Publications by authors named "Anand Jothidasan"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ex vivo lung perfusion made easy.

Multimed Man Cardiothorac Surg 2021 03 23;2021. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust Hill End Road, Harefield, Uxbridge, London, UB9 6JH.

Ex vivo lung perfusion is an indispensable tool in the armamentarium of any lung transplant center. It helps to increase an already shrinking donor pool by offering a chance to assess suboptimal donor lungs in a systematic manner and improve them by treating them with low-molecular-weight perfusate. We offer a stepwise guide to carry out ex vivo lung perfusion on the donor lungs and criteria to accept them for transplants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1510/mmcts.2021.018DOI Listing
March 2021

Development of a pro-arrhythmic ex vivo intact human and porcine model: cardiac electrophysiological changes associated with cellular uncoupling.

Pflugers Arch 2020 10 1;472(10):1435-1446. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Faculty of Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN, UK.

We describe a human and large animal Langendorff experimental apparatus for live electrophysiological studies and measure the electrophysiological changes due to gap junction uncoupling in human and porcine hearts. The resultant ex vivo intact human and porcine model can bridge the translational gap between smaller simple laboratory models and clinical research. In particular, electrophysiological models would benefit from the greater myocardial mass of a large heart due to its effects on far-field signal, electrode contact issues and motion artefacts, consequently more closely mimicking the clinical setting. Porcine (n = 9) and human (n = 4) donor hearts were perfused on a custom-designed Langendorff apparatus. Epicardial electrograms were collected at 16 sites across the left atrium and left ventricle. A total of 1 mM of carbenoxolone was administered at 5 ml/min to induce cellular uncoupling, and then recordings were repeated at the same sites. Changes in electrogram characteristics were analysed. We demonstrate the viability of a controlled ex vivo model of intact porcine and human hearts for electrophysiology with pharmacological modulation. Carbenoxolone reduces cellular coupling and changes contact electrogram features. The time from stimulus artefact to (-dV/dt) increased between baseline and carbenoxolone (47.9 ± 4.1-67.2 ± 2.7 ms) indicating conduction slowing. The features with the largest percentage change between baseline and carbenoxolone were fractionation + 185.3%, endpoint amplitude - 106.9%, S-endpoint gradient + 54.9%, S point - 39.4%, RS ratio + 38.6% and (-dV/dt) - 20.9%. The physiological relevance of this methodological tool is that it provides a model to further investigate pharmacologically induced pro-arrhythmic substrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00424-020-02446-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7476990PMC
October 2020

Minimally Invasive Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation: A Comparative Study.

Artif Organs 2018 Dec 15;42(12):1125-1131. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Cardiothoracic Transplantation and Mechanical Circulatory Support, Harefield Hospital, Harefield, Uxbridge, UK.

Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is now a routine therapy for advanced heart failure. Minimally invasive approach via thoracotomy for LVAD implantation is getting popular due to its potential advantage over the conventional sternotomy approach in terms of reduced risk at re-operation due to sternal sparing. We compared the approaches (thoracotomy and sternotomy) to determine the superiority. Minimally invasive approach involved fitting of the LVAD inflow cannula into left ventricle apex via left anterior thoracotomy and anastomosis of outflow graft to ascending aorta via right anterior thoracotomy. In the sternotomy approach, both the procedures were performed via sternotomy. Outcomes in patients after LVAD implantation were compared depending on these approaches for the surgery. Two hundred and five continuous flow LVAD implantations performed between July 2006 and June 2015 at a single center were divided based on surgical approach, that is, sternotomy (n = 180) and thoracotomy (n = 25) groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in relation to patient demographics, preoperative hemodynamic parameters, laboratory markers, or risk factors. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of postoperative hemodynamic parameters, laboratory markers, bleeding and requirement of blood products, intensive care unit, and hospital stay or complications of LVAD surgery. There were no significant differences in terms of long-term survival (Log-Rank P = 0.953), however, thoracotomy, compared to sternotomy approach, incurred significantly less requirement of temporary right ventricular assist (4 vs. 19.4%, P = 0.041). Minimally invasive bilateral thoracotomy approach for LVAD implantation in addition to benefits of sternal sparing avoids dilatation of right ventricle and reduces chances of right ventricular failure requiring temporary right ventricular assist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aor.13269DOI Listing
December 2018

Right internal mammary artery versus radial artery as second arterial conduit in coronary artery bypass grafting: a case-control study of 1526 patients.

Int J Surg 2015 Apr 19;16(Pt B):183-9. Epub 2014 Aug 19.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Harefield Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Objective: Additional arterial grafts such as the right internal mammary artery (RIMA) or the radial artery (RA) have been proposed to improve long term outcomes in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). RA is largely preferred over RIMA as it is less technically demanding and there is a perception that bilateral IMA usage increases the risk of sternal wound complications. However, there is a paucity of direct comparison of the two conduits to guide surgeons to choose the best second arterial conduit for CABG.

Methods: A propensity score adjusted analysis of patients undergoing multiple arterial grafting with RIMA (n = 747) and RA (n = 779) during the study period (2001-2013) was conducted to investigate the impact of the two strategies on early and late outcomes.

Results: RIMA did not increase the incidence of postoperative complications including deep sternal wound infection (P = 0.8). Compared to the RIMA, the RA was associated with an increased risk for late mortality (Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.1; P = 0.008) and repeat revascularization (HR 1.5; 95% CI 1.0-2.2; P = 0.044). A trend towards an extra risk for late mortality from RA over RIMA was observed among diabetic (HR 3.3; 95% CI 1.1-9.7) and obese patients (HR 2.1; 95% CI 0.8-5.46).

Conclusions: RIMA as a second conduit did not increase the operative risk including sternal wound complications and improved long term outcomes including overall survival when compared to RA. This advantage was stronger among diabetic and obese patients. These findings strongly support RIMA as the first choice second arterial conduit in CABG. Further randomized studies with angiographic control and long-term follow-up are needed to address this issue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2014.08.342DOI Listing
April 2015

Management of a left atrial intramural hematoma after percutaneous intervention.

Ann Thorac Surg 2014 Jun;97(6):2196-7

Cardiothoracic Department, Royal Brompton Hospital, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.

Left atrial intramural hematoma is a rare complication of percutaneous intervention. We report the case of a 69-year-old man with recurrent angina after CABG 19 years ago who was admitted for percutaneous intervention. After an attempt to recanalize the native circumflex artery and the vein graft, he had a cardiac arrest and was resuscitated successfully. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a large expanding hematoma within the left atrial wall causing obstruction of the mitral valve and compressing the right atrium from across the septum. An emergency thoracotomy was performed and with transesophageal echocardiography guidance and left atrial intramural hematoma was drained successfully.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2013.08.025DOI Listing
June 2014

Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass improves late survival compared with drug-eluting stents in isolated proximal left anterior descending artery disease: a 10-year follow-up, single-center, propensity score analysis.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2014 Oct 15;148(4):1316-22. Epub 2014 Jan 15.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Harefield Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Objectives: Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) has been proposed to reduce surgical morbidity and improve long-term outcomes compared with stenting in the treatment of isolated proximal left anterior descending artery. However, the survival benefit from MIDCAB still needs to be demonstrated, in particular, because percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents (DES-PCI) continues to be considered the initial treatment strategy. We conducted a 10-year follow-up, single-center, propensity score-matched MIDCAB versus DES-PCI comparison.

Methods: A total of 1033 patients (303 MIDCAB and 730 DES-PCI) with isolated proximal left anterior descending disease were included. Propensity score matching was used to compare 303 pairs of MIDCAB and DES-PCI patients.

Results: MIDCAB and DES-PCI presented with comparable 30-day mortality (2 of 303 [0.6%] vs 1 of 303 [0.3%]; P=1.0). At 10 years, DES-PCI was associated with a 2.19-fold increased risk of late death (95% confidence interval, 1.15-4.17), a 2.0-fold increased risk of repeat revascularization (95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.47), and a 2.14-fold increased risk of the composite of death and repeat revascularization (95% confidence interval, 1.41-3.24).

Conclusions: These findings strongly support a survival benefit from MIDCAB at long-term follow-up compared with DES-PCI in the treatment of isolated left anterior descending disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2013.12.062DOI Listing
October 2014