Publications by authors named "Ana Valea"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Vitiligo and chronic autoimmune thyroiditis.

J Med Life 2021 Mar-Apr;14(2):127-130

Department of Endocrinology, Clinical County Hospital, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Vitiligo, the discoloration of the skin, has different autoimmune mechanisms reflected by many biomarkers as shown by skin histology, staining for CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes, chemokine ligand 9 or circulating cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 beta, interferon (IFN)-gamma, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, antibodies, markers of oxidative stress, chemokines, and others. In this narrative review, we aim to overview vitiligo in relationship with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Regarding vitiligo, more than 50 different genetic loci have been associated with this disease, and the heritability is high. There is a 20% risk of an environmental connection which may also act as a trigger; moreover, the association with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) expression is well recognized. The specific lesions display CD8+ tissue-resident memory T cells as continuous key activators of melanocytes. The association with chronic thyroiditis is based on common autoimmune background and excessive reactive oxygen species that destroy melanocytes and thyrocytes (oxidative stress hypothesis) with thyroxine and melanin as target molecules, thus sharing a common origin: tyrosine. Moreover, common epigenetic anomalies or mutations of the Forkhead transcription factor D3 (FOXD3) have been described. Since vitiligo affects up to 1-2% of the population worldwide and 34% of patients have positive thyroid antibodies, apart from common autoimmunity background and oxidative stress toxicity, the association is clinically relevant for different practitioners.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.25122/jml-2019-0134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8169145PMC
June 2021

Anorexia nervosa: COVID-19 pandemic period (Review).

Exp Ther Med 2021 Aug 26;22(2):804. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Endocrinology, Clinical County Hospital, 400000 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by restrictive eating and an intense fear of gaining weight. It is a disease with an increasing incidence during the last few decades, and represents a complex psychiatric condition which includes secondary amenorrhea, nutritional and metabolic damage, and impaired endocrine panel up to bone loss as well as cardiac, gastrointestinal and hematological complications. This is a narrative review which includes an update on this eating disorder from the perspective of an endocrine panel of anomalies, especially of the skeleton, considering the pressure of the recent global COVID-19 pandemic changes. Practically affecting every organ, anorexia nervosa needs to be taken into consideration during the pandemic period because of the higher risk of relapse due to new living conditions, social distancing, self-isolation, changes in food access, more intense use of social media platforms, disruption of daily habits, and more difficult access to healthcare practitioners. The lack of physical activity in addition to vitamin D deficiency related to low sun exposure or to the use of facial masks may also be connected to further bone damage related to this disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170656PMC
August 2021

COVID-19-related thyroid conditions (Review).

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jul 13;22(1):756. Epub 2021 May 13.

Departament of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 'Carol Davila' University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474, Bucharest, Romania.

In patients who were not previously diagnosed with any thyroid conditions, the scenario of COVID-19-related anomalies of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axes may include either: A process of central thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) disturbances via virus-related hypophysitis; an atypical type of subacute thyroiditis which is connected to the virus spread or to excessive cytokine production including a destructive process with irreversible damage of the gland or low T3 (triiodothyronine) syndrome (so called non-thyroid illness syndrome) which is not specifically related to the COVID-19 infection, but which is associated with a very severe illness status. Our objective here was to briefly review thyroid changes due to the COVID-19 infection. Ongoing assessment of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic will reveal more information on coronavirus-induced thyroid conditions. Routine thyroid assays performed in patients with severe infection/at acute phase of COVID-19 are encouraged in order to detect thyrotoxicosis. After recovery, thyroid function should be assessed to identify potential hypothyroidism. There remain unanswered questions related to the prognostic value of interleukin-6 in infected patients, especially in cases with cytokine storm, and the necessity of thyroid hormone replacement in subjects with hypophysitis-related central hypothyroidism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8135141PMC
July 2021

Glucocorticoids and Trabecular Bone Score.

J Med Life 2020 Oct-Dec;13(4):449-453

Department of Endocrinology, Clinical County Hospital, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

TBS (Trabecular Bone Score) is the latest tool for clinicians to evaluate bone micro-architecture based on a pixel greyscale, which is provided by lumbar dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Its use enhances fracture prediction in addition to DXA-BMD (Bone Mineral Density). This is independent of fracture risk assessment (FRAX) and DXA results. We present a narrative review regarding the connection between TBS and Glucocorticoids (GC), either as a drug used for different conditions or as a tumor-produced endogenous excess. TBS is a better discriminator for GC-induced vertebral fractures compared to DXA-BMD. This aspect is similarly available for patients with osteoporosis diagnosed by DXA. TBS is inversely correlated with the cumulative dose of GC (systemic or inhaled), with disease duration, and positively correlated with respiratory function in patients with asthma. Low TBS values are found in females with a T-score at the hip within the osteoporosis range, with diabetes mellitus, or who use GC. Lumbar TBS is a screening tool in menopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. TBS is an independent parameter that provides information regarding skeleton deterioration in diabetic patients receiving GC therapy in a manner complementary to DXA-BMD. TBS might become an essential step regarding the adrenalectomy decision in patients with adrenal incidentaloma in whom autonomous cortisol secretion might damage bone micro-architecture. TBS currently represents a standard tool of fracture risk evaluation in patients receiving GC therapy or with endogenous Cushing's syndrome, a tool easy to be applied by different practitioners since GCs are largely used.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.25122/jml-2019-0131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803323PMC
January 2021

Glucagonoma: From skin lesions to the neuroendocrine component (Review).

Exp Ther Med 2020 Oct 3;20(4):3389-3393. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Gynecology, Emergency University Hospital, 050098 Bucharest, Romania.

Glucagonoma is a hormonally active rare pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour causing an excess of glucagon. This is a narrative review based on a multidisciplinary approach of the tumour. Typically associated dermatosis is necrolytic migratory erythema (NME) which is most frequently seen at disease onset. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, depression, diarrhoea, deep vein thrombosis are also identified, as parts of so-called 'D' syndrome. Early diagnosis is life saving due to potential aggressive profile and high risk of liver metastasis. NME as paraneoplastic syndrome may be present for months and even years until adequate recognition and therapy; it is remitted after successful pancreatic surgery. Thus the level of practitioners' awareness is essential. If surgery is not curative, debulking techniques may improve the clinical aspects and even the outcome in association with other procedures such as embolization of hepatic metastasis; ablation of radiofrequency type; medical therapy including chemotherapy, targeted therapy with mTOR inhibitors such as everolimus, PRRT (peptide receptor radiotherapy), and somatostatin analogues (including combinations of medical treatments). Increased awareness of the condition involves multidisciplinary practitioners.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8966DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465236PMC
October 2020

Somatostatinoma: Beyond neurofibromatosis type 1 (Review).

Exp Ther Med 2020 Oct 3;20(4):3383-3388. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Gynecology, Emergency University Hospital, 050098 Bucharest, Romania.

Somatostatinoma is a tumour mainly originating from pancreas or duodenum; overall with an incidence of 1/40 million persons. We introduce a narrative review of literature of somatostatinoma including the relationship with neurofibromatosis type 1. Clinical presentation includes: Diabetes mellitus, cholelithiasis, steatorrhea, abdominal pain, and obstructive jaundice while papillary tumour may cause acute pancreatitis. The neoplasia may develop completely asymptomatic or it is detected as an incidental finding during an imaging or a surgical procedure. It may be sporadic or associated to genetic backgrounds especially for duodenal localisation as neurofibromatosis type 1 ( gene with malfunction of RAS/MAPK pathway) or Pacak-Zhuang syndrome ( gene encoding HIF). Surgery represents the central approach if feasible but the prognostic depends on location, and grading as indicated by WHO 2017 classification of neuroendocrine tumours. Previously known as Von Recklinghausen disease, neurofibromatosis type 1, the most frequent neurocutaneous syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder including: Café-au-lait spot, skin fold freckling on flexural zones, and neurofibromas as well as tumours such as gliomas of optic nerve, gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), iris hamartomas and brain tumours. Duodenal somatostatinoma is associated with the syndrome which actually involves more often a duodenal tumour of GIST type than a somatostatin secreting neoplasia. Other neuroendocrine tumours are reported: Gastrointestinal NENs at the level of rectum or jejunum and pheocromocytoma. Overall, one quarter of subjects have gastrointestinal tumours of different types. Somatostatinoma, when not located on pancreas but in duodenoum, may be registered in subjects with neurofibromatosis type 1 most probably in addition to other tumours. Overall, this type of neuroendocrine tumour with a challenging presentation has a poor prognosis unless adequate radical surgery is promptly offered to the patient.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465002PMC
October 2020

Abdominal wall endometriosis (a narrative review).

Int J Med Sci 2020 10;17(4):536-542. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology and Histology, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474, Bucharest, Romania; "C.I. Parhon" National Institute of Endocrinology, 011863, Bucharest, Romania.

One of the rarest forms of endometriosis is abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE), which includes caesarean scar endometriosis. AWE remains a challenging condition because some issues related to this topic are still under debate. The increasing number of caesarean sections and laparotomies will expect to increase the rate of AWE. The current incidence in obstetrical and gynaecological procedures is still unknown. The disease is probably underestimated. The pathogenic mechanism involves local environment at the implant site including local inflammation and metalloproteinases activation due to local growth factors, estrogen stimulation through estrogen receptors and potential epigenetic changes. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully explained, and we need more experimental models to understand them. The clinical presentation is heterogeneous; the patient may be seen by a gynaecologist, an endocrinologist, a general surgeon, an imaging specialist, or even an oncologist. No particular constellation of clinical risk factors has been identified, and the histological report is the major diagnostic tool for confirmation. Surgery is the first line of therapy. Further on we need protocols for multidisciplinary investigations and approaches.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.38679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7053307PMC
December 2020

Ovarian Sertoli cell tumours: practical points.

J Pak Med Assoc 2020 Jan;70(1):129-133

Department of Endocrinology, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.

Rarity of Sertoli cell tumours contributes to a low index of suspicion and therefore a thorough knowledge of the clinicopathological and immunological characteristics of such tumours is essential to diagnosis and proper management of the treatment and follow-up. The current narrative review of literature was planned to focus on ovarian Sertoli cell tumours that arise from the sex cords cells, which are typically benign unilateral neoplasia incidentally detected, or associated with hormonal hyperactivity, in women of reproductive age. A priory unpublished case of a 35-year old female is also introduced as the base of discussion Abdominal massrelated syndrome and vaginal bleeding anomalies have been reported. Genetic background, if presented, is mostly related to Peutz-Jeghers syndrome caused by STK11/LKB1 mutation. The tumour displays a microscopic tubular pattern and rarely displays cords or trabecular, retiform, spindles, diffuse or areolar structures. Although immunohistochemistry can be helpful in establishing the diagnosis, the results are sometimes inconclusive and the current results require new research to establish a specific immunological panel.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/JPMA.1381DOI Listing
January 2020

Interplay between metabolic and thyroid parameters in obese pubertal children. Does visceral adipose tissue make the first move?

Acta Clin Belg 2021 Feb 24;76(1):40-48. Epub 2019 Aug 24.

Department of Endocrinology, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy , Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

: The mechanisms of obesity-associated thyroid dysfunction in children are incompletely deciphered. We aimed to evaluate whether visceral adipose tissue (VAT), insulin resistance (IR), inflammation, oxidative stress (OS) are involved in thyroid morpho-functional changes in pubertal obese children. : We recruited 43 obese pubertal children without history of thyroid pathology. Metabolic and thyroid parameters (visceral fat thickness [VFT], waist/hip ratio [WHR], waist/height ratio [WHtR], insulin, glucose, liver parameters, thyroid stimulation hormone [TSH], free thyroxine [FT4], free triiodothyronine [FT3], thyroid and abdominal ultrasonography) were evaluated. Serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were quantified as markers of inflammation and OS. : VFT correlated positively both with WHR (p= 0.034) and the presence of thyroid nodules (p= 0.036). WHR associated with TSH (p= 0.005), FT3/FT4 (p= 0.033) and was independently associated with FT3/FT4 increase (p< 0.001). HOMA-IR increased with visceral obesity (waist circumference, p= 0.001; WHR, p= 0.018; WHtR: p< 0.001), hepatic impairment (alanine aminotransferase, p= 0.019) and hepatic steatosis (HS; p= 0.013) and correlated positively with FT3/FT4 (p= 0.036). TSH was significantly higher in subjects with HS versus those without HS (p= 0.007) and logistic regression analysis identified TSH as a risk factor for HS (p= 0.014). MDA correlated positively with MCP-1 (p= 0.021). : VAT and IR may be responsible for changes in thyroid parameters associated with obesity: elevated TSH, FT3/FT4 levels and increased prevalence of thyroid nodules. WHR was predictive of increased FT3/FT4. In obese children, there is an interdependent relationship between HS and thyroid function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17843286.2019.1660021DOI Listing
February 2021

Vitamin D deficiency, insulin resistance and thyroid dysfunction in obese patients: is inflammation the common link?

Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2018 Nov - Dec;78(7-8):560-565. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

a Department of Endocrinology , Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy , Cluj-Napoca , Romania.

The aim of this article is to study the possible relation of serum vitamin D concentrations to body mass index (BMI), visceral fat thickness (VFT), insulin resistance (IR), inflammation (serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 - MCP-1) and thyroid parameters in obese patients. A total of 158 non-diabetic, obese patients aged 19-68 without a history of thyroid pathology were recruited. Biochemical markers, insulin, 25-OH vitamin D, thyroid parameters (TSH, FT3, FT4, TPO antibodies, TG antibodies) and VFT were measured. Serum MCP-1 evaluated the inflammation. A HOMA-IR cut-off value of 2.5 defined IR. Most patients had severe (70.3%) or moderate (25.3%) vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D level was negatively associated with BMI (p = .043) and during the cold season with VFT (p = .009). Vitamin D deficiency correlated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis prevalence during the warm season (p = .047) and was a risk factor for its occurrence (p = .021). At 15 ng/mL cut-off value, vitamin D was negatively correlated with MCP-1 (p = .0006). Also, MCP-1 was positive correlated with HOMA- IR (p = .042), TPO-Ab levels (p = .011) and with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (p = .027). MCP-1 was a risk factor for vitamin D deficiency (p < .0001). Our study supports a bidirectional interaction between vitamin D and systemic inflammation in obese patients. Moreover, systemic inflammation is related to the severity and frequency of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Vitamin D deficiency is the single independent factor associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in obese patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365513.2018.1517420DOI Listing
April 2019

Selenoproteins in human body: focus on thyroid pathophysiology.

Hormones (Athens) 2018 Jun 5;17(2):183-196. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Endocrinology, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Selenium (Se) has a multilevel, complex and dynamic effect on the human body as a major component of selenocysteine, incorporated into selenoproteins, which include the selenocysteine-containing enzymes iodothyronine deiodinases. At the thyroid level, these proteins play an essential role in antioxidant protection and hormone metabolism. This is a narrative review based on PubMed/Medline database research regarding thyroid physiology and conditions with Se and Se-protein interferences. In humans, Se-dependent enzyme functions are best expressed through optimal Se intake, although there is gap in our knowledge concerning the precise mechanisms underlying the interrelation. There is a good level of evidence linking low serum Se to autoimmune thyroid diseases and, to a lesser extent, differentiated thyroid cancer. However, when it comes to routine supplementation, the results are heterogeneous, except in the case of mild Graves' orbitopathy. Autoimmune hypothyroidism is associated with a state of higher oxidative stress, but not all studies found an improvement of thyroid function after Se was introduced as antioxidant support. Meanwhile, no routine supplementation is recommended. Low Se intake is correlated with an increased risk of developing antithyroid antibodies, its supplementation decreasing their titres; there is also a potential reduction in levothyroxine replacement dose required for hypothyroidism and/or the possibility that it prevents progression of subclinical hypothyroidism, although not all studies agree. In thyroid-associated orbitopathy, euthyroidism is more rapidly achieved if the micronutrient is added to traditional drugs, while controls appear to benefit from the microelement only if they are deficient; thus, a basal assay of Se appears advisable to better select patients who need substitution. Clearly, further Se status biomarkers are required. Future introduction of individual supplementation algorithms based on baseline micronutrient levels, underlying or at-risk clinical conditions, and perhaps selenoprotein gene polymorphisms is envisaged.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42000-018-0033-5DOI Listing
June 2018

The effect of Metformin treatment in obese insulin-resistant patients with euthyroid goiter.

Acta Clin Belg 2018 Oct 16;73(5):317-323. Epub 2018 Feb 16.

a Department of Endocrinology , Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy , Cluj-Napoca , Romania.

Objective The study's objective was to evaluate the thyroid parameters in obese insulin-resistant patients with euthyroid diffuse or nodular goiter, following Metformin treatment. Patients and methods The study was experimental, open, and prospective. Fifty-three patients aged 18-68 were enrolled for two years. Obese insulin-resistant patients (cut-off Homeostasis-Model-Assessment of Insulin Resistance-HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5) with euthyroid nodular/diffuse goiter were included. Subjects with diabetes, hypo-/hyper-thyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, psychiatric disorders, liver or heart failure were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment: Metformin 1000 mg/day + Levothyroxine 25 μg/day (M + LT4 group) and only Levothyroxine 25 μg/day (LT4 group). Thyroid and metabolic parameters' evolution was investigated over six months. Results The two groups were comparable at baseline (p ≥ 0.10). TSH, waist/hip ratio (WHR), visceral fat thickness (VFT), insulin, and HOMA-IR decreased significantly more in M + LT4 group compared to LT4 group. TSH decrease correlated with WHR reduction (p = 0.002) only in M + LT4 group. Moreover, the multivariate regression analysis revealed that insulin's and HOMA-IR levels' decrease was an independent factor associated with FT4's increase (p = 0.031, p = 0.033) just in M + LT4 group. No other independent association between the evolution (Δ) of TSH, thyroid volume (TTV), thyroid nodules-maximum diameter (TN-MD), and metabolic parameters was found. In addition, no significant threshold between groups was reached when ΔFT4, ΔTTV, ΔTN-MD were compared (p > 0.07), although their significant improvement was recorded between the baseline and the follow-up moment in each group (p < 0.003). Conclusion Metformin added to obese insulin-resistant patients treated with Levothyroxine for diffuse/nodular goiter determined a significant decrease in TSH and metabolic parameters, compared to those treated with Levothyroxine alone, but no significant difference regarding thyroid morphology after 6 months.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17843286.2018.1439273DOI Listing
October 2018

Thyroid disorders in obese patients. Does insulin resistance make a difference?

Arch Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec;61(6):575-583

Department of Endocrinology, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between insulin resistance and thyroid pathology in obese patients, and compare the results between insulin-resistant and noninsulin-resistant patients.

Subjects And Methods: Obese/nondiabetic patients, aged 18-70 years, attending the outpatient endocrinology service for 2 years were consecutively included. We evaluated the patients' fasting plasma glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), antithyroperoxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), antithyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab), and thyroid ultrasound.

Results: We included 82 patients with a mean age 44.21 ± 12.67 years. The thyroid disorders encountered and their prevalences were: hypothyroidism (14.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.6-23.8%), hyperthyroidism (1.2%, 95% CI 2.0-6.6%), goiter (28.0%, 95% CI 19.5-3.6%), thyroid nodules (35.4%, 95% CI 25.9-46.2%), and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (32.9%, 95% CI 23.7-43.7%). HOMA-IR correlated positively with TSH levels (r = 0.24, p = 0.028), and this correlation remained after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio (WHR), serum cortisol, subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), visceral fat thickness (VFT), triglycerides, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in multivariate regression analysis (b = 0.207, 95% CI, 0.09-0.385, p = 0.023). TSH levels were significantly higher in patients with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 than in those with HOMA-IR < 2.5 (2.03 μIU/mL, interquartile range [IQR] 1.59-2.69 μIU/mL) versus 1.59 μIU/mL, IQR 0.94-2.26 μIU/mL, p = 0.023).

Conclusions: The most prevalent thyroid disorder in patients attending our endocrinology clinic for investigation of obesity was thyroid nodules. One in seven patients had hypothyroidism. Our findings suggest that TSH levels correlate with insulin resistance in obese patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2359-3997000000306DOI Listing
December 2017

Adrenal glands transabdominal ultrasonography - pictorial essay.

Med Ultrason 2017 May;19(3):318-323

1st Medical Clinic, Gastroenterology Department, Emergency Clinical County Hospital Cluj, Internal Medicine Department, "Iuliu Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca.

Adrenal gland ultrasonography is one of the corner stones of the abdominal ultrasonography examination for many medical specialties. The adrenal areas can be easily overlooked though adrenal gland pathology is diverse. We present the normal aspects and various transabdominal ultrasonography findings of the adrenal glands, both common and rare. Even though ultrasound examination is operator and patient dependent, we consider the examination of the adrenal glands very important, due to relatively frequent incidental detection of an adrenal mass.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11152/mu-978DOI Listing
May 2017

Incidentaloma: from general practice to specific endocrine frame.

J Pak Med Assoc 2017 Jun;67(6):917-922

Department of Endocrinology, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy & Clinical County Hospital, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Incidentaloma, a modern concept connected to technology progress, represents an accidentally discovered tumour, usually used for hypophysis and adrenals, and rarely for thyroid, parathyroids, and ovaries. This is a narrative review based on PubMed research, between 2012 and 2016 focusing on general and endocrine approach and current controversies. Main dilemma is the terminology itself: randomly imagery finding is enough or non-functioning profile and low-growth rate (not requiring surgery) should be mandatory? The controversies refers to best time framing of re-scanning pituitary and adrenal incidentaloma and setting of clear criteria for subclinical Cushing's syndrome. The need for general practical guidelines is imperative so clinicians from different areas of medicine touse the same definition and protocols. Currently, the widely accepted part is represented by incidental finding. For restricted defined incidentaloma the best intervention is no intervention, while some cases may require surgery depending on tumours features, patient's age and preference.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
June 2017

Cystic adrenal lesions: focus on pediatric population (a review).

Clujul Med 2017 15;90(1):5-12. Epub 2017 Jan 15.

Endocrinology Department, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy & Clinical County Hospital, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Background And Aim: The cysts may potentially affect any organ; adrenals cysts are rare. This is a review of the literature regarding adrenal cysts, focusing on children and young adults.

General Data: Three major types have been described: pure cysts (endothelial, epithelial, and hemorrhagic or pseudocyst), parasitic (as hydatid) cysts and cystic part of a tumour (most frequent are neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroma, pheocromocytoma, and teratoma). The complications are: bleeding, local pressure effects; infection; rupture (including post-traumatic); arterial hypertension due to renal vessels compression. Adrenal hemorrhage represents a particular condition associating precipitating factors such as: coagulation defects as Factor IX or X deficiency, von Willebrand disease, thrombocytopenia; antiphospholipid syndrome; previous therapy with clopidogrel or corticosteroids; the rupture of a prior tumour. At birth, the most suggestive features are abdominal palpable mass, anemia, and persistent jaundice. Adrenal insufficiency may be found especially in premature delivery. The hemorrhage is mostly self-limiting. Antenatal ultrasound diagnosis of a cyst does not always predict the exact pathology result. The most important differential diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage/hemorrhagic cyst is cystic neuroblastoma which is highly suggestive in the presence of distant metastases and abnormal catecholamine profile. The major clue to differentiate the two conditions is the fact that the tumor is stable or increases over time while the adrenal hemorrhage is expected to remit within one to two weeks.

Conclusion: Pediatric adrenal cysts vary from simple cysts with a benign behavior to neoplasia- related lesions displaying severe prognosis as seen in cystic neuroblastoma. A multidisciplinary team is required for their management which is conservative as close follow-up or it makes necessary different surgical procedures in cases with large masses or if a malignancy suspicion is presented. Recently, laparoscopic approach is regarded as a safe procedure by some authors but generally, open surgery is more frequent used compare to adults; in most cases the preservation of normal gland is advisable.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15386/cjmed-677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5305088PMC
January 2017

Vanishing testes syndrome-related osteoporosis and high cardio-metabolic risk in an adult male with long term untreated hypergonadotropic hypogonadism.

Arch Endocrinol Metab 2016 Feb;60(1):79-84

C.I. Parhon National Institute of Endocrinology, Bucharest, Romania.

The male hypogonadism-related bone mass loss is often under diagnosed. Peak bone mass is severely affected if the hypogonadism occurs during puberty and is left untreated. We present an interesting; almost bizarre case of a male with non-functional testes early during childhood and undiagnosed and untreated hypogonadism until his fifth decade of life. Forty six year male is referred for goitre, complaining of back pain. Phenotype suggested intersexuality: gynoid proportions, micropenis, no palpable testes into the scrotum, no facial or truncal hair. His medical history had been unremarkable until the previous year when primary hypothyroidism was diagnosed and levothyroxine replacement was initiated. Later, he was diagnosed with ischemic heart disease, with inaugural unstable angina. On admission, the testosterone was 0.2 ng/mL (normal: 1.7-7.8 ng/mL), FSH markedly increased (56 mUI/mL), with normal adrenal axis, and TSH (under thyroxine replacement). High bone turnover markers, and blood cholesterol, and impaired glucose tolerance were diagnosed. The testes were not present in the scrotum. Abdominal computed tomography suggested bilateral masses of 1.6 cm diameter within the abdominal fat that were removed but no gonadal tissue was confirmed histopathologically. Vanishing testes syndrome was confirmed. The central DXA showed lumbar bone mineral density of 0.905 g/cm2, Z-score of -2.9SD. The spine profile X-Ray revealed multiple thoracic vertebral fractures. Alendronate therapy together with vitamin D and calcium supplements and trans-dermal testosterone were started. Four decades of hypogonadism associate increased cardiac risk, as well as decreased bone mass and high fracture risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2359-3997000000127DOI Listing
February 2016

Effects of combination therapy: somatostatin analogues and dopamine agonists on GH and IGF1 levels in acromegaly.

Clujul Med 2015 1;88(3):310-3. Epub 2015 Jul 1.

Department of Endocrinology, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania ; Department of Endocrinology, Cluj-Napoca Clinical County Hospital, Romania.

Background And Aims: Acromegaly is a complex endocrine disorder caused by excessive secretion of GH, secondary to a GH secreting pituitary adenoma or a mixed pituitary adenoma secreting GH and PRL.

Methods: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combination therapy: dopamine agonist and somatostatin analogue on GH and IGF1 levels in a group of 30 patients with acromegaly. Cabergoline in a dose of 2 mg/week and 4 mg/week respectively was associated with Sandostatin LAR in a dose of 20 mg/month and 30 mg/months respectively. Eight patients were treated with Lanreotide 30 mg/week and Cabergoline 2 mg/week and 3 patients were treated with Bromocriptine 10 mg/day and Sandostatin LAR 30 mg/month.

Results: Combination therapy: Cabergoline and Sandostatin achieved normal levels of IGF1 in 32% of the patients, better results being obtained after 12 months of treatment in the group treated with 4 mg Cabergoline/week. In 37% of cases the levels of IGF1 decreased by 50% after 12 months of treatment. In the group treated with Cabergoline and Somatuline a normal level of IGF1 was achieved in 25% of patients after 12 months of treatment. The outcome for the group treated with Sandostatin and Bromocriptine was similar to that obtained under Cabergoline 2 mg/week. There was no significant correlation between the level of GH and the type or dose of dopamine agonist used.

Conclusions: In conclusion, combination therapy consisting of dopamine agonist and somatostatin analogue achieves a significant reduction of IGF1 levels in patients with mixed adenomas secreting GH and PRL. A decrease in IGF1 levels is directly correlated with the dose of Cabergoline used.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15386/cjmed-435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4632888PMC
November 2015

Ectopic intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges due to multiple osteolytic lesions. Case report.

Med Ultrason 2011 Sep;13(3):241-4

2nd Surgery Department, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, România.

Intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma is a rare lesion. Its location is usually achieved by cervical ultrasound and scintigraphy. We present the case of a 48-years old woman admitted for malaise, weight loss, generalized bone pain, and important limitation of hip and scapular-humeral joints mobility. Cervical ultrasound identified a 4 cm nodular mass in the right thyroid lobe. Computed tomography revealed multiple osteolytic lesions in the pelvis, femur, ribs, phalanx, and humerus. Imagery and elevated serum levels of calcium and parathormone led to primary hyperparathyroidism, right parathyroid adenoma and bone "brown tumors". Intraoperatively, the adenoma was found in intrathyroid location. Total right lobectomy was performed. Postoperatively, the patient developed "hungry bone" syndrome requiring prolonged calcium and vitamin D treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
September 2011

Is epicardial adipose tissue, assessed by echocardiography, a reliable method for visceral adipose tissue prediction?

Med Ultrason 2011 Mar;13(1):15-20

Department of Endocrinology, County Clinic Emergency Hospital, 3-5 Pasteur str., 400349, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Introduction: Epicardial adipose tissue is an ectopic fat storage at the heart surface in direct contact with the coronary arteries. It is considered a metabolically active tissue, being a local source of pro-inflammatory factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. The AIM of our study was to establish correlations between echocardiographic assessment of epicardial adipose tissue and anthropometric and ultrasound measurements of the central and peripheral fat depots.

Method: The study was conducted on 22 patients with or without coronaropathy. Epicardial adipose tissue was measured using Aloka Prosound α 10 machine with a 3.5-7.5 MHz variable-frequency transducer and subcutaneous and visceral fat with Esaote Megas GPX machine and 3.5-7.5 MHz variable frequency transducer.

Results: Epicardial adipose tissue measured by echocardiography is correlated with waist circumference (p < 0.05), visceral adipose tissue thickness measured by ultrasonography (US) and is not correlated with body mass index (p = 0.315), hip and thigh circumference or subcutaneous fat thickness measured by US.

Conclusions: Our study confirms that US assessment of epicardial fat correlates with anthropometric and US measurements of the central fat, representing an indirect but reliable marker of the visceral fat.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
March 2011
-->