Publications by authors named "Anand Kaul"

6 Publications

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Surgical Treatment of Upper Extremity Segmental Myoclonus in an Adolescent with Chiari Malformation and Cervicothoracic Syrinx.

Pediatr Neurosurg 2021 11;56(4):373-378. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Myoclonus is an involuntary movement disorder characterized by semirhythmic jerking movements of muscle groups but is rarely seen in association with Chiari malformation type I (CM-1). CM-1 is a frequently encountered clinical entity in pediatric neurosurgery characterized by caudal displacement of the cerebellar tonsils with or without syringomyelia. We report a pediatric patient who presented with upper extremity myoclonus and was found to have CM-1 and a complex septated cervicothoracic syrinx eccentric to the left.

Case Presentation: A 12-year-old female presented with 6 months of headaches and upper extremity paresthesias who subsequently developed a left upper extremity segmental myoclonus after a fall. MRI demonstrated a CM-1 and a large complex cervicothoracic syrinx with a midline and left paracentral cavities. Her myoclonus was nonepileptic and refractory to clonazepam, cyclobenzaprine, and gabapentin. She underwent an intradural Chiari decompression and duraplasty. Postoperatively, she had complete resolution of her segmental myoclonus.

Discussion: This case demonstrates a durable resolution of posttraumatic upper extremity segmental myoclonus after surgical decompression of a CM-1 with syringomyelia. Thus, Chiari decompression should be considered in cases of myoclonus with CM-1 and syringomyelia.
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May 2021

Rare Neurosurgical Complications of Epidural Injections: An 8-Yr Single-Institution Experience.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2017 04;13(2):271-279

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Neurosurgical complications from epidural injections have rarely been reported.

Objective: To define the spectrum of complications from these procedures in order to identify risk factors and strategies for prevention.

Methods: A prospectively maintained database of 14 247 neurosurgical admissions over 8 yr was screened to identify patients who had suffered procedural complications associated with 1182 cervical and 4617 lumbar interlaminar epidural injection procedures performed at a single institution. Patients who developed new neurological symptoms or deficits were included. A retrospective analysis of demographic and procedural features was performed.

Results: Thirteen patients experienced complications requiring neurosurgical treatment, accounting for an overall procedural complication rate of 0.22% (0.51% and 0.15% for cervical and lumbar injections, respectively), and representing 0.09% of all neurosurgical admissions over 8 yr. There were 3 categories: hemorrhage (n = 7), infection (n = 3), and inadvertent dural penetration (n = 3). There was significant association with anticoagulation use among patients with hemorrhagic vs nonhemorrhagic complications ( P < .01, Fisher's exact test). Six patients who developed epidural hematoma had been managed in accordance with current guidelines, either after prolonged cessation of anticoagulation (n = 3) or taking only aspirin (n = 3); all were decompressed promptly with good long-term outcome. All infections were associated with lumbar injection. Dural penetration resulted in diffuse pneumocephalus (n = 1), intramedullary air at the site of injection (n = 1), and acutely symptomatic colloid cyst (n = 1).

Conclusion: A majority of neurosurgical complications from epidural injections are hemorrhagic and associated with anticoagulation, although infection and inadvertent dural penetration also occur. Prompt treatment of compressive lesions is associated with good outcome.
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April 2017

Natural history of cerebral cavernous malformations.

Handb Clin Neurol 2017 ;143:227-232

Department of Neurological Surgery, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular abnormalities of the central nervous system with an incidence of 0.4-0.5% and an annual rate of hemorrhage ranging from 0.7% to 1%. Most lesions are located in the cerebral hemisphere but some occur in deeper locations such as the basal ganglia and pons. The most common symptoms during presentation are headache, seizures, and focal neurologic deficits. Surgery remains the most effective treatment modality for symptomatic CCM, while the management of incidental CCM remains controversial. Factors associated with increased risk of hemorrhage include being female and less than 40 years old. This finding, however, is not consistent in all natural history studies evaluated. During follow-up, the most important and consistent risk factor for rebleed was a prior hemorrhage. Here, we provide an indepth but concise review of the literature regarding the natural history of CCMs.
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March 2018

Beyond the Cyst: The Many Contributions of Isadore Tarlov (1905-1977) to Contemporary Neurosurgical Practice.

Neurosurgery 2016 Nov;79(5):758-764

The Neurological Institute, University Hospital Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio.

: Isadore Max Tarlov (1905-1977) is primarily remembered for his 1938 description of the eponymous perineural "Tarlov cyst." However, during his long career as a neurosurgeon and researcher, he was responsible for many other observations and inventions that influenced the development of neurosurgery in the 20th century. While studying at Johns Hopkins Medical School he was acquainted with Walter Dandy, and he became the first resident to study under Wilder Penfield at the newly formed Montreal Neurological Institute. He made many novel observations about peripheral and cranial nerve anatomy, pioneered nerve anastomosis and grafting techniques, and introduced the concept of fibrin glue. He developed an animal model of spinal cord injury and used it to establish for the first time that functional neurological reserve is proportional to rapidity of injury, because gradual onset of compression is better tolerated by neural tissue than acute compression. He was the first to describe the use of the knee-chest position for lumbar spine surgery to minimize increases in epidural venous pressure due to abdominal compression. Finally, near the end of his career, he published a collection of thoughtful, philosophical essays entitled The Principle of Parsimony in Medicine and Other Essays, in which he advocated for a humanistic and restrained approach to medical practice. In this article, we discuss the contributions of Tarlov to the field of neurosurgery, including many of his lesser-known accomplishments that have become part of neurosurgery's collective legacy.
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November 2016

A revolution in preventing fatal craniovertebral junction injuries: lessons learned from the Head and Neck Support device in professional auto racing.

J Neurosurg Spine 2016 Dec 12;25(6):756-761. Epub 2016 Jul 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Case Western Reserve University, MetroHealth Medical Center; and.

Fatal craniovertebral junction (CVJ) injuries were the most common cause of death in high-speed motor sports prior to 2001. Following the death of a mutual friend and race car driver, Patrick Jacquemart (1946-1981), biomechanical engineer Dr. Robert Hubbard, along with race car driver and brother-in-law Jim Downing, developed the concept for the Head and Neck Support (HANS) device to prevent flexion-distraction injuries during high-velocity impact. Biomechanical testing showed that neck shear and loading forces experienced during collisions were 3 times the required amount for a catastrophic injury. Crash sled testing with and without the HANS device elucidated reductions in neck tension, neck compression, head acceleration, and chest acceleration experienced by dummies during high-energy crashes. Simultaneously, motor sports accidents such as Dale Earnhardt Sr.'s fatal crash in 2001 galvanized public opinion in favor of serious safety reform. Analysis of Earnhardt's accident demonstrated that his car's velocity parallel to the barrier was more than 150 miles per hour (mph), with deceleration upon impact of roughly 43 mph in a total of 0.08 seconds. After careful review, several major racing series such as the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) and Championship Auto Racing Team (CART) made major changes to ensure the safety of drivers at the turn of the 21st century. Since the rule requiring the HANS device in professional auto racing series was put in place, there has not been a single reported case of a fatal CVJ injury.
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December 2016