percepts to those who have lost sight by delivering electrical stimulation to the visual cortex. These devices need to be implanted intracranially using subdural or intracortical microelectrodes, and should preferably dispense with the need of transcranial wiring. The risks of cortical tissue injury from mechanical trauma, material biocompatibility, heat generation, electrical stimulation and long-term immune responses need to be evaluated. In this paper, we investigate the biological response to a wireless cortical vision prosthesis (Gennaris array), by characterizing the histological changes that occur following chronic electrical stimulation.

Approach: Ten arrays (7 active, 3 passive) were implanted in three sheep using a pneumatic insertor. Each device consisted of a wireless receiver and Application Specific Integrated Circuit encased in a ceramic box, and could deliver electrical stimulation through one of 43 electrodes.

Main Results: Stimulation was delivered through seven of these devices for up to 3 months and each device was treated as independent for further analysis. Cumulatively, over 2700 h of stimulation were achieved without any observable adverse health effects. Histology showed that the devices and implantation procedure were well tolerated by the brain with a similar tissue response to the more common Utah arrays. However, voltage transients across the stimulating electrodes were not measured so exact charge injection could not be verified.

Significance: This work represents one of the first long-term tests of a fully implantable cortical vision prosthesis. The results indicate that long-term stimulation through wireless arrays can be achieved without induction of widespread tissue damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/ab9e1cDOI Listing
July 2020

Detection of spleen abscesses facilitates diagnosis of melioidosis in Malaysian children.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Sep 12;98:59-66. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Institute of Health and Community Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia; Department of Pediatrics, Sarawak General Hospital, Jalan Hospital, 93586 Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Objectives: Melioidosis is associated with extremely high case fatality ratios. The aim of this study was to determine whether detection of abdominal visceral abscesses can facilitate diagnosis of melioidosis in children.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all children who had liver and/or spleen abscesses on abdominal ultrasonography admitted to Bintulu Hospital in Sarawak, Malaysia, from January 2014 until December 2018.

Results: Fifty-three children had liver and/or spleen abscesses. Spleen abscesses were present in 48 (91%) cases; liver abscesses in 15 (28%). Melioidosis was confirmed by culture in 9 (17%) children; small occult splenic abscesses were present in all cases. In 78% of these cases, the lesions were detected before any positive culture (or serology) results were available. Four (8%) children had bacteriologically-confirmed tuberculosis. Two (4%) had Staphylococcus aureus infection. Of the remaining 38 (72%) culture-negative cases, 36 (95%) had clinical and imaging characteristics similar to that of children with culture-confirmed melioidosis and improved with empirical melioidosis antibiotic therapy.

Conclusions: A large number of children in Bintulu Hospital in Sarawak, Malaysia, were found to have spleen abscesses. Melioidosis was the most common etiology identified in these children. Abdominal ultrasonography is extremely useful in facilitating the diagnosis of pediatric melioidosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.025DOI Listing
September 2020

A Mixture Theory Model for Blood Combined With Low-Density Lipoprotein Transport to Predict Early Atherosclerosis Regions in Idealized and Patient-Derived Abdominal Aorta.

J Biomech Eng 2020 10;142(10)

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Sangareddy, Telangana 502285, India.

Genesis and onset of atherosclerosis are greatly influenced by hemodynamic forces. Two-phase transient computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are performed using a mixture theory model for blood, and a transport equation for low-density lipoprotein (LDL), in idealized and patient-derived abdominal aorta to predict the sites at risk for atherosclerosis. Flow patterns at different time instants and relevant hemodynamic indicators-wall shear stress (WSS)-based (time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and relative residence time (RRT)), and LDL concentration-are used concurrently to predict the susceptible sites of atherosclerosis. In the case of idealized geometry, flow recirculations are observed on the posterior wall opposite the superior mesenteric artery and below the renal bifurcations. Low TAWSS, high OSI, high RRT and high concentration of LDL are observed in these regions. This suggests that in idealized abdominal aorta, the posterior wall proximal to the renal artery junction is more prone to atherosclerosis. This matches qualitatively with the experimental and simulation data in the literature. In the case of patient-derived geometry, flow reversal, low TAWSS, high OSI and high RRT are observed infrarenal on the anterior wall. Further, high concentration of LDL is observed at the same location on the anterior wall suggesting anterior wall distal to the renal artery junction is more prone to atherosclerosis. These findings demonstrate the use of a novel method to predict the sites at risk for atherosclerosis in geometries where complexities like junctions and curvature play a major role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.4047426DOI Listing
October 2020

Sensory, Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterisation of Functional Manuka Honey Yogurts Containing Probiotic DPC16.

Foods 2020 Jan 19;9(1). Epub 2020 Jan 19.

School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Victoria Street West, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.

Consumer acceptance of synbiotics, which are synergistic combinations of probiotics and their prebiotic substrates, continues to expand in the functional food category. This research aimed at evaluating the effect of antibacterial manuka honey on the probiotic growth and sensory characteristics of potentially synbiotic yogurts manufactured with DPC16. Probiotic viable count in yogurts with 5% / Manuka honey (Blend, UMF 18, AMF 15 and AMF 20) was evaluated by the spread plate method over the refrigerated storage period of three weeks. A panel of 102 consumers preferred the yogurt made with invert syrup over the manuka honey variants, and the unsweetened control was least liked overall. Invert syrup yogurt was also the most effective in promoting the growth of the probiotic lactobacilli. However, the honey-sweetened yogurts had a more favourable fermentation metabolite profile, especially the lactic and propionic acids, as estimated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. The probiotic counts in AMF 15 manuka honey yogurt (7 log cfu/mL) were significantly higher than the other honey yogurt types (Manuka Blend and UMF 18) and above the recommended threshold levels. The combination thus can be developed as a synbiotic functional food by further improving the sensory and physicochemical properties such as texture, apparent viscosity and water holding capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9010106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023061PMC
January 2020

Dendrimers for Therapeutic Delivery: Compositions, Characterizations, and Current Status.

Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 2019 ;36(4):277-304

Department of Pharmacy, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar, Punjab India.

Dendrimers, commonly referred to as arborols, offer tremendous opportunities for drug delivery, diagnostics, and treatment applications. This may be attributed to the characteristic features of their three architectural components: core, branches, and terminal groups. These components provide vast flexibility to designers. They act as highly moldable platforms that can be modified to suit the needs of application designers. Effectively, the type, length, and molecular weight of the core, branches and terminal groups may be customized to achieve desired characteristics and satisfy the demands of numerous applications. These perfectly designed multifunctional structures are reviewed in the current paper, focusing on their complex archetypical design for interphase applications; novel drug delivery applications, especially oral, ocular, pulmonary, transdermal; targeted, and controlled-release; and diagnosis and treatment of diseases like cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.2018025749DOI Listing
February 2020

Measles infection causing Bacillus Calmette-Guérin reactivation: a case report.

BMC Pediatr 2019 07 24;19(1):251. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Department of Paediatrics, Bintulu Hospital, Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Background: Reactivation of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), manifesting as erythema, induration, ulceration or crust formation at a previous BCG inoculation site, is a common and highly specific feature of Kawasaki disease (KD). We report the unusual finding of BCG reactivation in an infant with laboratory-confirmed measles.

Case Presentation: A previously healthy 7-month old infant presented initially with fever, cough and coryza, and subsequently developed Koplik's spots followed by a typical morbilliform skin rash. There was significant contact history with a household relative who had recently been diagnosed with measles. On examination, a 2.5 cm area of erythema and induration was seen at the previous BCG inoculation site, in addition to the widespread maculopapular rash. No other clinical features of KD were present. Measles virus was isolated from the throat swab and measles antibodies (IgM) were present in the serum. The patient recovered completely with oral vitamin A and supportive therapy, and had normal echocardiography examination on follow up.

Conclusions: This case report highlights the rare finding of BCG reactivation in a child with confirmed measles infection, and suggests that this clinical manifestation may occasionally occur in children with infections or conditions other than KD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1635-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6652017PMC
July 2019

Congenital heart disease in harlequin ichthyosis: Case series.

J Family Med Prim Care 2019 Mar;8(3):1266-1268

Department of Cardiology, Ujala Hospital, Kashipur, Uttarakhand, India.

Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is the most severe form of congenital ichthyosis and inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The disease is marked by severe thickened and scaly skin on the entire body. It is a lethal disease, but patients can rarely survive for several months or years with treatment. We present here seven cases of HI, where cardiac evaluation was done by echocardiography. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report associated cardiac abnormalities in such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_61_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6482787PMC
March 2019

Invasive Salmonella infections among children in Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo: a 6-year retrospective review.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Apr 18;19(1):330. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Institute of Health and Community Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Background: Invasive Salmonella infections result in significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Asia, typhoid and paratyphoid fever are reported to be the major invasive Salmonella infections, while invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections are believed to be uncommon. Data from Sarawak, in Malaysian Borneo, are limited.

Methods: A retrospective study identifying all children aged < 15 years with invasive Salmonella infections from 2011 to 2016 was conducted in Bintulu Hospital in Sarawak. Population incidences, clinical and bacterial characteristics were examined.

Results: Forty-four patients were identified during the 6-year study period: 43 had iNTS infection and 1 had typhoid fever. The average annual iNTS incidence was 32.4 per 100,000 children aged < 5 years. None of the children had malaria or HIV infection, and only 7% were severely malnourished. Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Java were the commonest NTS serovars identified. Pneumonia was the most common manifestation of iNTS disease, present in 20 (47%) children. Other manifestations included gastroenteritis, fever without a source, septic arthritis and meningitis. Salmonella Enteritidis was identified in 76% of those with pneumonia, significantly more frequently than in children with other manifestations. Over 25% of children with iNTS developed severe disease and nearly 10% suffered long term morbidity or mortality. While 78% of Salmonella Java isolates were multi-drug resistant, nearly all other isolates were susceptible to most antimicrobials, including ampicillin.

Conclusions: Bintulu Division in Sarawak observed a very high incidence of childhood iNTS infections. Enteric fever was uncommon. The epidemiology of invasive Salmonella infections in Malaysian Borneo differs considerably from that of neighbouring countries in Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3963-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6471830PMC
April 2019

CMOS stimulating chips capable of wirelessly driving 473 electrodes for a cortical vision prosthesis.

J Neural Eng 2019 04 28;16(2):026025. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia. Department of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.

Objective: Implantable neural stimulating and recording devices have the potential to restore capabilities such as vision or motor control to disabled patients, improving quality of life. Implants with a large number of stimulating electrodes typically utilize implanted batteries and/or subcutaneous wiring to deal with their high-power consumption and high data throughput needed to address all electrodes with low latency. The use of batteries places severe limitations on the implant's size, usable duty cycle, device longevity while subcutaneous wiring increases the risk of infection and mechanical damage due to device movement.

Approach: To overcome these limitations, we have designed and implemented a system that supports up to 473 implanted stimulating microelectrodes, all wirelessly powered and individually controlled by micropower application specific integrated circuits (ASICs).

Main Results: Each ASIC controls 43 electrodes and draws 3.18 mW of power when stimulating through 24 channels. We measured the linearity of the digital-to-analog convertors (DACs) to be 0.21 LSB (integrated non-linearity) and the variability in timing of stimulation pulses across ASICs to be 172 ns.

Significance: This work demonstrates the feasibility of a new low power ASIC designed to be implanted in the visual cortex of humans. The fully implantable device will greatly reduce the risks of infection and damage due to mechanical issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/ab021bDOI Listing
April 2019

Melioidosis in Malaysia: Incidence, Clinical Challenges, and Advances in Understanding Pathogenesis.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2018 Feb 27;3(1). Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Internal Medicine, Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan 25200, Malaysia.

Malaysia is an endemic hot spot for melioidosis; however, a comprehensive picture of the burden of disease, clinical presentations, and challenges faced in diagnosis and treatment of melioidosis is not available. This review provides a nonexhaustive overview of epidemiological data, clinical studies, risk factors, and mortality rates from available literature and case reports. Clinical patterns of melioidosis are generally consistent with those from South and Southeast Asia in terms of common primary presentations with diabetes as a major risk factor. Early diagnosis and appropriate management of Malaysian patients is a key limiting factor, which needs to be addressed to reduce serious complications and high mortality and recurrence rates. Promoting awareness among the local healthcare personnel is crucial to improving diagnostics and early treatment, as well as educating the Malaysian public on disease symptoms and risk factors. A further matter of urgency is the need to make this a notifiable disease and the establishment of a national melioidosis registry. We also highlight local studies on the causative agent, , with regards to bacteriology and identification of virulence factors as well as findings from host⁻pathogen interaction studies. Collectively, these studies have uncovered new correlations and insights for further understanding of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3010025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6136604PMC
February 2018

Dendritic platforms for biomimicry and biotechnological applications.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2018 15;46(sup1):861-875. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

d Department of Pharmacy and Pharmachology, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Therapeutic Sciences , University of the Witwatersrand , Johannesburg , South Africa.

Dendrimers, commonly referred to as polymeric trees, offer endless opportunities for biotechnological and biomedical applications. By controlling the type, length, and molecular weight of the core, branches and end groups, respectively, the chemical functionality and topology of dendrimeric archetypes can be customized which further can be applied to achieve required solubility, biodegradability, diagnosis and other applications. Given the physicochemical variability of the dendrimers and their hybrids, this review attempts to discuss a full spectrum of recent advances and strides made by these "perfectly designed structures". An extensive biotech/biomimicry application profiling of dendrimers is provided with focus on complex archetypical designs such as protein biomimicry (angiogenic inhibitors, regenerative hydroxyapatite and collagen) and biotechnology applications. In terms of biotechnological advances, dendrimers have provided distinctive advantages in the fields of biocatalysis, microbicides, artificial lights, mitochondrial function modulation, vaccines, tissue regeneration and repair, antigen carriers and even biosensors. In addition, this review provides overview of the extensive chemo-functionalization opportunities available with dendrimers which makes them a perfect candidate for forming drug conjugates, protein hybrids, bio mimics, lipidic derivatives, metal deposits and nanoconjugates thereby making them the most multifunctional platforms for diverse biotechnological applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2018.1438451DOI Listing
August 2019

Pediatric melioidosis in Sarawak, Malaysia: Epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 9;11(6):e0005650. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

Institute of Health and Community Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Background: Melioidosis is a serious, and potentially fatal community-acquired infection endemic to northern Australia and Southeast Asia, including Sarawak, Malaysia. The disease, caused by the usually intrinsically aminoglycoside-resistant Burkholderia pseudomallei, most commonly affects adults with predisposing risk factors. There are limited data on pediatric melioidosis in Sarawak.

Methods: A part prospective, part retrospective study of children aged <15 years with culture-confirmed melioidosis was conducted in the 3 major public hospitals in Central Sarawak between 2009 and 2014. We examined epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics.

Findings: Forty-two patients were recruited during the 6-year study period. The overall annual incidence was estimated to be 4.1 per 100,000 children <15 years, with marked variation between districts. No children had pre-existing medical conditions. Twenty-three (55%) had disseminated disease, 10 (43%) of whom died. The commonest site of infection was the lungs, which occurred in 21 (50%) children. Other important sites of infection included lymph nodes, spleen, joints and lacrimal glands. Seven (17%) children had bacteremia with no overt focus of infection. Delays in diagnosis and in melioidosis-appropriate antibiotic treatment were observed in nearly 90% of children. Of the clinical isolates tested, 35/36 (97%) were susceptible to gentamicin. Of these, all 11 isolates that were genotyped were of a single multi-locus sequence type, ST881, and possessed the putative B. pseudomallei virulence determinants bimABp, fhaB3, and the YLF gene cluster.

Conclusions: Central Sarawak has a very high incidence of pediatric melioidosis, caused predominantly by gentamicin-susceptible B. pseudomallei strains. Children frequently presented with disseminated disease and had an alarmingly high death rate, despite the absence of any apparent predisposing risk factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005650DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5479590PMC
June 2017

Restoration of vision using wireless cortical implants: The Monash Vision Group project.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2015 Aug;2015:1041-4

Monash Vision Group is developing a bionic vision system based on implanting several small tiles in the V1 region of the visual cortex. This cortical approach could benefit a greater proportion of people with total blindness than other approaches, as it bypasses the eyes and optic nerve. Each tile has 43 active electrodes on its base, and a wirelessly powered electronic system to decode control signals and drive the electrodes with biphasic pulses. The tiles are fed with power and data using a common transmitting coil at the back of the patient's head. Sophisticated image processing, described in a companion paper, ensures that the user experiences maximum benefit from the small number of electrodes. This paper describes key features of this system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2015.7318543DOI Listing
August 2015

Tuberculous osteomyelitis of the mandible.

J Maxillofac Oral Surg 2015 Mar 28;14(Suppl 1):200-2. Epub 2012 Aug 28.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Room No. 4, Manipal, 576104 India.

Although tuberculosis can affect any part of the body involving both soft and hard structures with variable measures; such an occurrence in the cranio-facial bones is relatively rare. Once affecting a bone it is rare for a mycobacterial infection to get directed towards the skin and present as multiple draining sinuses. We report a case of tubercular osteomyelitis of the left body of the mandible in a 19 year old male patient who came to us with complains of persisting pus discharge from multiple sinuses on his face (lateral border of mandible and submandibular region) because of its rarity and clinical interest. One should always have a suspicion of mycobacterial infection in the back of mind when dealing with chronic maxillofacial infections not responding to the usual antibiotic course and local debridement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12663-012-0414-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4379236PMC
March 2015

Amino acid sequence of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) myoglobin.

Food Chem 2015 Aug 24;181:256-62. Epub 2015 Feb 24.

Department of Food Science & Technology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30606, United States. Electronic address:

Myoglobin has an important physiological role in vertebrates, and as the primary sarcoplasmic pigment in meat, influences quality perception and consumer acceptability. In this study, the amino acid sequences of Japanese quail and northern bobwhite myoglobin were deduced by cDNA cloning of the coding sequence from mRNA. Japanese quail myoglobin was isolated from quail cardiac muscles, purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel-filtration, and subjected to multiple enzymatic digestions. Mass spectrometry corroborated the deduced protein amino acid sequence at the protein level. Sequence analysis revealed both species' myoglobin structures consist of 153 amino acids, differing at only three positions. When compared with chicken myoglobin, Japanese quail showed 98% sequence identity, and northern bobwhite 97% sequence identity. The myoglobin in both quail species contained eight histidine residues instead of the nine present in chicken and turkey.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.02.091DOI Listing
August 2015
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