Publications by authors named "Anand Kawade"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluating the efficacy of a multistrain probiotic supplementation for prevention of neonatal sepsis in 0-2-month-old low birth weight infants in India-the "ProSPoNS" Study protocol for a phase III, multicentric, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Apr 1;22(1):242. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Division of Reproductive Biology, Maternal & Child Health (RBM&CH), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) Headquarters, V Ramalingaswami Bhawan, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, Delhi, 110029, India.

Background: Progress has been made in the reduction of under-five mortality in India; however, neonatal mortality is reducing at a slower rate. Efforts are required to bring down neonatal mortality in order to attain the Sustainable Development Goal-3. Prevention of sepsis among the high-risk, vulnerable low birth weight neonates by a newer intervention with probiotic supplementation is promising.

Methods: A phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study is being conducted at six sites in India. A total of 6144 healthy low birth weight (LBW) infants fulfilling the eligibility criteria would be enrolled within the first week of life, after obtaining written informed consent from the parents of the infant. Randomization in 1:1 ratio, stratified by site, sex, and birth weight, would be done through an interactive web response system (IWRS) using a standard web browser and email service. Vivomixx®, a probiotic containing a mix of 8 strains of bacteria, in a suspension form standardized to deliver 10 billion CFU/ml, or an organoleptically similar placebo would be fed to enrolled infants in a 1-ml/day dose for 30 days. The follow-up of enrolled infants for 60 days would take place as per a pre-specified schedule for recording morbidities and outcome assessments at the six participating sites. Screening for morbidities would be conducted by trained field workers in the community, and sick infants would be referred to designated clinics/hospitals. A physician would examine the referred infants presenting with complaints and clinical signs, and blood samples would be collected from sick infants for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis by performing sepsis screen and blood culture. Appropriate treatment would be provided as per hospital protocol. The study would be implemented as per the MRC guideline for the management of Global Health Trials in accordance with ICH-GCP and Indian Regulatory guidelines. A contract research organization would be engaged for comprehensive monitoring and quality assurance. The final analysis would be conducted in a blinded manner as per the statistical analysis plan (SAP) to estimate the primary outcomes of sepsis, possible serious bacterial infection (PSBI), and secondary outcomes. The codes will be broken after DMC permission. The protocol has been reviewed by the Research Ethics Committee of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (REC-LSTM), from Research Ethics Committees of the six subject recruitment participating sites.

Discussion: This adequately powered and well-designed trial would conclusively answer the question whether probiotics can prevent neonatal sepsis in the high-risk group of low birth weight infants as indicated by a pilot study in 1340 LBW infants, evidence from systematic reviews of hospital-based studies, and a primary study on healthy newborns in Orissa. Results of the study would be generalizable to India and other low-middle-income countries.

Trial Registration: Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI) CTRI/2019/05/019197 . Registered on 16 May 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05193-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017823PMC
April 2021

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as an adverse event following immunization: Case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data.

Vaccine 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

This is a Brighton Collaboration Case Definition of the term "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome - ARDS" to be utilized in the evaluation of adverse events following immunization. The Case Definition was developed by a group of experts convened by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) in the context of active development of vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and other emerging pathogens. The case definition format of the Brighton Collaboration was followed to develop a consensus definition and defined levels of certainty, after an exhaustive review of the literature and expert consultation. The document underwent peer review by the Brighton Collaboration Network and by selected Expert Reviewers prior to submission. The comments of the reviewers were taken into consideration and edits incorporated in this final manuscript.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.01.053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843093PMC
January 2021

Interplaying role of healthcare activist and homemaker: a mixed-methods exploration of the workload of community health workers (Accredited Social Health Activists) in India.

Hum Resour Health 2021 Jan 6;19(1). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Vadu Rural Health Program, King Edward Memorial Hospital Research Centre (KEMHRC), Rasta Peth, Pune, Maharashtra, 411011, India.

Background: Globally, community health workers (CHWs) are integral contributors to many health systems. In India, Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) have been deployed since 2005. Engaged in multiple health care activities, they are a key link between the health system and population. ASHAs are expected to participate in new health programmes prompting interest in their current workload from the perspective of the health system, community and their family.

Methods: This mixed-methods design study was conducted in rural and tribal Primary Health Centers (PHCs), in Pune district, Western Maharashtra, India. All ASHAs affiliated with these PHCs were invited to participate in the quantitative study, those agreeing to contribute in-depth interviews (IDI) were enrolled in an additional qualitative study. Key informants' interviews were conducted with the Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANM), Block Facilitators (BFF) and Medical Officers (MO) of the same PHCs. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were analysed thematically.

Results: We recruited 67 ASHAs from the two PHCs. ASHAs worked up to 20 h/week in their village of residence, serving populations of approximately 800-1200, embracing an increasing range of activities, despite a workload that contributed to feelings of being rushed and tiredness. They juggled household work, other paid jobs and their ASHA activities. Practical problems with travel added to time involved, especially in tribal areas where transport is lacking. Their sense of benefiting the community coupled with respect and recognition gained in village brought happiness and job satisfaction. They were willing to take on new tasks. ASHAs perceived themselves as 'voluntary community health workers' rather than as 'health activists".

Conclusions: ASHAs were struggling to balance their significant ASHA work and domestic tasks. They were proud of their role as CHWs and willing to take on new activities. Strategies to recruit, train, skills enhancement, incentivise, and retain ASHAs, need to be prioritised. Evolving attitudes to the advantages/disadvantages of current voluntary status and role of ASHAs need to be understood and addressed if ASHAs are to be remain a key component in achieving universal health coverage in India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12960-020-00546-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789492PMC
January 2021

Immunogenicity and lot-to-lot consistency of a ready to use liquid bovine-human reassortant pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (ROTASIIL - Liquid) in Indian infants.

Vaccine 2019 05 4;37(19):2554-2560. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd., Pune, India.

Background: A lyophilized bovine-human rotavirus reassortant pentavalent vaccine (BRV-PV, Rotasiil®) was licensed in 2016. A liquid formulation of this vaccine (LBRV-PV, Rotasiil - Liquid) was subsequently developed and was tested for non-inferiority to Rotasiil® and for lot-to-lot consistency.

Methods: This Phase II/III, open label, randomized study was conducted at seven sites across India from November 2017 to June 2018. Participants were randomized into four arms; Lots A, B, and C of LBRV-PV and Rotasiil® in 1:1:1:1 ratio. Three doses of study vaccines were given at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Blood samples were collected four weeks after the third dose to assess rotavirus IgA antibody levels. Non-inferiority of LBRV-PV to Rotasiil was proven if the lower limit two-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) of geometric mean concentration (GMC) ratio was at least 0.5. Lot-to-lot consistency was proven if 95% CI of the GMC ratios of three lots were between 0.5 and 2. Solicited reactions were collected by using diary cards.

Results: Of the 1500 randomized infants, 1436 infants completed the study. The IgA GMC ratio of LBRV-PV to Rotasiil® was 1.19 (95% CI 0.96, 1.48). The corresponding IgA seropositivity rates were 60.41% (57.41, 63.35) and 52.75% (47.48, 57.97). The IgA GMC ratios among the three LBRV-PV lots were: Lot A versus Lot B: 1.34 (1.03, 1.75); Lot A versus Lot C: 1.22 (0.93, 1.60); and Lot B versus Lot C: 0.91 (0.69, 1.19). The 95% CIs for the GMC ratios were between 0.69 and 1.75. The incidence of solicited reactions was comparable across the four arms. Only one serious adverse event of gastroenteritis event in the Rotasiil® group was causally related.

Conclusion: The immunological non-inferiority of LBRV-PV against Rotasiil® as well as lot-to-lot consistency of LBRV-PV was demonstrated. LBRV-PV had safety profile similar to Rotasiil®.

Trial Registration Number: Clinical Trials.Gov [NCT03474055] and Clinical Trial Registry of India [CTRI/2017/10/010104].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.03.067DOI Listing
May 2019

Clinical study of safety and immunogenicity of pentavalent DTP-HB-Hib vaccine administered by disposable-syringe jet injector in India.

Contemp Clin Trials Commun 2019 Jun 9;14:100321. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd., Pune, India.

Introduction: We conducted a randomized, observer-blind, non-inferiority, parallel-group clinical study of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and type b conjugate (pentavalent) vaccination of infants in India. Goals were to determine whether the seropositivity rate after vaccination via disposable-syringe jet injector (DSJI) was non-inferior to that via needle and syringe (N-S), and to compare the safety of vaccination by the two methods.

Methods: Healthy children received a three-dose series of vaccine intramuscularly by DSJI or N-S beginning at 6-8 weeks of age. Immunoglobulin G antibody levels were measured by ELISA at 4-6 weeks after the third dose. The main secondary endpoint was safety, measured as injection site and systemic reactions.

Discussion: The study was stopped early out of caution beyond that specified in the protocol stopping criteria, after the Data Safety Committee noted a higher frequency of injection site reactions, especially moderate and severe, in the DSJI group. As a result, 128 subjects-DSJI group 61; N-S group 67-completed the study, rather than the 340 planned, and the study was not sufficiently powered to compare immunogenicity endpoints for the groups. Descriptive statistics indicate that seropositivity induced by vaccination with the DSJI was similar to that of N-S for all five antigens. Pentavalent vaccine includes whole-cell pertussis vaccine and an aluminum adjuvant, which may have contributed to the higher number of local reactions with the DSJI. The reactions caused no serious or long-term sequelae, and may be more acceptable in other populations or circumstances.US National Institutes of Health clinical trials identifier: NCT02409095.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conctc.2019.100321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406170PMC
June 2019

A Phase III open-label, randomized, active controlled clinical study to assess safety, immunogenicity and lot-to-lot consistency of a bovine-human reassortant pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Indian infants.

Vaccine 2018 12 9;36(52):7943-7949. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd., Pune, India.

Background: A heat-stable bovine-human rotavirus reassortant pentavalent vaccine (BRV-PV, ROTASIIL®) was developed in India. In this study, the vaccine was tested for safety, immunogenicity and clinical lot-to-lot consistency.

Methods: This was a Phase III, open label, randomized, equivalence design study. The primary objective was to demonstrate lot-to-lot consistency of BRV-PV. Subjects were randomized into four arms, three arms received Lots A, B, and C of BRV-PV and the control arm, received Rotarix®. Three doses of BRV-PV or two doses of Rotarix® and one dose of placebo were given at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Blood samples were collected four weeks after the third dose to assess rotavirus IgA antibody levels. The three lots of BRV-PV were equivalent if the 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean concentration (GMC) ratios were between 0.5 and 2. Solicited reactions were collected by using diary cards.

Results: The study was conducted in 1500 randomized infants, of which 1341 infants completed the study. The IgA GMC ratios among the three lots were around 1 (Lot A versus Lot B: 1.07; Lot A versus Lot C: 1.06; and Lot B versus Lot C: 0.99). The 95% CIs for the GMC ratios were between 0.78 and 1.36. The IgA GMCs were: BRV-PV group 19.16 (95% CI 17.37-21.14) and Rotarix® group 10.92 (95% CI 9.36-12.74) (GMC ratio 1.75; 90% CI 1.51-2.04). Seropositivity rates were 46.98% (95% CI 43.86-50.11) and 31.12% (95% CI 26.17-36.41). The incidence of solicited reactions was comparable across the four arms. No serious adverse events were associated with the study vaccines, except two gastroenteritis events in the BRV-PV groups.

Conclusion: Lot-to-lot consistency of BRV-PV was demonstrated in terms of GMC ratios of IgA antibodies. The vaccine safety and immunogenicity profiles were similar to those of Rotarix®. Clinical Trials.Gov [NCT02584816] and Clinical Trial Registry of India [CTRI/2015/07/006034].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.11.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6288065PMC
December 2018

Non-interference of Bovine-Human reassortant pentavalent rotavirus vaccine ROTASIIL® with the immunogenicity of infant vaccines in comparison with a licensed rotavirus vaccine.

Vaccine 2018 09 10;36(37):5519-5523. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Enterovirus Research Centre, Mumbai, India.

Background: A newly developed bovine-human reassortant pentavalent vaccine (BRV-PV, ROTASIIL®) was tested for its potential effect on the immunogenicity of concomitantly administered EPI vaccines in infants in a randomized controlled study in India.

Methods: In this Phase III, multicenter, open label, randomized, controlled study, three doses of BRV-PV or two doses of Rotarix® and one dose of placebo were given to healthy infants at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Subjects also received three doses of DTwP-HepB-Hib (diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell pertussis, hepatitis B, and haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate - pentavalent vaccine) and oral polio vaccine concomitantly at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age and a single dose of inactivated polio vaccine at 14 weeks of age. Blood samples were collected four weeks after the final vaccination to assess immune responses to all the vaccines administered. For diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B, Hib, polio type 1, and polio type 3 antibodies, non-interference was to be supported if the lower limit of the two-sided 90% confidence interval (CI) for the seroprotection rate difference for the BRV-PV group minus the Rotarix® group was >10.0%. For pertussis antibodies, non-interference was to be supported if the lower limit of the two-sided 90% CI for the ratio of geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) was >0.5.

Results: A total of 1500 infants were randomized to either BRV-PV (1125 infants) or Rotarix® (375 infants), of which 1341 completed the study as per the protocol. More than 97% of subjects achieved seroprotective antibody titres against diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B, Hib, polio type 1, and polio type 3 in both groups. The difference in seroprotection rates between the BRV-PV group and the Rotarix® group for all these antibodies was less than 1%. The ratio of GMCs of anti-pertussis IgG concentrations for the BRV-PV group versus Rotarix® was 1.04 [90% CI: 0.90; 1.19].

Conclusion: BRV-PV does not interfere with the immunogenicity of concomitantly administered routine infants vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.07.064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6143481PMC
September 2018

A randomized Phase III clinical trial to assess the efficacy of a bovine-human reassortant pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Indian infants.

Vaccine 2017 10 26;35(45):6228-6237. Epub 2017 Sep 26.

PATH, Washington D.C., United States.

Rotavirus is the most common cause of moderate-to-severe infant diarrhoea in developing countries, resulting in enormous morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. A bovine-human reassortant pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (BRV-PV) targeting the globally most common strains was developed in India and tested in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled end-point driven Phase III efficacy clinical trial implemented at six sites across India. Infants 6 to 8weeks of age were randomized (1:1) to receive three oral doses of BRV-PV or placebo at 6, 10, and 14weeks of age along with routine vaccines. Home visit surveillance was conducted to detect severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (SRVGE) and safety outcomes until the children reached two years of age. A total of 3749 infants received BRV-PV while 3751 received placebo. At the time of the primary end-point (when the minimum number of cases needed for analysis were accrued) the vaccine efficacy against SRVGE was 36% (95% CI 11.7, 53.6, p=0.0067) in the per protocol (PP) analysis, and 41.9% (95% CI 21.1, 57.3, p=0.0005) in the intent to treat (ITT) analysis. Vaccine efficacy over the entire follow-up period (until children reached two years of age) was 39.5% (95% CI 26.7, 50, p<0.0001) in the PP analysis and 38.8% (95% CI, 26.4, 49, p<0.0001) in the ITT analysis. Vaccine efficacy against the very severe rotavirus cases (VSRVGE, Vesikari score≥16) was 60.5% (95% CI 17.7, 81, p=0.0131) at the time of the primary analysis and 54.7% (95% CI 29.7, 70.8, p=0.0004) for the complete follow-period in the PP population. The incidence of solicited, unsolicited, and serious adverse events were similar in both the vaccine and placebo groups. Likewise, the number of intussusceptions and deaths were similar between both groups. Thus, BRV-PV is an effective, well tolerated and safe vaccine in Indian infants. (Trial registration: Clinical Trials.Gov [NCT 02133690] and Clinical Trial Registry of India [CTRI/2013/05/003667]).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.09.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5651219PMC
October 2017

Severity of Pneumonia in Under 5-Year-Old Children from Developing Countries: A Multicenter, Prospective, Observational Study.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jul;97(1):68-76

Laboratoire des Pathogènes Emergents, Fondation Mérieux, Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie (CIRI), INSERM U1111, CNRS, UMR5308, ENS de Lyon, UCBL1, Lyon, France.

Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children. The objectives were to evaluate the microbiological agents linked with hypoxemia in hospitalized children with pneumonia from developing countries, to identify predictors of hypoxemia, and to characterize factors associated with in-hospital mortality. A multicenter, observational study was conducted in five hospitals, from India (Lucknow, Vadu), Madagascar (Antananarivo), Mali (Bamako), and Paraguay (San Lorenzo). Children aged 2-60 months with radiologically confirmed pneumonia were enrolled prospectively. Respiratory and whole blood specimens were collected, identifying viruses and bacteria by real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Microbiological agents linked with hypoxemia at admission (oxygen saturation < 90%) were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression, and factors associated with 14-day in-hospital mortality were assessed by bivariate Cox regression. Overall, 405 pneumonia cases (3,338 hospitalization days) were analyzed; 13 patients died within 14 days of hospitalization. Hypoxemia prevalence was 17.3%. Detection of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in respiratory samples was independently associated with increased risk of hypoxemia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.4, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.0-5.8 and aOR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1-5.3, respectively). Lower chest indrawing and cyanosis were predictive of hypoxemia (positive likelihood ratios = 2.3 and 2.4, respectively). Predictors of death were detection by blood PCR (crude hazard ratio [cHR] = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.5-14.0), procalcitonin ≥ 50 ng/mL (cHR = 22.4, 95% CI = 7.3-68.5) and hypoxemia (cHR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.6-14.4). These findings were consistent on bivariate analysis. hMPV and RSV in respiratory samples were linked with hypoxemia, and in blood was associated with increased risk of death among hospitalized children with pneumonia in developing countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5508893PMC
July 2017

Efficacy of a monovalent human-bovine (116E) rotavirus vaccine in Indian children in the second year of life.

Vaccine 2014 Aug;32 Suppl 1:A110-6

Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India, India. Electronic address:

Unlabelled: Rotavirus gastroenteritis is one of the leading causes of diarrhea in Indian children less than 2 years of age. The 116E rotavirus strain was developed as part of the Indo-US Vaccine Action Program and has undergone efficacy trials. This paper reports the efficacy and additional safety data in children up to 2 years of age. In a double-blind placebo controlled multicenter trial, 6799 infants aged 6-7 weeks were randomized to receive three doses of an oral human-bovine natural reassortant vaccine (116E) or placebo at ages 6, 10, and 14 weeks. The primary outcome was severe (≥11 on the Vesikari scale) rotavirus gastroenteritis. Efficacy outcomes and adverse events were ascertained through active surveillance. We randomly assigned 4532 and 2267 subjects to receive vaccine and placebo, respectively, with over 96% subjects receiving all three doses of the vaccine or placebo. The per protocol analyses included 4354 subjects in the vaccine and 2187 subjects in the placebo group. The overall incidence of severe RVGE per 100 person years was 1.3 in the vaccine group and 2.9 in the placebo recipients. Vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in children up to 2 years of age was 55.1% (95% CI 39.9 to 66.4; p<0.0001); vaccine efficacy in the second year of life of 48.9% (95% CI 17.4 to 68.4; p=0.0056) was only marginally less than in the first year of life [56.3% (95% CI 36.7 to 69.9; p<0.0001)]. The number of infants needed to be immunized to prevent one episode of severe RVGE in the first 2 years of life was 40 (95% CI 28.0 to 63.0) and for RVGE of any severity, it was 21 (95% CI 16.0 to 32.0). Serious adverse events were observed at the same rates in the two groups. None of the eight intussusception events occurred within 30 days of a vaccine dose and all were reported only after the third dose. The sustained efficacy of the 116E in the second year of life is reassuring.

Clinical Trial Registry: The trial is registered with Clinical Trial Registry-India (# CTRI/2010/091/000102) and Clinicaltrials.gov (# NCT01305109).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.079DOI Listing
August 2014

Active surveillance for intussusception in a phase III efficacy trial of an oral monovalent rotavirus vaccine in India.

Vaccine 2014 Aug;32 Suppl 1:A104-9

Christian Medical College, Vellore, India.

Background: Post licensure studies have identified an increased risk of intussusception following vaccination with currently licensed rotavirus vaccines, raising safety concerns generic to all rotavirus vaccines. We describe the surveillance for intussusception in a phase III clinical trial with an oral monovalent rotavirus vaccine developed from the neonatal 116E strain.

Methods: Using broad screening criteria and active surveillance, the incidence of intussusception between 6 weeks and 2 years of age was measured in 4532 children who received three doses of vaccine and 2267 children who received a placebo in the clinical trial. Possible intussusceptions were evaluated with a screening ultrasonogram. An independent intussusception case adjudication committee reviewed all intussusceptions and graded them on Brighton Collaboration criteria for diagnostic certainty.

Results: We identified twenty-three intussusceptions on ultrasound from 1361 evaluated sentinel events. Eleven were of level 1 diagnostic certainty as determined by the independent intussusception case adjudication committee. None required surgical intervention, and the earliest identified intussusception was at 36 days following the third dose in a placebo recipient. Among vaccine recipients the first event of intussusception occurred 112 days after the third dose. The incidence of ultrasound-diagnosed intussusception was 200/100,000 child-years (95% CI, 120, 320) among those receiving the vaccine and 141/100,000 child-years (95% CI, 50, 310) among those receiving the placebo. The incidence rate of confirmed intussusception among vaccine recipients was 94/100,000 child-years (95% CI, 41, 185) and 71/100,000 child-years (95% CI, 15, 206) among those receiving the placebo.

Conclusion: In this licensure study, 23 cases of intussusception were identified through an active surveillance system, but there was no temporal association with rotavirus vaccination. The use of active surveillance with broad criteria intended for ensuring safety of children participating in a trial, identified several transient intussusceptions that were of doubtful clinical significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.03.036DOI Listing
August 2014

Efficacy of a monovalent human-bovine (116E) rotavirus vaccine in Indian infants: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet 2014 Jun 12;383(9935):2136-43. Epub 2014 Mar 12.

Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India, India. Electronic address:

Background: Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe dehydrating gastroenteritis in developing countries. Safe, effective, and affordable rotavirus vaccines are needed in these countries. We aimed to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a monovalent human-bovine rotavirus vaccine for severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in low-resource urban and rural settings in India.

Methods: We did a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial at three sites in Delhi (urban), Pune (rural), and Vellore (urban and rural) between March 11, 2011, and Nov 5, 2012. Infants aged 6-7 weeks were randomly assigned (2:1), via a central interactive voice or web response system with a block size of 12, to receive either three doses of oral human-bovine natural reassortant vaccine (116E) or placebo at ages 6-7 weeks, 10 weeks, and 14 weeks. Infants' families, study investigators, paediatricians in referral hospitals, laboratory staff, and committee members were all masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (≥11 on the Vesikari scale). Efficacy outcomes and adverse events were ascertained through active surveillance. Analysis was by intention to treat and per protocol. The trial is registered with Clinical Trial Registry-India (CTRI/2010/091/000102) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01305109).

Findings: 4532 infants were assigned to receive the 116E vaccine and 2267 to receive placebo, of whom 4354 (96%) and 2187 (96%) infants, respectively, were included in the primary per-protocol efficacy analysis. 71 events of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis were reported in 4752 person-years in infants in the vaccine group compared with 76 events in 2360 person-years in those in the placebo group; vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was 53·6% (95% CI 35·0-66·9; p=0·0013) and 56·4% (36·6-70·1; p<0·0001) in the first year of life. The number of infants needed to be immunised to prevent one severe rotavirus gastroenteritis episode was 55 (95% CI 37-97). The incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis per 100 person-years was 1·5 in the vaccine group and 3·2 in the placebo group, with an incidence rate ratio of 0·46 (95% CI 0·33-0·65). Prevalence of immediate, solicited, and serious adverse events was similar in both groups. One case of urticaria in the vaccine group and one each of acute gastroenteritis and suspected sepsis in the placebo group were regarded as related to the study product. We recorded six cases of intussusception in the vaccine group and two in the placebo group, all of which happened after the third dose. 25 (<1%) infants in the vaccine group and 17 (<1%) in the placebo group died; no death was regarded as related to the study product.

Interpretation: Monovalent human-bovine (116E) rotavirus vaccine is effective and well tolerated in Indian infants.

Funding: Department of Biotechnology and the Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council, Government of India; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to PATH, USA; Research Council of Norway; UK Department for International Development; National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA; and Bharat Biotech International, Hyderabad, India.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4532697PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62630-6DOI Listing
June 2014

Immunogenicity and safety of the Vi-CRM197 conjugate vaccine against typhoid fever in adults, children, and infants in south and southeast Asia: results from two randomised, observer-blind, age de-escalation, phase 2 trials.

Lancet Infect Dis 2014 Feb 28;14(2):119-29. Epub 2013 Nov 28.

Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health, Siena, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Typhoid vaccination is a public health priority in developing countries where young children are greatly affected by typhoid fever. Because present vaccines are not recommended for children younger than 2 years, the Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health developed a conjugate vaccine (Vi-CRM197) for infant immunisation. We aimed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of Vi-CRM197 in participants of various ages in endemic countries in south and southeast Asia.

Methods: We did two randomised, observer-blind, age de-escalation, phase 2 trials at two sites in Pakistan and India (study A), and at one site in the Philippines (study B), between March 2, 2011, and Aug 9, 2012. Adults aged 18-45 years, children aged 24-59 months, older infants aged 9-12 months, and infants aged 6-8 weeks were randomly assigned (1:1) with a computer-generated randomisation list (block size of four) to receive either 5 μg Vi-CRM197 or 25 μg Vi-polysaccharide vaccine (or 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children younger than 2 years). Both infant populations received Vi-CRM197 concomitantly with vaccines of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), according to WHO schedule. With the exception of designated study site personnel responsible for vaccine preparation, study investigators, those assessing outcomes, and data analysts were masked to treatment allocation. We specified no a-priori null hypothesis for the immunogenicity or safety objectives and all analyses were descriptive. Analyses were by modified intention-to-treat. These studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT01229176 and NCT01437267.

Findings: 320 participants were enrolled and vaccinated in the two trials: 200 in study A (all age groups) and 120 in study B (children and infants only), of whom 317 (99%) were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. One dose of Vi-CRM197 significantly increased concentrations of anti-Vi antibody in adults (from 113 U/mL [95% CI 67-190] to 208 U/mL [117-369]), children (201 U/mL [138-294] to 368 U/mL [234-580]), and older infants (179 U/mL [129-250] to 249 U/mL [130-477]). However, in children and older infants, a second dose of conjugate vaccine had no incremental effect on antibody titres and, at all ages, concentrations of antibodies increased substantially 6 months after vaccination (from 55 U/mL [33-94] to 63 U/mL [35-114] in adults, from 23 U/mL [15-34] to 51 U/mL [34-76] in children, and from 21 U/mL [14-31] to 22 U/mL [14-33] in older infants). Immune response in infants aged 6-8 weeks was lower than that in older participants and, 6 months after third vaccination, antibody concentrations were significantly higher than pre-vaccination concentrations in Filipino (21 U/mL [16-28] vs 2.88 U/mL [1.95-4.25]), but not Pakistani (3.76 U/mL [2.77-5.08] vs 2.77 U/mL [2.1-3.66]), infants. Vi-CRM197 was safe and well tolerated and did not induce any significant interference with EPI vaccines. No deaths or vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported throughout the studies.

Interpretation: Vi-CRM197 is safe and immunogenic in endemic populations of all ages. Given at 9 months of age, concomitantly with measles vaccine, Vi-CRM197 shows a promise for potential inclusion in EPI schedules of countries endemic for typhoid. An apparent absence of booster response and a reduction in antibody titres 6 months after immunisation should be further investigated, but data show that an immunogenic typhoid vaccine can be safely delivered to infants during EPI visits recommended by WHO.

Funding: Sclavo Vaccines Association and Regione Toscana.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70241-XDOI Listing
February 2014