Publications by authors named "Ana Sofia Da Silva"

10 Publications

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Healthcare professional's choice for surgical management of stress urinary incontinence in a U.K. tertiary hospital.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Aug 24;263:7-14. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Urogynaecology, King's College Hospital, London, UK.

Objective: In July 2018, NHS England, introduced a pause on vaginal mesh, including the mid-urethral sling (MUS) for treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). NICE guidelines recommend MUS as one of the surgical options for SUI. The aim of our study was to investigate healthcare professionals choices for surgical treatment of SUI, if conservative measures failed.

Study Design: The urogynaecology department at our tertiary level hospital devised a questionnaire using SurveyMonkey. This was distributed via email to 1058 healthcare professionals of different medical backgrounds. The surgical options were based on the NICE guideline and its patient decision making aid. We also used surgical information from the British society of Urogynaecology (BSUG) and British association of urological surgeons (BAUS).

Results: We received 214 responses of which 204 were complete. Twenty six percent of replies were from obstetricians and gynaecologists, 36 % had over 20 years experience and 79 % were female. Forty four percent had no previous knowledge of surgical options. Mid-urethral sling was the most popular choice based on description, success and specific complications. Urethral bulking agent was the only option that increased in popularity after describing complications. Twenty two percent would avoid surgery due to the risk of complications.

Conclusion: This is the first study evaluating healthcare professionals surgical choice for SUI. Despite negative media publicity and NHS pause on MUS, it was still the most popular choice before and after informing of specific complications. The urethral bulking agent was the only surgical treatment, which increased in popularity after considering complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2021.05.039DOI Listing
August 2021

Weight loss with bariatric surgery or behaviour modification and the impact on female obesity-related urine incontinence: A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Obes 2021 Aug 6;11(4):e12450. Epub 2021 May 6.

Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, School of Life Course Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.

Women with obesity are at risk of pelvic floor dysfunction with a 3-fold increased incidence of urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and double the risk of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and European Association of Urology (EAU) recommend that women with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m should consider weight loss prior to consideration for incontinence surgery. This systematic review and meta-analysis will assess this recommendation to aid in the counselling of women with obesity-related urinary incontinence (UI). Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System online (MEDLINE), EMBASE, Cochrane, ClinicalTrials.gov, and SCOPUS were systematically and critically appraised for all peer reviewed manuscripts that suitably fulfilled the inclusion criteria established a priori and presented original, empirical data relevant to weight loss intervention in the management of urinary incontinence. Thirty-three studies and their outcomes were meta-analysed. Weight loss interventions were associated in a decreased prevalence in UI (OR 0.222, 95% CI [0.147, 0.336]), SUI (OR 0.354, 95% CI [0.256, 0.489]), UUI (OR 0.437, 95% CI [0.295, 0.649]) and improved quality of life (PFDI-20, SMD -0.774 (95% CI [-1.236, -0.312]). This systematic review and meta-analysis provide evidence that weight loss interventions are effective in reducing the prevalence of obesity-related UI symptoms in women. Bariatric surgery in particular shows greater sustained weight loss and improvements in UI prevalence. Further large scale, randomized control trials assessing the effect of bariatric surgery on women with obesity-related UI are needed to confirm this study's findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cob.12450DOI Listing
August 2021

Modern management of genitourinary syndrome of menopause.

Fac Rev 2021 3;10:25. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Urogynaecology, King's College Hospital, London, UK.

The genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) is the accepted term used to describe the broad spectrum of genitourinary tract symptoms and signs caused by the loss of endogenous sex steroids that occurs at the time of and after the menopause. Global improvements in healthcare have resulted in an ageing population. Today, women are spending 40% of their lives in the postmenopausal state, and with 50-70% of postmenopausal women reporting symptomatic GSM, safe and efficacious treatments are needed for this troublesome condition. This article reviews current evidence for non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments with a focus on novel and minimally invasive procedures such as energy-based devices (CO laser, YAG laser), hyaluronic acid, dehydroepiandrosterone, and selective oestrogen receptor modulators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12703/r/10-25DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946389PMC
March 2021

Defining nocturnal polyuria in women.

Neurourol Urodyn 2021 01 21;40(1):265-271. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Birmingham Women's Hospital, Birmingham, England.

Aims: Nocturnal polyuria (NP) is defined by the International Continence Society (ICS) as "excessive production of urine during the main sleep period" and is one of the main causes of nocturia. The ICS recognized that "excessive" is not clearly defined and that this needs to be highlighted in both clinical and research settings. The aim of this study was to identify different definitions of NP and apply them to a population of women attending the Urogynaecology clinic.

Methods: This was a retrospective study of complete bladder diaries collected from women attending a tertiary Urogynaecology Unit. Six different definitions were identified and were divided into "absolute," "relative," and "functional definitions." Prevalence data were calculated and values generated for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values when related to women voiding ≥ 2 times per night.

Results: Complete bladder diaries were obtained from 1398 women, over 6 years, with a mean age of 57 years. Prevalence varied across the definitions from 21.5% (absolute definition) to 77% (relative definition). Sensitivity ranged from 43% (absolute) to 87% (relative). The definitions that showed the highest combined sensitivity and specificity were the functional definitions.

Conclusion: From this study it is clear that more work needs to be done to arrive at a consensus for defining NP to enable accurate diagnosis and development of treatment pathways. We propose that a relative definition may provide a more clinically relevant method of defining NP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nau.24546DOI Listing
January 2021

Recent advances in managing overactive bladder.

F1000Res 2020 11;9. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Urogynaecology, King's College Hospital, London, UK.

Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is defined as urinary urgency, usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia, with or without urgency incontinence, in the absence of urinary tract infection or other obvious pathology. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the management of OAB. We examine the evidence on the effect of anticholinergic load on OAB patients. Advances in medical treatment include a new beta-3 agonist, vibegron, which is thought to have fewer drug interactions than mirabegron. Treatment of genitourinary syndrome of the menopause with oestrogens and ospemifene have also shown promise for OAB. Botulinum toxin has been shown to be an effective treatment option. We discuss the new implantable neuromodulators that are on the market as well as selective bladder denervation and laser technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.26607.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489273PMC
February 2021

Recent advances in urodynamics in women.

F1000Res 2020 15;9. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Urogynaecology, King's College Hospital, London, UK.

Urodynamics is the study of the storage and evacuation of urine from the urinary tract. The aim is to reproduce the patient's symptoms and provide a pathophysiological explanation for them by identifying all factors that contribute to the lower urinary tract dysfunction, including those that are asymptomatic. Urodynamics consists of various tests, each of which is designed to assess a different aspect of lower urinary tract function. There is a lack of evidence regarding when urodynamics should be used in the non-neurogenic bladder. Some small randomised controlled trials suggest that urodynamics does not alter the outcome of surgery for stress urinary incontinence when compared with office evaluation alone. However, this is widely felt to be inaccurate and many health-care professionals still advocate the use of urodynamics prior to any invasive treatment, especially surgery on the lower urinary tract. There have been few technological advances in urodynamics in recent years. Air-charged rather than fluid-filled catheters were thought to help reduce artefact, but the evidence is unclear, and there is doubt over their accuracy. Ambulatory urodynamics is carried out over a longer period of time, enabling physiological bladder filling, but it remains invasive and artificial. To attempt to replicate symptoms more accurately, there have been efforts to develop wireless devices to measure detrusor pressure directly. These may be promising but are far from suitable in humans at present. Urodynamics continues to provide useful information for assessing lower urinary tract function, but further large studies are required to assess its value and develop innovations to improve the accuracy of the tests and acceptability to patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.24640.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308832PMC
October 2020

Levator Ani avulsion: The histological composition of this site. A cadaveric study.

Neurourol Urodyn 2019 01 30;38(1):123-129. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Urogynaecology, St. Mary's Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Introduction: The sonographic appearance of a levator muscle "avulsion" representing the literal detachment of the pubovisceral muscle (PVM) enthesis has been contested. The nature of the levator ani "avulsion" is still not fully understood. It is known, that the tensile strength of a tendon is dependent on collagen with increased synthesis of collagen occurring in tissue with increased mechanical load levels. This study aims to perform a quantitative histological evaluation of the PVM enthesis with or without the imaging finding of levator ani "avulsion" to determine if there is a difference in the proportion of muscle and collagen.

Method: Three-dimensional translabial ultrasound for PVM "avulsion" was performed on cadavers using a GE Voluson I with a 5-9 MHz electronic probe. Cadavers were meticulously dissected to identify the presence or absence of an anatomical avulsion. The PVM enthesis was excised for further histopathological processing and treated with three different colorations. Quantitative analysis using ImageJ software was conducted to compare tissue composition in samples with or without sonographic "avulsion." All stages were performed by two separate investigators blinded to each other's results. The results were analyzed using SPSS v24, IBM.

Results: Twenty-three PVM enthesis with histological staining were procured. Ultrasonographic "avulsions" were seen in 5/23 PVM enthesis. No anatomical avulsions were seen. There was no difference in the overall muscle or collagen content (Kruskal-Wallis, P = 0.864). The mean organized skeletal muscle content was 23% in the sonographic "avulsion" group versus 62% in the no "avulsion" group (Kruskall-Walis, P = 0.02). "Avulsions" were associated with a disorganized appearance at histology.

Conclusion: The tissue composition relating to the proportion of muscle and collagen was not significantly different in specimens with or without sonographic "avulsions." However, morphological differences were observed in the organization of the muscle fibres, which requires further evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nau.23847DOI Listing
January 2019

Do ultrasound findings of levator ani "avulsion" correlate with anatomical findings: A multicenter cadaveric study.

Neurourol Urodyn 2016 08 15;35(6):683-8. Epub 2015 May 15.

St. Mary's Hospital London Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Aims: This study aimed to validate the levator "avulsion" injury as seen on ultrasound against anatomical dissection in the same cadaver.

Methods: Puboviseral muscle (PVM) anatomy of female cadavers was studied using 3D-translabial ultrasonography and an "avulsion" confirmed per standard recommendations [Dietz HP. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 53:220-230, 2013]. Cadavers were then dissected to determine the macroscopic attachment or detachment of the PVM and the dimensions including the PVM symphysis gap and PVM attachment depth. Intra and inter-observer reliability of USS findings and anatomical measurements were assessed using the Cohen's κ and Bland & Altman plots respectively. McNemar's and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare imaging and cadaveric dissection findings.

Results: "Avulsions" were seen on imaging in 11/30 (36.7%) cadavers; the defect was bilateral in 1/30 (3.3%) and unilateral in 10/30 (33.3%). No "avulsion" was found at dissection (McNemar's χ(2)  = 60.0, P < 0.001). An additional thirty-nine cadavers were dissected with no "avulsion" identified. A narrower PVM insertion depth was strongly associated with "avulsion" on ultrasound (mean: 4.79 mm vs. 6.32 mm, Z = -3.191, P = 0.001). Intra- and inter-observer agreement was perfect (K = 1.0 ± 0.0) and good (K = 0.85 ± 0.142) for anatomical "avulsions" and USS, respectively.

Conclusions: There is a clear difference between anatomical and USS findings. The imaged appearance of an "avulsion" does not represent a true anatomical "avulsion" as confirmed on dissection. The term "avulsion" is misrepresentative and should not be used to describe this imaging finding. Moreover, further attempts at surgically repairing this defect should be avoided, at least until there is a better understanding of its pathophysiology. Neurourol. Urodynam 35:683-688, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nau.22781DOI Listing
August 2016
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