Publications by authors named "Ana Silva"

1,747 Publications

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[Looking back on 20 years of work at the Porto Pharmacovigilance Centre, Portugal].

Cad Saude Publica 2021 8;37(10):e00304420. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Unidade de Farmacovigilância do Porto, Infarmed, I.P./Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Since 1963, the World Health Organization has acknowledged pharmacovigilance as a priority area in global public health, guaranteeing permanent monitoring of drug safety. This study aimed to characterize the reports of adverse drug reactions received by the Porto Pharmacovigilance Centre (UFPorto), Portugal, in the unit's two decades of work. The analysis included all reports of suspected adverse drug reactions received from January 2001 to December 2019. We calculated the annual reporting rates and distribution by origin, type of notifier and place of work, severity, prior knowledge, and causality of the reported adverse drug reactions. During the study period, UFPorto received 9,711 notifications of suspected adverse drug reactions. Hospital institutions reported the most suspected adverse drug reactions (n = 6,003; 64%), as did physicians among healthcare workers (n = 5,284; 54.4%). The most frequently reported adverse events were severe (n = 6,275; 72%) and are described in the respective Summary of Product Characteristics (n = 6,978; 72%). Most of the reports received by UFPorto were evaluated as having "probable" causality (n = 7,473; 77%), independently of the type of notifier. The results are consistent with other data previously reported in the international medical literature and official national reports. However, the underreporting rates are still higher than expected. In approximately 20 years, UFPorto has experienced an increase in its activity in various areas of drug safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00304420DOI Listing
October 2021

Development and Validation of QuEChERS Followed by UHPLC-ToF-MS Method for Determination of Multi-Mycotoxins in Pistachio Nuts.

Molecules 2021 Sep 23;26(19). Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Stª Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal.

Pistachios are one of the types of tree nut fruits with the highest mycotoxin contamination, especially of aflatoxins, worldwide. This study developed a Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method that was followed by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography combined with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-ToF-MS) for the determination of mycotoxins in pistachios. Different approaches to dispersive solid phase extraction as a clean-up method for high lipid matrices were evaluated. For this, classic sorbents such as C18 (octadecyl-modified silica) and PSA (primary secondary amine), and new classes of sorbents, namely EMR-Lipid (enhanced matrix removal-lipid) and Z-Sep (modified silica gel with zirconium oxide), were used. The QuEChERS method, followed by Z-Sep d-SPE clean-up, provided the best analytical performance for aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), toxin T2 (T2) and toxin HT-2 (HT2) in pistachios. The method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, interday precision and recovery; it achieved good results according to criteria imposed by Commission Regulation (EC) no. 401/2006. The method was applied to real samples and the results show that pistachios that are available in Portuguese markets are safe from mycotoxins that are of concern to human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26195754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8510078PMC
September 2021

Associations between Physical Status and Training Load in Women Soccer Players.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 23;18(19). Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Faculty of Educational Sciences and Sports Sciences, University of Vigo, 36005 Pontevedra, Spain.

This study aimed to analyze the variations of fitness status, as well as test the relationships between accumulated training load and fitness changes in women soccer players. This study followed an observational analytic cohort design. Observations were conducted over 23 consecutive weeks (from the preseason to the midseason). Twenty-two women soccer players from the same first Portuguese league team (22.7 ± 5.21 years old) took part in the study. The fitness assessment included anthropometry, hip adductor and abductor strength, vertical jump, change of direction, linear speed, repeated sprint ability, and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test. The training load was monitored daily using session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE). A one-way repeated ANOVA revealed no significant differences for any of the variables analyzed across the three moments of fitness assessments ( > 0.05). The -test also revealed no differences in the training load across the moments of the season ( = 1.216; = 0.235). No significant correlations were found between fitness levels and accumulated training load (range: = 0.023 to -0.447; > 0.05). This study revealed no differences in the fitness status during the analyzed season, and the fitness status had no significant relationship with accumulated training load.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8508289PMC
September 2021

Can a spontaneous smile invalidate facial identification by photo-anthropometry?

Imaging Sci Dent 2021 Sep 13;51(3):279-290. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Stomatology, Public Health and Forensic Odontology, School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Purpose: Using images in the facial image comparison process poses a challenge for forensic experts due to limitations such as the presence of facial expressions. The aims of this study were to analyze how morphometric changes in the face during a spontaneous smile influence the facial image comparison process and to evaluate the reproducibility of measurements obtained by digital stereophotogrammetry in these situations.

Materials And Methods: Three examiners used digital stereophotogrammetry to obtain 3-dimensional images of the faces of 10 female participants (aged between 23 and 45 years). Photographs of the participants' faces were captured with their faces at rest (group 1) and with a spontaneous smile (group 2), resulting in a total of 60 3-dimensional images. The digital stereophotogrammetry device obtained the images with a 3.5-ms capture time, which prevented undesirable movements of the participants. Linear measurements between facial landmarks were made, in units of millimeters, and the data were subjected to multivariate and univariate statistical analyses using Pirouette® version 4.5 (InfoMetrix Inc., Woodinville, WA, USA) and Microsoft Excel® (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA, USA), respectively.

Results: The measurements that most strongly influenced the separation of the groups were related to the labial/buccal region. In general, the data showed low standard deviations, which differed by less than 10% from the measured mean values, demonstrating that the digital stereophotogrammetry technique was reproducible.

Conclusion: The impact of spontaneous smiles on the facial image comparison process should be considered, and digital stereophotogrammetry provided good reproducibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5624/isd.20210002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8479441PMC
September 2021

Mycobacterium leprae diversity and population dynamics in medieval Europe from novel ancient genomes.

BMC Biol 2021 10 5;19(1):220. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Hansen's disease (leprosy), widespread in medieval Europe, is today mainly prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions with around 200,000 new cases reported annually. Despite its long history and appearance in historical records, its origins and past dissemination patterns are still widely unknown. Applying ancient DNA approaches to its major causative agent, Mycobacterium leprae, can significantly improve our understanding of the disease's complex history. Previous studies have identified a high genetic continuity of the pathogen over the last 1500 years and the existence of at least four M. leprae lineages in some parts of Europe since the Early Medieval period.

Results: Here, we reconstructed 19 ancient M. leprae genomes to further investigate M. leprae's genetic variation in Europe, with a dedicated focus on bacterial genomes from previously unstudied regions (Belarus, Iberia, Russia, Scotland), from multiple sites in a single region (Cambridgeshire, England), and from two Iberian leprosaria. Overall, our data confirm the existence of similar phylogeographic patterns across Europe, including high diversity in leprosaria. Further, we identified a new genotype in Belarus. By doubling the number of complete ancient M. leprae genomes, our results improve our knowledge of the past phylogeography of M. leprae and reveal a particularly high M. leprae diversity in European medieval leprosaria.

Conclusions: Our findings allow us to detect similar patterns of strain diversity across Europe with branch 3 as the most common branch and the leprosaria as centers for high diversity. The higher resolution of our phylogeny tree also refined our understanding of the interspecies transfer between red squirrels and humans pointing to a late antique/early medieval transmission. Furthermore, with our new estimates on the past population diversity of M. leprae, we gained first insights into the disease's global history in relation to major historic events such as the Roman expansion or the beginning of the regular transatlantic long distance trade. In summary, our findings highlight how studying ancient M. leprae genomes worldwide improves our understanding of leprosy's global history and can contribute to current models of M. leprae's worldwide dissemination, including interspecies transmissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-021-01120-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8493730PMC
October 2021

Bidirectional association between light exposure and sleep in adolescents.

J Sleep Res 2021 Oct 4:e13501. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Laboratorio de Neurociencias, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Sleep behaviour is controlled by both circadian and homeostatic influences. Changes in both factors are related to the delayed sleep timing observed in adolescence, which also generates restrictions in their sleep duration. In addition, the circadian factor explains part of the observed influence of light on sleep duration. We recorded 15 high-school students for 23 days (vacation: 11 days; school term: 12 days) using GENEactive accelerometers. We employed a repeated-measures analysis to explore the day-to-day bidirectional association between mean light exposure and sleep behaviour across a period with extreme variability in social pressures. Sleep onset was more than 30 min earlier and sleep duration almost 20 min longer when previous day light was 10 times more intense. Light intensity had a reduction of more than 20% as sleep ended 1 hr later. Besides, sleep onset and offset were both later during vacation than on school days (almost 2 hr and 4 hr, respectively) and free days (almost 1 hr, respectively). Therefore, sleep duration was almost 2 hr longer on vacation and free days than on school days. On the other hand, light exposure intensity was twice as high during vacation days when adjusted by sleep timing. Insufficient sleep duration is a major problem for adolescents. Although we found that light exposure was associated with longer sleep duration, the influence of school start times was greater and ended up prevailing, which explained the short sleep durations observed on school days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.13501DOI Listing
October 2021

Spatial analysis of congenital syphilis in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, between 2008 and 2018.

Rev Esc Enferm USP 2021 1;55:e20200578. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Enfermagem, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem, Natal, RN, Brazil.

Objective: To analyze the spatial distribution of congenital syphilis cases in a state in northeastern Brazil.

Method: This is an ecological study, with secondary data for the period from 2008 to 2018, taking as a sample the notified cases of congenital syphilis in Rio Grande do Norte. In the data analysis, the eight health regions of the state were used as units of analysis, and the local and global Moran's I was performed, with subsequent smoothing through the local empirical Bayesian method, which resulted in thematic maps.

Results: The results showed an increase in cases of congenital syphilis in the 3rd and 7thhealth regions. In terms of spatial analysis, this investigation showed clusters in the 3rd, 5th, and 7thhealth regions, with an increased risk for congenital syphilis of up to 2.65 times and with an incidence rate of 7.91 cases per 1,000 live births.

Conclusion: The spatial analysis of congenital syphilis cases allowed observing a high incidence in some health regions, with averages above those calculated for the entire state, indicating the need to implement effective strategies to achieve its control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1980-220X-REEUSP-2020-0578DOI Listing
October 2021

Does algae β-glucan affect the fecal bacteriome in dairy calves?

PLoS One 2021 30;16(9):e0258069. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Animal Science, "Luiz de Queiroz" College of Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil.

β-glucans has been reported to be associated with many health-promoting and improvements in animal performance, however, information about their effects on the bacterial community remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate how the addition of β-glucans can affect the fecal bacterial community with possible consequences on animal growth and health. For this, newborn Holstein calves (n = 14) were individually housed in tropical shelters and blocked according to sex, date, and weight at birth and randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: (1) Control: milk replacer (14% solids, 24% CP, 18.5% fat); (2) β-glucans: milk replacer supplemented with β-glucans (2 g/d). All calves were bucket fed 6 L/d of milk replacer and received water and starter concentrate ad libitum starting on d 2. To evaluate the bacteriome, fecal samples were collected at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8. The bacterial community was assessed through sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform and analyzed using the DADA2 pipeline. No differences for Shannon and Chao1 indexes were observed for treatments, but both indexes increased with age (P < 0.001). There were dissimilarities in the structure of the bacterial community during the pre-weaning period (P = 0.01). In a deeper taxonomic level, Collinsella (Actinobacteriota), Prevotella (Bacteroidota), and Lactobacillus (Firmicutes) were the most abundant genera (9.84, 9.54, and 8.82% of the sequences, respectively). β-glucans promoted a higher abundance of Alloprevotella and Holdemanella, which may indicate a beneficial effect of supplementation on dairy calves. The bacterial community was highly correlated with the fecal score at weeks 1 and 2 and with starter concentrate intake at week 8. In conclusion, algae β-glucan supplementation could be beneficial to fecal bacteriome and consequently to the health and performance of dairy calves.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0258069PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8483308PMC
September 2021

Progress and prospects of applying carbon-based materials (and nanomaterials) to accelerate anaerobic bioprocesses for the removal of micropollutants.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 Sep 29. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

CEB -Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Braga, 4710-057, Portugal.

Carbon-based materials (CBM), including activated carbon (AC), activated fibres (ACF), biochar (BC), nanotubes (CNT), carbon xenogels (CX) and graphene nanosheets (GNS), possess unique properties such as high surface area, sorption and catalytic characteristics, making them very versatile for many applications in environmental remediation. They are powerful redox mediators (RM) in anaerobic processes, accelerating the rates and extending the level of the reduction of pollutants and, consequently, affecting positively the global efficiency of their partial or total removal. The extraordinary conductive properties of CBM, and the possibility of tailoring their surface to address specific pollutants, make them promising as catalysts in the treatment of effluents containing diverse pollutants. CBM can be combined with magnetic nanoparticles (MNM) assembling catalytic and magnetic properties in a single composite ([email protected]), allowing their recovery and reuse after the treatment process. Furthermore, these composites have demonstrated extraordinary catalytic properties. Evaluation of the toxicological and environmental impact of direct and indirect exposure to nanomaterials is an important issue that must be considered when nanomaterials are applied. Though the chemical composition, size and physical characteristics may contribute to toxicological effects, the potential toxic impact of using CBM is not completely clear and is not always assessed. This review gives an overview of the current research on the application of CBM and [email protected] in bioremediation and on the possible environmental impact and toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13822DOI Listing
September 2021

Characterization of obstetric care developed in teaching hospitals in a capital of northeast Brazil.

Rev Bras Enferm 2021 24;75(1):e20200896. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Universidade Federal da Bahia. Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

Objective: to describe the obstetric care developed in teaching hospitals (TH) in the city of Maceió-AL, intended for high-risk pregnancies.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study performed between June and November 2018 with 291 women who received assistance with vaginal delivery, cesarean section, or abortion process in teaching hospitals selected as settings for this research. Data collection allowed the characterization of the interviewees as well as the assistance received and its relationship with obstetric violence. The analysis was performed using descriptive and analytical statistics with the aid of the Epi Info software (version 7.2.0.1) and measures that allowed the comparison of means and proportions.

Results: All women reported at least one violent situation, contrary to recommendations based on scientific evidence.

Conclusion: It becomes necessary to optimize professional training to deconstruct obstetric care based on medicalization and pathologization of pregnancy and strengthen science-based care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2020-0896DOI Listing
October 2021

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: A nationwide Portuguese clinical epidemiological study.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Sep 8;56:103258. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Neurology Service, Hospital Vila Franca de Xira.

Introduction: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare disorder in which astrocyte damage and/or demyelination often cause severe neurological deficits.

Objective: To identify Portuguese patients with NMOSD and assess their epidemiological/clinical characteristics.

Methods: This was a nationwide multicenter study. Twenty-four Portuguese adult and 3 neuropediatric centers following NMOSD patients were included.

Results: A total of 180 patients met the 2015 Wingerchuk NMOSD criteria, 77 were AQP4-antibody positive (Abs+), 67 MOG-Abs+, and 36 seronegative. Point prevalence on December 31, 2018 was 1.71/100,000 for NMOSD, 0.71/100,000 for AQP4-Abs+, 0.65/100,000 for MOG-Abs+, and 0.35/100,000 for seronegative NMOSD. A total of 44 new NMOSD cases were identified during the two-year study period (11 AQP4-Abs+, 27 MOG-Abs+, and 6 seronegative). The annual incidence rate in that period was 0.21/100,000 person-years for NMOSD, 0.05/100,000 for AQP4-Abs+, 0.13/100,000 for MOG-Abs+, and 0.03/100,000 for seronegative NMOSD. AQP4-Abs+ predominated in females and was associated with autoimmune disorders. Frequently presented with myelitis. Area postrema syndrome was exclusive of this subtype, and associated with higher morbidity/mortality than other forms of NMOSD. MOG-Ab+ more often presented with optic neuritis, required less immunosuppression, and had better outcome.

Conclusion: Epidemiological/clinical NMOSD profiles in the Portuguese population are similar to other European countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2021.103258DOI Listing
September 2021

Direct tissue-sensing reprograms TLR4 Tfh-like cells inflammatory profile in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

Commun Biol 2021 09 27;4(1):1135. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Human Immunobiology and Pathogenesis Group, Lisboa, Portugal.

CD4 T cells mediate rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis through both antibody-dependent and independent mechanisms. It remains unclear how synovial microenvironment impinges on CD4 T cells pathogenic functions. Here, we identified a TLR4 follicular helper T (Tfh) cell-like population present in the blood and expanded in synovial fluid. TLR4 T cells possess a two-pronged pathogenic activity whereby direct TLR4 engagement by endogenous ligands in the arthritic joint reprograms them from an IL-21 response, known to sponsor antibody production towards an IL-17 inflammatory program recognized to fuel tissue damage. Ex vivo, synovial fluid TLR4 T cells produced IL-17, but not IL-21. Blocking TLR4 signaling with a specific inhibitor impaired IL-17 production in response to synovial fluid recognition. Mechanistically, we unveiled that T-cell HLA-DR regulates their TLR4 expression. TLR4 T cells appear to uniquely reconcile an ability to promote systemic antibody production with a local synovial driven tissue damage program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02659-0DOI Listing
September 2021

Cybersecurity in ICT Supply Chains: Key Challenges and a Relevant Architecture.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Sep 9;21(18). Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Sphynx Technology Solutions AG, 6300 Zug, Switzerland.

The specific demands of supply chains built upon large and complex IoT systems, make it a must to design a coordinated framework for cyber resilience provisioning, intended to guarantee trusted supply chains of ICT systems, built upon distributed, dynamic, potentially insecure, and heterogeneous ICT infrastructures. As such, the solution proposed in this paper is envisioned to deal with the whole supply chain system components, from the IoT ecosystem to the infrastructure connecting them, addressing security and privacy functionalities related to risks and vulnerabilities management, accountability, and mitigation strategies, as well as security metrics and evidence-based security assurance. In this paper, we present FISHY as a preliminary architecture that is designed to orchestrate existing and beyond state-of-the-art security appliances in composed ICT scenarios. To this end, the FISHY architecture leverages the capabilities of programmable networks and IT infrastructure through seamless orchestration and instantiation of novel security services, both in real-time and proactively. The paper also includes a thorough business analysis to go far beyond the technical benefits of a potential FISHY adoption, as well as three real-world use cases highlighting the envisioned benefits of a potential FISHY adoption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21186057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8472925PMC
September 2021

Ruminal and Fecal Bacteriome of Dairy Calves Fed Different Levels and Sources of NDF.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Sep 16;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Animal Science, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Pádua Dias, 11. Piracicaba, São Paulo 13.418-900, Brazil.

A starter concentrate containing different levels and sources of NDF can modify the gastrointestinal bacteriome. This study evaluated 18 Holstein calves housed in un-bedded suspended individual cages, fed one of three treatments: 22NDF: a conventional starter containing 22% NDF (n = 7); 31NDF: a starter with 31% NDF, replacing part of the corn by soybean hull (n = 6); and 22Hay: diet 22NDF plus coast-cross hay ad libitum (n = 5). All animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily, weaned at 8th week of age, and housed in wood shelters until week 10. To evaluate the bacteriome, the bacterial community of ruminal fluid and fecal samples was determined by sequencing V3 and V4 region amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial diversity in rumen was not affected by diet or age. The phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidota, and ' genus were the most abundant in ruminal fluid and fecal samples. In feces, the α-diversity indices were higher for 22Hay. All indices were significantly affected by age. We believe that the ruminal bacteriome was affected by basal diet components, but not affected by NDF levels or sources. The supply of hay was effective in modifying the fecal bacteriome of dairy calves due to hind gut fermentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11092705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8464983PMC
September 2021

Environmental and Pathogenic Carbapenem Resistant Bacteria Isolated from a Wastewater Treatment Plant Harbour Distinct Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Sep 16;10(9). Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Avenida da República, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal.

Wastewater treatment plants are important reservoirs and sources for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance into the environment. Here, two different groups of carbapenem resistant bacteria-the potentially environmental and the potentially pathogenic-were isolated from both the wastewater influent and discharged effluent of a full-scale wastewater treatment plant and characterized by whole genome sequencing and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Among the potentially environmental isolates, there was no detection of any acquired antibiotic resistance genes, which supports the idea that their resistance mechanisms are mainly intrinsic. On the contrary, the potentially pathogenic isolates presented a broad diversity of acquired antibiotic resistance genes towards different antibiotic classes, especially β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. All these bacteria showed multiple β-lactamase-encoding genes, some with carbapenemase activity, such as the -type genes found in the isolates. The antibiotic susceptibility testing assays performed on these isolates also revealed that all had a multi-resistance phenotype, which indicates that the acquired resistance is their major antibiotic resistance mechanism. In conclusion, the two bacterial groups have distinct resistance mechanisms, which suggest that the antibiotic resistance in the environment can be a more complex problematic than that generally assumed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10091118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8472606PMC
September 2021

Lack of 5-lipoxygenase in intramembranous and endochondral 129Sv mice skeleton and intramembranous healing.

Arch Oral Biol 2021 Nov 20;131:105266. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Basic Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Dentistry, Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: To analyze the lack of 5-lipoxygenase (5LO) on dental socket healing and post-natal phenotype of intramembranous and endochondral bones.

Design: Wild type (WT) 129/SvEv (n = 20) and 5LO knockout (5LOKO) (n = 20) male mice underwent tooth extraction of the upper right incisor and were euthanized after 7, 14, and 30 day time points for the evaluation of dental socket healing and histological phenotyping of intramembranous (IM) and endochondral (EC) bones. Microscopic analysis of alveolar sockets included histopathological description, histomorphometry, and immunohistochemistry for 5LO, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP).

Results: Histological phenotyping revealed thicker cortical bone in EC bones (femur and vertebra) of 5LOKO mice compared to WTs, with no differences in collagenous content. Although dental socket healing was similarly observed in both groups, WT mice revealed increased numbers of COX-2+ and 5LO+ cells during bone maturing stage, with a decrease of TRAP+ cells at day 30. On the other hand, an increased quantity of fibroblasts was observed at day 7 in 5LOKO group, as well as increased inflammatory infiltrate and significantly decreased TRAP+ cells at final stages of alveolar socket healing in comparison to WTs.

Conclusions: The lack of 5LO in 5LOKO mice resulted in thicker cortical of EC, but not of IM post natal bones. Furthermore, genetic deletion of 5LO in the 5LOKO mice directly affected the inflammatory response during socket healing, influencing initial and late phases of bone repair in a model of post-tooth extraction in 129Sv WT and 5LOKO mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2021.105266DOI Listing
November 2021

BROAD PECTUS EXCAVATUM TREATMENT: LONG TERM RESULTS OF A BRAZILIAN TECHNIQUE.

Acta Ortop Bras 2021 Jul-Aug;29(4):197-202

Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Objective: This study aims the treatment results of broad pectus excavatum after a long-term follow-up and skeletal maturity.

Methods: Eighty-four children and adolescents with broad-type pectus excavatum were selected for evaluation after treatment with a dynamic orthosis that applies compression to the lower rib projections and prescription of exercises. The broad pectus excavatum was defined as a deformity that the depressed area was greater and covered the area above and below the nipple line. All patients were evaluated for more than 1 year after the end of treatment and skeletal maturity. Post-treatment results were categorized as mild, moderate and severe. Statistic correlations between results and deformity flexibility, deformity severity, and adherence to treatment were assessed.

Results: The mean age at the beginning of treatment was 13.3 years, and the follow-up duration was 25.7 months after suspension of orthosis use. Forty-eight percent of patients showed good results. With regular use of orthoses and performance of exercises, this rate increased to 70% (p < 0,001). Mild cases showed more success than severe cases (p = 0,007). Initial flexibility didn't influence the results (p = 0,63).

Conclusion: Treatment of broad pectus excavatum with orthoses and exercises led to good definitive results in most resilient patients, especially in those with mild deformities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-785220212904243419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8443009PMC
September 2020

The role of serum levels of vitamin D in children's muscle strength: A systematic review.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2021 20;76:e3200. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Programa de Pos-graduacao em Neuropsiquiatria e Ciencias do Comportamento, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, BR.

This review aims to investigate the different levels of vitamin D and its role in muscle strength in healthy children and non-athletes. A search conducted in three databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Psycinfo) resulted in 655 articles, which were systematically analyzed and selected based on the following criteria: (a) original cross-sectional studies and clinical trials; (b) healthy children aged 5-11 years; (c) no language restriction or year of publication; and (d) studies that assessed the possible relationship between vitamin D levels and muscle strength. Six studies were included because they met all the inclusion criteria. According to the findings of this review, factors such as sex, skin color, and vitamin D supplementation early in life modulate the levels of vitamin D in the body, and there is a relationship between muscle strength and vitamin D levels. Interestingly, vitamin D supplementation is not always significantly associated with increased muscle grip strength. However, there is a scarcity of studies that aim to analyze the possible effects of different levels of vitamin D on muscle function and neuromuscular variables in physically inactive children and non-athletes without previously diagnosed disease. Further studies are warranted in the future to address the gap in the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6061/clinics/2021/e3200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8420842PMC
September 2021

24-Month Clinical Performance of a Universal Adhesive on Non-Carious Cervical Lesions: Self-Etch and Etch-and-Rinse Techniques.

J Adhes Dent 2021 Oct;23(5):379-387

Purpose: To evaluate the 24-month clinical performance of Adhese Universal (ADH) (Ivoclar Vivadent) using two different application modes (etch-and-rinse vs self-etch) when restoring non-carious cervical lesions.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-six patients participated in this study. A total of 117 non-carious cervical lesion restorations (N = 117) were assigned to two groups: 1) ADH in the etch-and-rinse mode (n = 59) and 2) ADH in the self-etch mode (n = 58). The same resin composite (Tetric EvoCeram, Ivoclar Vivadent) was used for all restorations. The restorations were evaluated at baseline and at 24 months using the World Dental Federation (FDI) criteria. The results were analyzed statistically using the McNemar test (α = 0.05) and a generalized estimating equation.

Results: In self-etch mode, significant differences were found for marginal coloring (p = 0.002), marginal adaptation (p = 0.031), and hypersensitivity (p = 0.031) between baseline and the end of the 24-month period. In the etch-and-rinse mode, significant differences were found for marginal coloring (p = 0.004), fractures/retention (p = 0.002), marginal adaptation (p = 0.002), and hypersensitivity (p = 0.000). Significant differences were also detected between groups at 24 months for fractures/retention (p = 0.001). At 24 months, 10 restorations of the etch-and-rinse group were lost and 2 restorations of the self-etch group were lost.

Conclusion: In terms of fractures and retention criteria, this universal adhesive obtained better results when applied in self-etch mode than in etch-and-rinse mode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3290/j.jad.b2000173DOI Listing
October 2021

Platelet counts and adenoid hypertrophy: a neglected relationship.

Minerva Pediatr (Torino) 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Background: The increase in resistance of the respiratory nasal caused by adenoid hypertrophy can condition changes in pulmonary ventilation and translate into a risk of cardiopulmonary diseases. The mean platelet volume is a marker of platelet function, associated with indicators of platelet activity - a greater volume indicates the presence of larger platelets and greater hemostatic reactivity, associated with a propensity for thrombosis.

Methods: Retrospective study of 200 patients who presented to the otolaryngology outpatient clinic of our hospital, divided in two group-s : chAil dren with adenoid hypertrophy, B - children without adenoid hypertrophy. The age, hemoglobin levels, platelet counts were compared between the two groups.

Results: The Mean Platelet Volume levels in patients with Adenoid Hypertrophy were significantly higher than those in the control group (p<0.001). White blood cells, hemoglobin, and platelet levels were not significantly different between the 2 groups (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: Adenoid hypertrophy is associated with higher mean platelet volume in children. Measurement of mean platelet volume and platelet count can be considered as quick, safe, and reliable guide for the assessment of clinical consequences of adenoid hypertrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5276.21.06496-XDOI Listing
September 2021

Graves' disease with spontaneous resolution following ocrelizumab in primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

Endocr Regul 2021 Sep 13;55(3):169-173. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Centro Hospitalar e Universitario do Porto, Oporto, Portugal.

Immune reconstitution therapies (IRT), which include antibody-based cell-depleting therapies targeting CD52+ (alemtuzumab) or CD20+ (rituximab, ocrelizumab) leukocytes, are approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Thyroid autoimmunity is a common adverse effect of alemtuzumab treatment, Graves' disease (GD) being the most prevalent manifestation. To date, thyroid autoimmunity events have not been reported with CD20-targeting monoclonal antibodies. A 59-year-old woman with primary progressive multiple sclerosis with no prior personal history of thyroid disease or autoimmunity, was diagnosed with GD 6 months following the first ocrelizumab infusion. She was asymptomatic and had no signs of ophthalmopathy. Due to the temporal association of GD diagnosis with ocrelizumab infusion, absence of symptoms and our experience with alemtuzumab-induced GD, we decided for an active surveillance strategy and antithyroid drugs were not started. She underwent spontaneous resolution of hyperthyroidism with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies (TRAb) negativity and a mild and transitory period of subclinical hypothyroidism, while she continued the biannually ocrelizumab administration schedule. To present date, she has maintained close clinical and biochemical surveillance with normal TSH, free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels and undetectable TRAb. This is the first case of GD reported after ocrelizumab administration. The timing, onset and course of this case is similar to alemtuzumab-induced GD, usually interpreted as an "immune reconstitution syndrome"; however, ocrelizumab cell count depletion is inferior in severity, cell population affected and duration of depletion. This case highlights the importance of pre-screening and follow-up with thyroid function tests in patients treated with ocrelizumab. As a novel therapeutic antibody, further investigation is required to unravel the causes of thyroid autoimmunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/enr-2021-0018DOI Listing
September 2021

Effect of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) leaves on dough properties, antioxidant activity, and bread quality using whole wheat flour.

J Food Sci 2021 Oct 14;86(10):4354-4364. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, 88034-001, Brazil.

This study investigated the effects of different yerba mate (YM) proportions (1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 g YM/100 g whole wheat flour (WWF) and particle sizes (245, 415.5, and 623.9 µm) on dough rheological properties, antioxidant activity, and bread characteristics. The addition of YM leaves led to a possible interaction between its phenolic compounds and the gluten network within the dough, without negative effects on dough formation. However, the larger YM particle size (623.9 µm) caused a weakening of the protein network, resulting in lower quality product compared to the other samples. Improved bread quality was found when the YM leaves were added at 2.5 g YM/100 g WWF. The total amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity increased as the proportion of YM increased in both flour and bread. Moreover, the phenolic compounds in 2.5 g YM/100 g WWF breads were stable during baking, showing no significant losses in the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. These results suggest the YM can be successfully incorporated into baked product, improving its functional characteristics. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study evaluates the technological quality of bakery product made by incorporating yerba mate leaves in whole wheat flour. The results will contribute to the production of a bread with greater functional properties due to the presence of polyphenols and phytochemicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15909DOI Listing
October 2021

Quality and Safety Education for Nurses Student Evaluation Survey: Adaptation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Brazilian Version.

J Nurs Meas 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

School of Nursing, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil

Background And Purpose: The development of quality and safety competencies is an important issue in nursing education globally. The purpose of this study was to crossculturally adapt the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses Student Evaluation Survey (QSEN SES) for use in Brazil and evaluate its psychometric properties.

Methods: The QSEN SES was adapted into Brazilian Portuguese. Reliability and structural validity were evaluated in an online study with 130 undergraduate nursing students.

Results: The content validity index (CVI) of the instrument was 0.93. The reliability was strong. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted, and the model fit was insufficient.

Conclusions: The Brazilian version of QSEN SES is reliable, but additional analyses are needed with a larger sample to confirm the construct validity of the instrument.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/JNM-D-20-00114DOI Listing
September 2021

Social participation in occupational therapy: Is it possible to establish a consensus?

Aust Occup Ther J 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Occupational Therapy Postgraduate Program, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), São Carlos, Brazil.

Background: Social participation has been incorporated by occupational therapists in Brazil, and worldwide, as a professional concept to guide practice. The concept has been studied, defined, and constructed from multiple fields of knowledge and can be defined as the social and political involvement of people in social groups and /or public and community spaces. There are different understandings of social participation in occupational therapy and the objective of this study was to explore how Brazilian occupational therapists define social participation in their fields of knowledge.

Method: Through application of the Delphi technique, Brazilian occupational therapy academics and professionals who have worked in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, collaboratively responded to an online questionnaire. In the consultation phase, occupational therapists wrote their conceptions about social participation and, in the consensus phase, expressed their opinions and judgements, in order to, in a collective construction, establish a consensus on the definition of social participation.

Results: In the first round of the consensus phase, 38 academics and 27 professionals participated and in the second round, 20 and 14, respectively. Results were analysed quantitatively, through the establishment of degrees of agreement for conceptions arranged in statements. Then, six categories of analysis were built, which identified the multiple ways of understanding social participation: social participation and social interactions, social participation and freedom of movement, social participation as an experience in public and political life, social participation and human activities, social participation and the process of social inclusion, and social participation in the fields of knowledge and practice in occupational therapy.

Conclusion: There are theoretical-conceptual differences in the understandings and uses of social participation in occupational therapy that delimit specificity and design the identities of the profession in society. The need to discuss knowledge production, accumulation, and dissemination and practices is debated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1440-1630.12763DOI Listing
September 2021

A review exploring the overarching burden of Zika virus with emphasis on epidemiological case studies from Brazil.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Oct 8;28(40):55952-55966. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, WC1E 6BT, London, UK.

This paper explores the main factors for mosquito-borne transmission of the Zika virus by focusing on environmental, anthropogenic, and social risks. A literature review was conducted bringing together related information from this genre of research from peer-reviewed publications. It was observed that environmental conditions, especially precipitation, humidity, and temperature, played a role in the transmission. Furthermore, anthropogenic factors including sanitation, urbanization, and environmental pollution promote the transmission by affecting the mosquito density. In addition, socioeconomic factors such as poverty as well as social inequality and low-quality housing have also an impact since these are social factors that limit access to certain facilities or infrastructure which, in turn, promote transmission when absent (e.g., piped water and screened windows). Finally, the paper presents short-, mid-, and long-term preventative solutions together with future perspectives. This is the first review exploring the effects of anthropogenic aspects on Zika transmission with a special emphasis in Brazil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15984-yDOI Listing
October 2021

Toxicological, biochemical and morphophysiological effects of Serjania erecta leaf aqueous extract on Piaractus mesopotamicus.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2021 3;93(4):e20190479. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (FAMEZ), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootenia, Av. Sen. Filinto Müller, 2443, 79070-900 Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.

This study was carried out to determine the toxicity and biochemical and morphophysiological changes caused by Serjania erecta leaf aqueous extract in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus). For acute toxicity testing (CL50-4h), pacu juveniles were exposed during 4 h to Serjania erecta aqueous extract concentrations of 2.5, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 150 µg mL-1, which were added directly to the water in the tanks. In the control group, the animals were kept in water free from aqueous extract. CL50-4 h was estimated at 57.43 µg mL-1. After exposure to the aqueous extract, the highest (P<0.05) glucose concentration and the lowest (P<0.05) plasma sodium level were when the fish were exposed to the S. erecta concentration of 50 µg mL-1. Mortality occurred at S. erecta extract levels higher than 50 μg mL-1, and all fish died at concentrations greater than 100 μg mL-1. In addition, exposure to this extract caused severe histological changes in the gills and liver with higher prevalence of necrosis (30.2%), and fatty degeneration (77.4%) respectively. At the concentrations tested here, S. erecta aqueous extract causes morphofunctional alterations in this fish species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765202120190479DOI Listing
September 2021

The antiviral state has shaped the CpG composition of the vertebrate interferome to avoid self-targeting.

PLoS Biol 2021 Sep 7;19(9):e3001352. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research (CVR), Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Antiviral defenses can sense viral RNAs and mediate their destruction. This presents a challenge for host cells since they must destroy viral RNAs while sparing the host mRNAs that encode antiviral effectors. Here, we show that highly upregulated interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which encode antiviral proteins, have distinctive nucleotide compositions. We propose that self-targeting by antiviral effectors has selected for ISG transcripts that occupy a less self-targeted sequence space. Following interferon (IFN) stimulation, the CpG-targeting antiviral effector zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP) reduces the mRNA abundance of multiple host transcripts, providing a mechanistic explanation for the repression of many (but not all) interferon-repressed genes (IRGs). Notably, IRGs tend to be relatively CpG rich. In contrast, highly upregulated ISGs tend to be strongly CpG suppressed. Thus, ZAP is an example of an effector that has not only selected compositional biases in viral genomes but also appears to have notably shaped the composition of host transcripts in the vertebrate interferome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8423302PMC
September 2021

3-Bromopyruvate: A new strategy for inhibition of glycolytic enzymes in Leishmania amazonensis.

Exp Parasitol 2021 Oct 2;229:108154. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Laboratório de Bioquímica Celular, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo de Meis, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Biologia Estrutural e Bioimagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

The compound 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) is well-known and studies from several researchers have demonstrated its involvement in tumorigenesis. It is an analogue of pyruvic acid that inhibits ATP synthesis by inhibiting enzymes from the glycolytic pathway and oxidative phosphorylation. In this work, we investigated the effect of 3-BrPA on energy metabolism of L. amazonensis. In order to verify the effect of 3-BrPA on L. amazonensis glycolysis, we measured the activity level of three glycolytic enzymes located at different points of the pathway: (i) glucose kinases, step 1, (ii) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), step 6, and (iii) enolase, step 9. 3-BrPA, in a dose-dependent manner, significantly reduced the activity levels of all the enzymes. In addition, 3-BrPA treatment led to a reduction in the levels of phosphofruto-1-kinase (PFK) protein, suggesting that the mode of action of 3-BrPA involves the downregulation of some glycolytic enzymes. Measurement of ATP levels in promastigotes of L. amazonensis showed a significant reduction in ATP generation. The O consumption was also significantly inhibited in promastigotes, confirming the energy depletion effect of 3-BrPA. When 3-BrPA was added to the cells at the beginning of growth cycle, it significantly inhibited L. amazonensis proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the ability to infect macrophages was reduced by approximately 50% when promastigotes were treated with 3-BrPA. Taken together, these studies corroborate with previous reports which suggest 3-BrPA as a potential drug against pathogenic microorganisms that are reliant on glucose catabolism for ATP supply.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2021.108154DOI Listing
October 2021

Conservative Management of Spondylodiscitis after Laparoscopic Sacral Colpopexy: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2021 Jul 30;43(7):570-577. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Gynecology and Obstetrics Service, Hospital Vila Franca de Xira, Lisboa, Portugal.

Sacral colpopexy is one of the standard procedures to treat apical pelvic organ prolapse. In most cases, a synthetic mesh is used to facilitate the colposuspension. Spondylodiscitis is a rare but potentially serious complication that must be promptly diagnosed and treated, despite the lack of consensus in the management of this complication. We report one case of spondylodiscitis after a laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy and sacral colpopexy treated conservatively. We also present a literature review regarding this rare complication. A conservative approach without mesh removal may be possible in selected patients (stable, with no vaginal lesions, mesh exposure or severe neurologic compromise). Hemocultures and culture of image-guided biopsies should be performed to direct antibiotic therapy. Conservative versus surgical treatment should be regularly weighted depending on clinical and analytical progression. A multidisciplinary team is of paramount importance in the follow-up of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1735153DOI Listing
July 2021
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