Publications by authors named "Anand C Patil"

12 Publications

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Evaluation of the Effect of Long-term Use of Three Intracanal Medicaments on the Radicular Dentin Microhardness and Fracture Resistance: An study.

Acta Stomatol Croat 2021 Sep;55(3):291-301

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Sapienza University, University of Rome, Italy.

Objectives: The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of long-term use of three intracanal medicaments on the radicular dentin microhardness and fracture resistance.

Material And Methods: A chemomechanical preparation was done using the Protaper rotary instruments up to F3. The teeth were stored in an incubator at 37°C at 100% humidity and were categorized in three groups by random allocation, namely: Triple Antibiotic Paste (TAP), Calcium hydroxide paste (Apexcal) and Ledermix. Following medicament application, the access openings of all teeth were sealed with 4 mm thickness of cavit. The samples were stored for periods of 1 week, 1 month and 3months. Two dentin cylinders measuring 5mm and 3mm were obtained from each sample. The cervical third was used for fracture resistance and the middle third was used for micro hardness evaluation. The microhardness testing was done using a Knoop microhardness tester, and the fracture resistance testing was done using the universal testing machine.

Results: Calcium hydroxide showed maximally negative effect on the physical properties of radicular dentin compared to TAP (p= 0.0100 at one month and Ledermix (p=0.0001 at one month). With an increase in the application time, there was an increased deterioration in the physical properties of radicular dentin.

Conclusion: Long-term placement of calcium hydroxide, Triple Antibiotic Paste, and Ledermix (p= 0.0001at 3 months) significantly affects the microhardness and fracture resistance of radicular dentin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15644/asc55/3/6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8514225PMC
September 2021

Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy of Calcium Hydroxide, Propolis, and as Intracanal Medicaments in Root Canal Treatment.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2021 Jun 1;22(6):707-712. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research (KAHER), Belagavi, Karnataka, India.

Aim: To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of Ca(OH), 25% propolis, and 25% as intracanal medicaments in root canal treatment.

Materials And Methods: Total 60 freshly extracted permanent incisors were decoronated and chemomechanical preparation of root canal was performed. Samples were inoculated with a pure culture of and incubated for 21 days. Colony-forming units (CFUs) were recorded before medication. Incubated samples were randomly categorized into three groups, namely, Ca(OH), propolis, and , with 20 samples in each group. Antibacterial activity was assessed by evaluating the variance in the CFUs on Day 7. Paired "" test and Post-hoc Tukey's test were applied to analyze the data.

Results: Reduction of CFUs was noticed in all the groups ( <0.001), however the reduction was more predominant in the propolis group.

Conclusion: Propolis is more effective against , when compared to and Ca(OH).

Clinical Significance: Propolis could be used as an effective medicament in root canal treatment.
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June 2021

Evaluation of Push-out Bond Strength of a Resin Sealer to Dentin after a Final Flush of Three Irrigants.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2020 Sep 1;21(9):982-985. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Maratha Mandal Dental College, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.

Aim: To evaluate the push-out bond strength of resin-based sealer to root dentin after a final flush of three different irrigants.

Materials And Methods: Thirty extracted human mandibular premolars were sectioned 4 mm below the cement-enamel junction and 60 horizontal disks of 2 mm from middle one-third of the root were prepared. The disks were immersed in 3% sodium hypochlorite for 1 minute, and after drying the disks, they were finally flushed with the following irrigants: group I-Chitosan solution, group II- juice (MCJ), and group III-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The disks were filled with AH Plus sealer, and after 7 days, the disks were subjected to push-out bond strength using a universal testing machine.

Results: EDTA had the highest push-out bond strength followed by MCJ and then chitosan.

Conclusion: Chitosan and MCJ can be used as alternative irrigants as a final flush during the cleaning and shaping of the root canals.

Clinical Significance: EDTA, chitosan solution, and MCJ are efficient in smear layer removal which thereby increases better sealer penetration and prevents the dislocation of obturating materials.
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September 2020

Comparison of cleaning effectiveness of single rotary file OneShape and reciprocating F2 Protaper with Protaper Universal sequence: A SEM analysis.

J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2020 Oct-Dec;10(4):337-342. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

School of Dental Sciences, KIMSDU, Karad, 415539, India.

Aim: This in vitro study intend to compare the cleaning effectiveness of Protaper universal sequence with reciprocating F2 Protaper and single rotary file One shape.

Materials And Method: 30 extracted human 1st mandibular molars were chosen for the analysis. Three NiTi file systems were used for mechanical preparation, ProTaper full sequence in rotary motion, single F2 Protaper file used in reciprocating motion, and One shape single file used in a circular motion. Irrigation was carried out after each instrument use using 5 ml of 5% NaOCl followed by normal saline. The root canal surface was evaluated at three different areas (coronal, middle and apical thirds) using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Debris and the Smear layer were evaluated. Data were analyzed statistically using the Friedman test and Kruskal-Wallis test (p ≤ 0.05).

Results: A statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) was observed in the debris score of the Protaper universal group when the 3 thirds of the root were compared. Intergroup comparisons confirmed a statistically significant difference at the coronal and apical third of the roots when debris scores were evaluated. Intragroup comparison for the smear layer demonstrated a statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) at all the 3 levels of the radicular canal for the 3 groups studied. Intergroup comparisons revealed a statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in the middle and apical 1/3rd when the smear layer was evaluated.

Conclusion: The Protaper full sequence group provided better results than Single F2 ProTaper and One shape groups when debris and smear layer removal was investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jobcr.2020.06.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7371902PMC
July 2020

Anesthetic efficacy of anterior middle superior alveolar injection in single-visit endodontic therapy: an in vivo study.

Clin Oral Investig 2020 May 26;24(5):1701-1707. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Department of Public Health Dentistry; KLE Vishwanath Katti Institute of Dental Sciences, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, JNMC Campus, Nehru Nagar, Belagavi, Karnataka, 590010, India.

Objectives: To evaluate and compare the anesthetic efficacy of anterior middle superior alveolar (AMSA) injection in single-visit endodontic therapy, an in vivo study.

Materials And Methods: Teeth in the maxillary anterior segment (N = 60) requiring single-visit endodontic (SVE) therapy were selected. A conventional syringe with 26-guage needle containing 1.5 ml lignocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine was used for the AMSA injection. The SVE therapy was performed using standard protocol. Profoundness of anesthesia during therapy was evaluated at 15-, 30-, 60-, and 90-min intervals using pain rating score and marked on visual analogue scale. In patients who reported pain/ineffectiveness of anesthesia during the course of endodontic therapy, additional supplemental anesthesia (buccal/labial infiltration) was administered. Depending on effectiveness of anesthesia with the AMSA injection alone or the need for additional supplementary injections, patients were divided as: group I-only AMSA and group II-AMSA with one or two supplemental anesthesia.

Results: The AMSA injection was effective in 91.67% of the patients undergoing the SVE therapy and the duration of anesthesia for the AMSA injection alone was adequate until the completion of the SVE therapy. Supplementary injections were required in 8.33% of cases at 15-min interval to achieve profound anesthesia.

Conclusion: The AMSA injection technique could be used as an alternative to the conventional infiltration technique for anesthetizing teeth in maxillary anterior segment during the SVE therapy.

Clinical Relevance: The AMSA injection provides profound pulpal anesthesia of teeth in maxillary anterior segment during endodontic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-019-03028-2DOI Listing
May 2020

"Evaluation of shear bond strength of a composite resin to white mineral trioxide aggregate with three different bonding systems"-An in vitro analysis.

J Clin Exp Dent 2016 Jul 1;8(3):e273-7. Epub 2016 Jul 1.

MDS. Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics.

Background: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a biomaterial that has been investigated for endodontic applications. With the increased use of MTA in pulp capping, pulpotomy, perforation repair, apexification and obturation, the material that would be placed over MTA as a final restoration is an important matter. As composite resins are one of the most widely used final restorative materials, this study was conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength of a composite resin to white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) using three different bonding systems namely the two-step etch and rinse adhesive, the self-etching primer and the All-in-one system.

Material And Methods: Forty five specimens of white MTA (Angelus) were prepared and randomly divided into three groups of 15 specimens each depending on the bonding systems used respectively. In Group A, a Two-step etch and rinse adhesive or 'total-etch adhesive', Adper Single Bond 2 (3M/ESPE) and Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN) were placed over WMTA. In group B, a Two-step self-etching primer system, Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray, Medical Inc) and Filtek Z350 were used. In Group C, an All-in-one system, G Bond (GC corporation, Tokyo, Japan) and Filtek Z350 were used. The shear bond strength was measured for all the specimens. The data obtained was subjected to One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe's post hoc test.

Results: The results suggested that the Two-step etch and rinse adhesive when used to bond a composite resin to white MTA gave better bond strength values and the All-in-one exhibited the least bond strength values.

Conclusions: The placement of composite used with a Two-step etch and rinse adhesive over WMTA as a final restoration may be appropriate.

Key Words: Composite resins, dentin bonding agents, mineral trioxide aggregate, shear bond strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4317/jced.52727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4930636PMC
July 2016

Comparison of third generation versus fourth generation electronic apex locators in detecting apical constriction: An in vivo study.

J Conserv Dent 2015 Jul-Aug;18(4):288-91

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Dayanandasagar College of Dental Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Aim: The aim of this in vivo study was to compare the accuracy of Root ZX and Raypex 5 in detecting minor diameter in human permanent single-rooted teeth.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-one patients with completely formed single-rooted permanent teeth indicated for extraction were selected for the study. Crown was flattened for stable reference point and access cavity prepared. Working length was determined with both apex locators. A 15 K file adjusted to that reading was placed in the root canal and stabilized with cement. The tooth was then extracted atraumatically. Following extraction apical 4 mm of root was shaved. The position of the minor diameter in relation to the anatomic apex was recorded for each tooth under stereomicroscope at ×10. The efficiency of two electronic apex locators to determine the minor diameter was statistically analyzed using paired sample t-test.

Results: The minor diameter was located within the limits of ±0.5 mm in 96.6% of the samples with the Root ZX and 93.2% of the samples with Raypex 5. The paired sample t-test showed no significant difference.

Conclusion: On analyzing the results of our study it can be concluded that Raypex 5 was as effective as Root ZX in determining the minor diameter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.159726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4502123PMC
July 2015

Interdisciplinary management of an isolated intrabony defect.

Case Rep Dent 2014 23;2014:672152. Epub 2014 Nov 23.

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Nehru Nagar, Belgaum 590010, India.

The treatment of intrabony defects is a real challenge in molar teeth as it is chronic, slowly progressing disease which needs timely intervention. Periodontal inflammation associated with intrabony defect is not a separate entity as it secondarily affects the pulp causing retrograde pulpitis. However, treatment of these lesions will be complicated due to extensive bone loss. The tooth was endodontically treated followed by periodontal surgery to eliminate the deep periodontal pocket and promote bone fill in osseous defect. PepGen P-15 composited with platelet rich plasma was utilized for enhancing bone formation. The combination of these graft materials provides synergistic effect on bone regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/672152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4259138PMC
December 2014

Root canal treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and canals - an anatomic variation.

J Dent (Tehran) 2013 Nov 30;10(6):569-74. Epub 2013 Nov 30.

Pofessor and Head, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Nehru Nagar, Belgaum.

Dental anatomical variations play a significant role in the diagnosis and a successful treatment outcome in endodontics. It is essential for the clinician to have a clear picture and understanding of the pulpal anatomy and its variations. In a mandibular second premolar, it is rare to find extra roots and canals. The aim of the present article is to report a case about the successful diagnosis, and clinical management of a three-rooted mandibular second premolar with three independent roots and canals.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4025433PMC
November 2013

Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of calcium hydroxide paste, chlorhexidine gel, and a combination of both as intracanal medicament: An in vivo comparative study.

J Conserv Dent 2013 Jan;16(1):65-70

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Jodhpur Dental College, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, India.

Aim: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of calcium hydroxide (CH), 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX) and a combination of both, on obligate anaerobes, facultative anaerobes and Candida spp .

Materials And Methods: 90 single rooted permanent teeth were included in the study. After complete disinfection and access opening, the first microbiological pre-treatment sample (S1) was collected. After completion of instrumentation, a post-instumentation sample (S2) was taken and the teeth were divided into three groups: Group I: CH, Group II: 2% CHX, Group III: 2% CHX with CH. After 1 week, a post-medication sample (S3) was collected.

Results: All three medicaments were effective in the elimination of obligate anaerobes. CHX and combination showed higher antimicrobial effect against facultative anaerobes and Candida spp. in comparison with CH. But there was no statistical significant difference between Group II and Group III.

Conclusion: CHX with or without CH was more effective than CH alone against all the tested micro-organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.105302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3548350PMC
January 2013

Evaluation of the effect of concentration and duration of application of sodium ascorbate hydrogel on the bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel.

J Conserv Dent 2011 Oct;14(4):356-60

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

Aim: The effect of different concentrations of hydrogel of sodium ascorbate on bond strength of bleached enamel for varying periods of time and the mode of failure was evaluated.

Materials And Methods: Seventy enamel surfaces were obtained from 35 human extracted premolars. Specimens were divided into four groups: no bleaching (control), bleaching with carbamide peroxide gel, bleaching and application of 10% / 20% sodium ascorbate hydrogel for 30, 60, 120 min. Surfaces were bonded with a total etch bonding system and composite resin. Specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Mode of failure was determined by stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance, and Scheffe's post hoc test.

Results: Sodium ascorbate hydrogel application following bleaching increased the resin-enamel bond strength and was directly proportional to its duration of application. However, there was no difference in bond strength with an increase in the concentration of sodium ascorbate hydrogel.

Conclusion: Immediate bonding of composite resin to bleached enamel is possible after treatment with antioxidant sodium ascorbate hydrogel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.87197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3227280PMC
October 2011

Management of intrusive luxation of maxillary incisors with dens in dente: a case report.

Dent Traumatol 2010 Oct;26(5):438-42

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, KLE V.K. Institute of Dental Sciences, Nehru Nagar, JNMC Campus, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

Intrusive luxation is one of the most severe types of dental traumatic injuries. The risk of occurrence of pulpal necrosis and inflammatory or replacement resorption is high. In an attempt to prevent or delay the appearance of such lesions, endodontic intervention is required soon after the occurrence of trauma. A 17-year-old boy reported to the Department of Conservative dentistry and Endodontics, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum, 2 days after a fall from a bicycle. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed an intrusive luxation of the left maxillary central incisor and lateral incisor. There were complicated crown fracture with the right maxillary central incisor and uncomplicated crown fracture with the left maxillary central incisor. Also, all the incisors showed the presence of Oelhers type II Dens-in-dente. The management was hence challenging. Immediate surgical repositioning was performed and the teeth were stabilized with a composite resin splint. Endodontic therapy was initiated with the right maxillary central incisor, and the canal was sealed with calcium hydroxide dressing. After 3 weeks, pulp sensitivity was repeated with the maxillary left central and lateral incisors. The result was negative. Considering the incidence of pulp necrosis and root resorption in intruded teeth with complete root formation, they also were dealt in a similar manner as the maxillary right central incisor. The splint was removed after 1 month. After 6 months of calcium hydroxide therapy, there was a satisfactory apical and periodontal healing. At this stage, the teeth were obturated and the fractures were restored with composite resin. A 1-year follow up revealed a satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.2010.00909.xDOI Listing
October 2010
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