Publications by authors named "Ana Russo de Boland"

37 Publications

1α,25(OH)D-glycosides from leaves extract induce myoblasts differentiation through p38 MAPK and AKT activation.

Biol Open 2018 May 14;7(5). Epub 2018 May 14.

Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas y Biomédicas del Sur (INBIOSUR), Universidad Nacional del Sur-CONICET, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina

We have previously shown that leaf extract (SGE) increases VDR protein levels and promotes myoblast differentiation. Here, we investigated whether p38 MAPK and AKT are involved in SGE actions. Cell-cycle studies showed that SGE prompted a peak of S-phase followed by an arrest in the G0/G1-phase through p38 MAPK. Time course studies showed that p38 MAPK and AKT phosphorylation were statistically increased by SGE (10 nM) or synthetic 1α,25(OH)D (1 nM) treatment. Furthermore, p38 MAPK and AKT inhibitors, SB203580 and LY294002 respectively, suppressed myoblasts fusion induced by SGE or synthetic 1α,25(OH)D We have also studied differentiation genes by qRT-PCR. mRNA increased significantly by SGE (24-72 h) or 1α,25(OH)D (24 h) treatment. mRNA expression of also increased upon SGE or 1α,25(OH)D treatment. Finally, mRNA expression, a late differentiation marker, was increased significantly by both compounds at 72 h compared to control. Taken together, these results suggest that SGE, as synthetic 1α,25(OH)D, promotes myotube formation through p38 MAPK and AKT activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.033670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5992525PMC
May 2018

In vitro effects of 1α,25(OH)₂D₃-glycosides from Solbone A (Solanum glaucophyllum leaves extract; Herbonis AG) compared to synthetic 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ on myogenesis.

Steroids 2016 May 8;109:7-15. Epub 2016 Mar 8.

INBIOSUR-CONICET-Depto. Biología Bioquímica & Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca 8000, Argentina. Electronic address:

The presence of glycoside derivatives of 1α,25(OH)2D3 endows plants to gradual release of the free bioactive form of 1α,25(OH)2D3 from its glycoconjugates by endogenous animal tissue glycosidases. This results in increased half-life of the hormone in blood when purified plant fractions are administered for therapeutic purposes. In this work, we evaluated the role 1α,25(OH)2D3-glycosides enriched natural product (Solbone A) from Solanum glaucophyllum leaf extract compared with synthetic 1α,25(OH)2D3 on myogenic differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts. For these, differentiation markers and myogenic parameters were studied in C2C12 myoblasts. Results showed that Solbone A, likewise the synthetic hormone, increased creatine kinase activity at day 2 after differentiation induction (60%, p<0.05). Solbone A and synthetic 1α,25(OH)2D3 increased vitamin D3 receptor protein expression at 10nM (50% and 30%, respectively) and the transcription factor myogenin (80%, p<0.05). However, tropomyosin expression was not affected by both compounds. In addition, myosin heavy chain (MHC) protein expression was increased 30% at day 2 of differentiation. Solbone A or synthetic 1α,25(OH)2D3 had no effects on myogenin nor MHC cell localization. Cellular mass increased with myogenesis progression, being Solbone A more effective than synthetic 1α,25(OH)2D3. Finally, Solbone A, as well as synthetic 1α,25(OH)2D3, augmented the index fusion of cultured muscle fibers. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that Solbone A exhibit at least equal or greater effects on early myoblast differentiation as synthetic hormone, suggesting that plant glycosides could be an effective, accessible and cheaper substitute for synthetic 1α,25(OH)2D3 to promote muscle growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2016.03.002DOI Listing
May 2016

The proapoptotic protein Bim is up regulated by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its receptor agonist in endothelial cells and transformed by viral GPCR associated to Kaposi sarcoma.

Steroids 2015 Oct 6;102:85-91. Epub 2015 Aug 6.

INBIOSUR (CONICET-UNS), 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Electronic address:

We have previously shown that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3] and its less calcemic analog TX 527 induce apoptosis via caspase-3 activation in endothelial cells (SVEC) and endothelial cells transformed by the viral G protein-coupled receptor associated to Kaposi sarcoma (vGPCR). In this work, we studied whether intrinsic apoptotic pathway could be activated by changing the balance between anti and pro-apoptotic proteins. Time response qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the mRNA level of anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 decreased after 12h and increased after 48h treatment with 1α,25(OH)2D3 or TX 527 in SVEC and vGPCR cells, whereas its protein level remained unchanged through time. mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic gene Bax significantly increased only in SVEC after 24 and 48h treatment with 1α,25(OH)2D3 and TX 527 although its protein levels remained unchanged in both cell lines. Bim mRNA and protein levels increased in SVEC and vGPCR cells. Bim protein increase by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and TX 527 was abolished when the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) was suppressed. On the other hand, Bortezomib (0.25-1nM), an inhibitor of NF-κB pathway highly activated in vGPCR cells, increased Bim protein levels and induced caspase-3 cleavage. Altogether, these results indicate that 1α,25(OH)2D3 and TX 527 trigger apoptosis by Bim protein increase which turns into the activation of caspase-3 in SVEC and vGPCR cells. Moreover, this effect is mediated by VDR and involves NF-κB pathway inhibition in vGPCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2015.08.005DOI Listing
October 2015

Molecular mechanisms associated with PTHrP-induced proliferation of colon cancer cells.

J Cell Biochem 2014 Dec;115(12):2133-45

Departamento Biología Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein (PTHrP) is normally produced in many tissues and is recognized for its endocrine, paracrine, autocrine and intracrine modes of action. PTHrP is also implicated in different types of cancer and its expression correlates with the severity of colon carcinoma. Using the human colon cell line Caco-2 we recently obtained evidence that PTHrP, through a paracrine pathway, exerts a protective effect under apoptotic conditions. However, if exogenous PTHrP is able or not to induce the proliferation of these intestinal tumor cells is not known. We found that PTHrP treatment increases the number of live Caco-2 cells. The hormone induces the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of ERK 1/2, α p38 MAPK, and Akt, without affecting JNK phosphorylation. In addition, PTHrP-dependent ERK phosphorylation is reverted when PI3K activity was inhibited. Following MAPKs nuclear translocation, the transcription factors ATF-1 and CREB were activated in a biphasic manner. In addition PTHrP induces the translocation into the nucleus of β-catenin, protein that plays key role in maintaining the growth and proliferation of colorectal cancer, and increases the amount of both positive cell cycle regulators c-Myc and Cyclin D. Studies with ERK1/2, α p38 MAPK, and PI3K specific inhibitors showed that PTHrP regulates Caco-2 cell proliferation via these signaling pathways. In conclusion, the results obtained in this work expand our knowledge on the role of exogenous PTHrP in intestinal tumor cells and identify the signaling pathways that are involved in the mitogenic effect of the hormone on Caco-2 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.24890DOI Listing
December 2014

Involvement of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in the regulation of cell cycle progression by PTHrP in colon adenocarcinoma cells.

Biochem Cell Biol 2014 Aug 25;92(4):305-15. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

Dept. Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia. Universidad Nacional del Sur, San Juan 670, (8000) Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is distributed in most fetal and adult tissues, and its expression correlates with the severity of colon carcinoma. Recently we obtained evidence that in Caco-2 cells, a cell line from human colorectal adenocarcinoma, exogenous PTHrP increases the number of live cells, via ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and PI3-kinase and induces the expression of cyclin D1, a cell cycle regulatory protein. In this study, we further investigated the role of PTHrP in the regulation of the cell cycle progression in these intestinal cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that PTHrP treatment diminishes the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase and increases the number in both S and G2/M phases. The hormone increases the expression of CDK6 and diminishes the amount of negative cell cycle regulators p27Kip1, p15INK4B, and p53. However, PTHrP does not modify the expression of cyclin D3, CDK4, and p16INK4A. In addition, inhibitors of ERK1/2 (PD98059), p38 MAPK (SB203580), and PI3Kinase (LY294002) reversed PTHrP response in Caco-2 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that PTHrP positively modulates cell cycle progression and changes the expression of proteins involved in cell cycle regulation via ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and PI3K signaling pathways in Caco-2 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/bcb-2013-0106DOI Listing
August 2014

Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and TX 527 in Kaposi sarcoma is VDR dependent.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2014 Oct 5;144 Pt A:197-200. Epub 2013 Dec 5.

Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica & Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur-CONICET, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

We have previously shown that 1α,25(OH)2-Vitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3] and its less calcemic analog TX 527 inhibit the proliferation of endothelial cells transformed by the viral G protein-coupled receptor associated to Kaposi sarcoma (vGPCR) and this could be partially explained by the inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In this work, we further explored the mechanism of action of both vitamin D compounds in Kaposi sarcoma. We investigated whether the cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis of endothelial cells (SVEC) and SVEC transformed by vGPCR (SVEC-vGPCR) elicited by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and TX 527 were mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Cell cycle analysis of SVEC and SVEC-vGPCR treated with 1α,25(OH)2D3 (10nM, 48h) revealed that 1α,25(OH)2D3 increased the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase and diminished the percentage of cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. Moreover, the number of cells in the S phase was higher in SVEC-vGPCR than in SVEC due to vGPCR expression. TX 527 exerted similar effects on growth arrest in SVEC-vGPCR cells. The cell cycle changes were suppressed when the expression of the VDR was blocked by a stable transfection of shRNA against VDR. Annexin V-PI staining demonstrated apoptosis in both SVEC and SVEC-vGPCR after 1α,25(OH)2D3 and TX 527 treatment (10nM, 24h). Cleavage of caspase-3 detected by Western blot analysis was increased to a greater extent in SVEC than in SVEC-vGPCR cells, and this effect was also blocked in VDR knockdown cells. Altogether, these results suggest that 1α,25(OH)2D3 and TX 527 inhibit the proliferation of SVEC and SVEC-vGPCR and induce apoptosis by a mechanism that involves the VDR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2013.11.014DOI Listing
October 2014

Role of PTHrP in human intestinal Caco-2 cell response to oxidative stress.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2013 Dec 8;1833(12):2834-2843. Epub 2013 Jul 8.

Dept. Biología, Bioquímica & Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Electronic address:

We have previously demonstrated that parathyroid hormone (PTH) induces apoptosis in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells but the effects of its tumoral analog PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) in this cell line are still unknown. In the present work we investigated whether PTHrP, as PTH, is able to induce Caco-2 cell apoptosis or if it exerts protective effects under apoptotic conditions. Using Caco-2 cells cultured under serum deprivation in the presence or absence of PTHrP we demonstrated that, differently to PTH, its analog employed at the same concentration (10(-8)M) is not a pro-apoptotic hormone. Cells were exposed to an oxidative insult in the form of hydrogen peroxide to induce apoptosis, which leads to a 50% loss of cell viability determined by MTS assay, morphological changes observed under fluorescence microscopy and Western blot analysis. Herein we demonstrate, for the first time, that pre-treatment with PTHrP prior to H2O2 incubation, prevents cell death induced by the apoptotic inductor; and using specific inhibitors we evidenced that protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mediate this anti-apoptotic effect. Also, we found that PTHrP decreases the pro-apoptotic protein BAX levels and increases the protein expression of the anti-apoptotic HSP27. Immunoblot analysis revealed that H2O2 increases the phosphorylation levels of AKT and MAPKs, exhibiting a cellular defense response; and consequently increases phospho-BAD levels. The H2O2-induced activation of protein kinases is reverted when cells are pre-treated with PTHrP. Altogether these results evidence a protective effect of PTHrP under apoptotic conditions in intestinal cells, which may be mediated by AKT and MAPKs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamcr.2013.06.029DOI Listing
December 2013

Age-related changes in the response of intestinal cells to 1α,25(OH)2-vitamin D3.

Ageing Res Rev 2013 Jan 15;12(1):76-89. Epub 2012 Jun 15.

Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

The hormonally active form of vitamin D(3), 1α,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3), acts in intestine, its major target tissue, where its actions are of regulatory and developmental importance: regulation of intracellular calcium through modulation of second messengers and activation of mitogenic cascades leading to cell proliferation. Several causes have been postulated to modify the hormone response in intestinal cells with ageing, among them, alterations of vitamin D receptor (VDR) levels and binding sites, reduced expression of G-proteins and hormone signal transduction changes. The current review summarizes the actual knowledge regarding the molecular and biochemical basis of age-impaired 1α,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) receptor-mediated signaling in intestinal cells. A fundamental understanding why the hormone functions are impaired with age will enhance our knowledge of its importance in intestinal cell physiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2012.06.001DOI Listing
January 2013

NFκB pathway is down-regulated by 1α,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) in endothelial cells transformed by Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus G protein coupled receptor.

Steroids 2012 Sep 7;77(11):1025-32. Epub 2012 Jun 7.

Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica & Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, San Juan 670, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

We have previously demonstrated that 1α,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D(3) (1α,25(OH)(2)D(3)) has antiproliferative effects on the growth of endothelial cells transformed by the viral G protein-coupled receptor associated to Kaposi sarcoma (vGPCR). In this work, we have investigated whether 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) exerts its growth inhibitory effects by inhibiting the Nuclear Factor κ B (NFκB) pathway which is highly activated by vGPCR. Cell proliferation studies demonstrated that 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3), similarly to bortezomib, a proteosome inhibitor that suppresses the activation of NFκB, reduced the proliferation of endothelial cells transformed by vGPCR (SVEC-vGPCR). The activity of NFκB in these cells decreased by 70% upon 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment. Furthermore, time and dose response studies showed that the hormone significantly decreased NFκB and increased IκBα mRNA and protein levels in SVEC-vGPCR cells, whereas in SVEC only IκBα increased significantly. Moreover, NFκB translocation to the nucleus was inhibited and occurred by a mechanism independent of NFκB association with vitamin D(3) receptor (VDR). 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3)-induced increase in IκBα required de novo protein synthesis, and was independent of MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. Altogether, these results suggest that down-regulation of the NFκB pathway is part of the mechanism involved in the antiproliferative effects of 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) on endothelial cells transformed by vGPCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2012.05.006DOI Listing
September 2012

[Vitamin D and cancer: antineoplastic effects of 1α,25(OH)2-vitamin D3].

Medicina (B Aires) 2012 ;72(2):143-9

Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina.

The hormonal form of vitamin D, 1α,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3), in addition of playing a central role in the control of calcium homeostasis in the body, regulates the growth and differentiation of different cell types, including cancer cells. At present several epidemiologic and clinical studies investigate the effect of the hormone in these cells due to the interest in the therapeutic use of 1α,25(OH)2D3 and analogues with less calcemic activity for prevention or treatment of cancer. This review describes vitamin D endocrine system, its mechanism of action, its antineoplastic activity and provides information about the latest advances in the study of new hormone analogues with less calcemic activity for cancer treatment.
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November 2014

Parathyroid hormone and the regulation of cell cycle in colon adenocarcinoma cells.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2011 Oct 12;1813(10):1749-57. Epub 2011 Jun 12.

Dept. Biologia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Argentina.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) functions as a major mediator of bone remodeling and as an essential regulator of calcium homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the role of PTH in the regulation of the cell cycle in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that PTH (10(-8)M, 12-24h) treatment increases the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase and diminishes the number in both phases S and G2/M. In addition, analysis by Western blot showed that the hormone increases the expression of the inhibitory protein p27Kip1 and diminishes the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3 and CDK6. However, the amounts of CDK4, p21Cip1, p15INK4B and p16INK4A were not different in the absence or presence of PTH. Inhibitors of PKC (Ro-318220, bisindolylmaleimide and chelerythine), but not JNK (SP600125) and PP2A (okadaic acid and calyculin A), reversed PTH response in Caco-2 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that PTH induces G0/G1 phase arrest of Caco-2 intestinal cells and changes the expression of proteins involved in cell cycle regulation via the PKC signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamcr.2011.06.001DOI Listing
October 2011

Signal transduction pathways associated with ATP-induced proliferation of colon adenocarcinoma cells.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2010 Sep 26;1800(9):946-55. Epub 2010 May 26.

Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

Background: In previous work, we have demonstrated that extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) acts on intestinal Caco-2 cell P2Y receptors promoting a rapid increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p46 JNK and p38 MAP kinases (MAPKs).

Methods And Results: In this study, we investigated whether the extracellular ATP-P2Y receptor signalling pathways were required for the proliferation of Caco-2 cells. Confocal microscopy and immunobloting studies showed that ERK1/2 and JNK translocate into the nucleus of the cells stimulated by ATP, where they participate, together with p38 MAPK, in the phosphorylation of JunD, ATF-1 and ATF-2 transcription factors. In addition, ATP through the activation of MAPKs induces the expression of the immediate early genes products of the Jun family, c-Fos and MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1). Moreover, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK are involved in the phosphorylation of MKP-1 in Caco-2 cells. Of physiological significance, in agreement with the mitogenic role of the MAPK cascade, ATP increased Caco-2 cell proliferation, and this effect was blocked by UO126, SB203580 and SP600125, the specific inhibitors of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK1/2, respectively.

Conclusion: Extracellular ATP induces proliferation of Caco-2 human colonic cancer cells by activating MAPK cascades and modulation of transcription factors.

General Significance: These findings and identification of the specific P2Y subtype receptors involved in the mitogenic effect of ATP on Caco-2 cells might be relevant for understanding tumor cell development, resistance to treatment regimens and the design of new therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2010.05.009DOI Listing
September 2010

PTH inactivates the AKT survival pathway in the colonic cell line Caco-2.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2010 Mar 18;1803(3):343-51. Epub 2009 Dec 18.

Department Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, San Juan 670, (8000) Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

In previous works, we found that PTH promotes the apoptosis of human Caco-2 intestinal cells, through the mitochondrial pathway. This study was conducted to investigate the modulation of different players implicated in the AKT survival pathway in PTH-induced intestinal cell apoptosis. We demonstrate, for the first time, that PTH modulates AKT phosphorylation in response to apoptosis via the serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A. PTH treatment induces an association of AKT with the catalytic subunit of PP2A and increases its phosphatase activity. PTH also promotes the translocation of PP2Ac from the cytosol to the mitochondria. Furthermore, our results suggest that PP2A plays a role in hormone-dependent Caco-2 cells viability and in the cleavage of caspase-3 and its substrate PARP. The cAMP pathway also contributes to PTH-mediated AKT dephosphorylation while PKC and p38 MAPK do not participate in this event. Finally, we show that PTH induces the dissociation between 14-3-3 and AKT, but the significance of this response remains unknown. In correlation with PTH-induced Bad dephosphorylation, the hormone also decreases the basal association of 14-3-3 and Bad. Overall, our data suggest that in Caco-2 cells, PP2A and the cAMP pathway act in concert to inactivate the AKT survival pathway in PTH-induced intestinal cell apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamcr.2009.11.011DOI Listing
March 2010

1 Alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its TX527 analog inhibit the growth of endothelial cells transformed by Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus G protein-coupled receptor in vitro and in vivo.

Endocrinology 2010 Jan 13;151(1):23-31. Epub 2009 Nov 13.

Departamento de Biología Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, San Juan 670, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

The Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus-G protein-coupled receptor is a key molecule in the pathogenesis of Kaposi sarcoma, playing a central role in promoting vascular endothelial growth factor-driven angiogenesis and spindle cell proliferation. We studied the effects of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)] and the analog TX527 on the proliferation of endothelial cells (SVECs) and SVECs transformed by the viral G protein-coupled receptor (SVEC-vGPCR). 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) and TX527 decreased SVEC-vGPCR and SVEC numbers, the response being time dependent and similar in both cell lines. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) levels increased on treatment with 10 nm 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) or 1 nm TX527 in a time-dependent manner (1.5-24 h) in SVECs and SVEC-vGPCR. Basal VDR levels were increased in SVEC-vGPCR. The antiproliferative effects were accompanied by reduction in cyclin D1 and accumulation of p27 in SVECs but not SVEC-vGPCR. Induction of VDR was blocked by transfection of short hairpin RNA against VDR in SVEC-vGPCR and the antiproliferative effects of 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) and TX527 were decreased, involving the VDR genomic pathway in the hormone and analog mechanism of action. In vivo experiments showed that 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) and TX527 decreased SVEC-vGPCR tumor progression when the tumor cells were implanted in nude mice. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) and its TX527 analog have antiproliferative effects on the growth of endothelial cells transformed by the vGPCR in vitro and in vivo, the vitamin D receptor being part of the inhibitory mechanism of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2009-0650DOI Listing
January 2010

Extracellular ATP activates MAP kinase cascades through a P2Y purinergic receptor in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2009 Dec 15;1790(12):1651-9. Epub 2009 Oct 15.

Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, San Juan 670, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

Background: ATP exerts diverse effects on various cell types via specific purinergic P2Y receptors. Intracellular signaling cascades are the main routes of communication between P2Y receptors and regulatory targets in the cell.

Methods And Results: We examined the role of ATP in the modulation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 MAP kinases (MAPKs) in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that ATP induces the phosphorylation of MAPKs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, peaking at 5 min at 10 microM ATP. Moreover, ATPgammaS, UTP, and UDP but not ADP or ADPbetaS increased phosphorylation of MAPKs, indicating the involvement of, at least, P2Y2/P2Y4 and P2Y6 receptor subtypes. RT-PCR studies and PCR product sequencing supported the expression of P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors in this cell line. Spectrofluorimetric measurements showed that cell stimulation with ATP induced transient elevations in intracellular calcium concentration. In addition, ATP-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs in Caco-2 cells was dependent on Src family tyrosine kinases, calcium influx, and intracellular Ca2+ release and was partially dependent on the cAMP/PKA and PKC pathways and the EGFR.

General Significance: These findings provide new molecular basis for further understanding the mechanisms involved in ATP functions, as a signal transducer and activator of MAP kinase cascades, in colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2009.10.005DOI Listing
December 2009

Expression and subcellular distribution of native estrogen receptor beta in murine C2C12 cells and skeletal muscle tissue.

Steroids 2009 Jun 30;74(6):489-97. Epub 2009 Jan 30.

Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, San Juan 670, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

We have recently described the expression and intracellular localization of ER alpha in murine C2C12 cells and skeletal muscle tissue. In separate studies, a protective role of 17beta-estradiol against apoptosis exerted mainly at the mitochondrial level was also shown in the C2C12 muscle cell line. However, this functional evidence was in accordance with the participation of ER beta. We have then here investigated the expression and subcellular distribution of native ER beta in similar skeletal muscle cultured cells and tissue developed in vivo. ER beta was detected by immunoblotting using specific antibodies and ligand blot analysis after subcellular fractionation. Immunolocalization was confirmed using conventional and confocal microscopy. ER beta was found to a great extent in mitochondria and in lower amounts in the cytosolic fraction, differently to ER alpha which localizes in microsomes, cytosol, mitochondria, and also in the nucleus of muscle tissue. ER beta expression was also demonstrated by RT-PCR. Finally, the mitochondrial localization of native ER beta in C2C12 muscle cells was corroborated after transient transfection with specific ER beta siRNAs. These data raise the possibility that the antiapoptotic action of 17beta-estradiol in muscle cells may be related in part to a direct action of the hormone on mitochondria through ER beta.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2009.01.005DOI Listing
June 2009

Pro-apoptotic effects of parathyroid hormone in intestinal cells.

Biochem Cell Biol 2009 Apr;87(2):389-400

Departemente Biologia, Bioquimica y Farmacia. Universidad Nacional del Sur, San Juan, Argentina.

Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, is a process fundamental to normal growth and development, immune response, tissue remodeling after injury or insult, and homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium. Recently, it has become apparent that apoptosis is a crucial process in skeletal development and homeostasis, and that signaling by the parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor can either promote or suppress apoptosis depending on the cellular context. In this study, we evaluated the role of PTH in intestinal apoptosis using human colonic Caco-2 cells. To that end, Caco-2 cells were exposed to PTH (10-8 mol/L) for 1-5 days. Evaluation of cell survival by use of resazurin staining, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) staining, and crystal violet staining revealed that PTH treatment diminishes the number of viable cells. Assessment of cells after PTH treatment by use of propidium iodide showed that the hormone increased the number of red-stained (dead) cells (178%, 5 days). Moreover, we found that the hormone induced disruption of actin filaments with changes to cellular shape, alteration of cell-to-cell junctions, externalization of membrane phosphatidylserine, chromatin condensation, and DNA fragmentation of the nucleus, which are morphological features consistent with apoptosis. In addition, PTH treatment revealed a cytosolic staining pattern of 14-3-3. However, the significance of such differential localization for 14-3-3 function remains unknown. Taken together, the present study suggests that PTH promotes apoptosis in Caco-2 intestinal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/O08-143DOI Listing
April 2009

MAP kinases in proliferating human colon cancer Caco-2 cells.

Mol Cell Biochem 2009 Aug 20;328(1-2):201-8. Epub 2009 Mar 20.

Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, San Juan, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is one of the most ubiquitous signal transduction systems and is rapidly activated by various stimuli, such as cellular stress and death. The Caco-2 cell line is an in vitro model for colon cancer studies. We investigated the activation status of the ERK1/2, p38, JNK1/2, and ERK5 kinases and their respective upstream intracellular activators in Caco-2 cells induced to proliferate by 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The states of phosphorylation of the above MAPKs and their upstream kinases, MEK1/2, MKK3/6, MKK4, and MKK7, respectively, were studied by Western blot analysis. Phosphorylation was barely detectable before serum stimulation, and the stimulation of cell proliferation by the addition of FBS increased MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation 2 to 3 fold after 3 min. FBS stimulated p38 and MKK3/6 to the same extent within 2 min of treatment and JNK1/2 and its upstream kinases MKK4 and MKK7 5-fold (3 min). Addition of FBS also rapidly phosphorylated ERK5 (2 to 3.5-fold between 2 and 5 min) and the transcription factor CREB. Incubation of Caco-2 cells with FBS was followed by a rapid induction of c-Fos and c-Myc expression. Studies with ERK1/2 specific inhibitor PD98059, p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, or JNK inhibitor SP600125 showed that FBS regulates Caco-2 cell proliferation via the three MAPK pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-009-0090-9DOI Listing
August 2009

The early phase of programmed cell death in Caco-2 intestinal cells exposed to PTH.

J Cell Biochem 2008 Nov;105(4):989-97

Department Biología, Bioquímica & Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca, Argentina.

The regulation of apoptosis is critical for ensuring the homeostasis of an organism. As such, the cell has derived various mechanisms to precisely control the balance between survival and apoptotic signaling. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) function as a major mediator of bone remodeling and as an essential regulator of calcium homeostasis. Depending on the cell type involved, PTH also inhibits or promotes the apoptosis. In a previous work we found that PTH promotes the apoptosis of human Caco-2 intestinal cells. In the current study, we demonstrate, for the first time, that stimulation of Caco-2 cells with PTH (10(-8) M) results in the dephosphorylation and translocation of pro-apoptotic protein Bad from the cytosol to mitochondria and release of cytochrome c and Smac/Diablo. The hormone also triggers mitochondria cellular distribution to the perinuclear region, morphological features consistent with apoptosis. PTH increases the enzymatic activity of caspase-3 (48 h) that is also evidenced from the appearance of its cleaved fragments in western blot experiments. Moreover, active caspase-3 is present in nucleus after PTH treatment. In addition, a caspase-3 substrate, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), is degraded by 48 h of PTH treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that, in Caco-2 cells, the induction of apoptosis in response to PTH is mediated by translocation of mitochondria to the perinuclear region, dephosphorylation of Akt, dephosphorylation of Bad and its movement to the mitochondria and subsequent release of cytochrome c and Smac/Diablo which result in activation of downstream caspase-3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.21897DOI Listing
November 2008

Expression and localization of estrogen receptor alpha in the C2C12 murine skeletal muscle cell line.

J Cell Biochem 2008 Jul;104(4):1254-73

Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

The classical model of 17beta-estradiol action has been traditionally described to be mediated by the estrogen receptor (ER) localized exclusively in the nucleus. However, there is increasing functional evidence for extra nuclear localization of ER. We present biochemical, immunological and molecular data supporting mitochondrial-microsomal localization of ER alpha in the C2C12 skeletal muscle cell line. We first established [(3)H]17beta estradiol binding characteristics in whole cells in culture. Specific and saturable [(3)H]17beta estradiol binding sites of high affinity were then detected in mitochondrial fractions (K(d) = 0.43 nM; B(max) = 572 fmol/mg protein). Immunocytological studies revealed that estrogen receptors mainly localize at the mitochondrial and perinuclear level. These results were also confirmed using fluorescent 17beta estradiol-BSA conjugates. The immunoreactivity did not translocate into the nucleus by 17beta-estradiol treatment. Western and Ligand blot approaches corroborated the non-classical localization. Expression and subcellular distribution of ER alpha proteins were confirmed in C2C12 cells transfected with ER alpha siRNA and by RT-PCR employing specific primers. The non-classical distribution of native pools of ER alpha in skeletal muscle cells suggests an alternative mode of ER localization/function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.21706DOI Listing
July 2008

Vitamin D receptor levels and binding are reduced in aged rat intestinal subcellular fractions.

Biogerontology 2008 Apr 1;9(2):109-18. Epub 2007 Dec 1.

Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica & Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, San Juan 670, 8000, Bahia Blanca, Argentina.

The hormonal form of vitamin D, 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitaminD(3) [1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)], stimulates signal transduction pathways in intestinal cells. To gain insight into the relative importance of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the rapid hormone responses, the amounts and localization of the VDR were evaluated in young (3 months) and aged (24 months) rat intestinal cells. Immune-fluorescence and Western blot studies showed that VDR levels are diminished in aged enterocytes. Confocal microscopy assays revealed that the VDR and other immune-reactive proteins have mitochondrial, membrane, cytosol and perinuclear localization. Western blot analysis using specific antibodies detected the 60 and 50 kDa bands expected for the VDR in the cytosol and microsomes and, to a lesser extent, in the nucleus and mitochondria. Low molecular weight immune-reactive proteins were also detected in young enterocytes subcellular fractions. Since changes in hormone receptor levels appear to constitute a common manifestation of the ageing process, we also analyzed 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) binding properties and VDR levels in subcellular fractions from young and aged rats. In competition binding assays, employing [(3)H]-1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) and 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), we have detected specific binding in all subcellular fractions, with maximum binding in mitochondrial and nuclear fractions. Both, VDR protein levels and 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) binding, were diminished with ageing. Age-related declines in VDR may have important consequences for correct receptor/effector coupling in the duodenal tissues and may explain age-related declines in the hormonal regulation of signal transduction pathways that we previously reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10522-007-9118-2DOI Listing
April 2008

ATP modulation of mitogen activated protein kinases and intracellular Ca2+ in breast cancer (MCF-7) cells.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2007 Oct 31;466(1):15-23. Epub 2007 Jul 31.

Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, San Juan 670, (B8000ICN) Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

In the breast tumor cell line MCF-7, extracellular nucleotides induce transient elevations in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). In this study we show that stimulation with ATP or UTP sensitizes MCF-7 cells to mechanical stress leading to an additional transient Ca(2+) influx. ATP> or =ATPgamma-S> or =UTP>ADP=ADPbeta-S elevate [Ca(2+)](i), proving the presence of P2Y(2)/P2Y(4) purinergic receptor subtypes. In addition, cell stimulation with ATP, ATPgamma-S or UTP but not ADPbeta-S induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK1/2 mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The use of Gd(3+), La(3+) or a Ca(2+)-free medium, inhibited ATP-dependent stress activated Ca(2+) (SAC) influx, but had no effect on MAPK phosphorylation. ATP-induced activation of MAPKs was diminished by two PI-PLC inhibitors and an IP(3) receptor antagonist. These results evidence an ATP-sensitive SAC influx in MCF-7 cells and indicate that phosphorylation of MAPKs by ATP is dependent on PI-PLC/IP(3)/Ca(2+)(i) release but independent of SAC influx in these cells, differently to other cell types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2007.07.012DOI Listing
October 2007

PTH regulation of c-Jun terminal kinase and p38 MAPK cascades in intestinal cells from young and aged rats.

Biogerontology 2007 Apr 21;8(2):189-99. Epub 2006 Nov 21.

Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, San Juan 670, 8000 Bahia Blanca, Argentina.

In the present study, we examined the role of Parathyroid hormone (PTH) on the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) members of the MAPK family as it relates to ageing by measuring hormone-induced changes in their activity in enterocytes isolated from young (3 month old) and aged (24 month old) rats. Our results show that PTH induces a transient activation of JNK 1/2, peaking at 1 min (+threefold). The hormone also stimulates JNK 1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation, in a dose-dependent fashion, this effect being maximal at 10 nM. PTH-induced JNK 1/2 phosphorylation was suppressed by its selective inhibitor SP600125. Moreover, hormone-dependent activation of JNK 1/2 was dependent on calcium, since pretreatment of cells with BAPTA-AM or EGTA blocked PTH effects. With ageing, the response to PTH was significantly reduced. JNK basal protein expression was not different in the enterocytes from young and aged rats, however, basal protein phosphorylation increased with ageing. PTH did not stimulate, within 1-10 min, the basal activity and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in rat intestinal cells. The hormone increased enterocyte DNA synthesis; the response was dose-dependent and decreased (-40%) with ageing. In agreement with the mitogenic role of the MAPK cascades, this effect was blocked by specific inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) 1/2 and JNK 1/2. The results obtained in this work expand our knowledge on the mechanism of action of PTH in duodenal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10522-006-9068-0DOI Listing
April 2007

Age-related alteration of 1alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3-dependent activation of p38 MAPK in rat intestinal cells.

Biogerontology 2007 Feb 20;8(1):13-24. Epub 2006 Jul 20.

Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica & Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, San Juan 670, Bahia Blanca 8000, Argentina.

In intestinal cells, 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) (1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)) regulates gene expression via the specific intracellular vitamin D receptor and induces fast non-transcriptional responses involving stimulation of transmembrane signal transduction pathways. In the present study, we analyzed, for the first time, alterations in p38 MAPK response to 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) in rat enterocytes with ageing. In enterocytes from young rats, the hormone increased, in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, peaking at 3 min (+2-fold). Basal levels of p38 MAPK phosphorylation were lower in enterocytes from old rats and the hormone response was greatly diminished (+0.5-fold at 3 min). p38 MAPK phosphorylation impairment in old animals was not related to significant changes of the kinase protein expression and do not explain the decreased response to 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). Extracellular and intracellular Ca(2+) chelation or c-Src pharmacological inhibition suppressed hormone activation of p38 MAPK in both, young and aged rats, demonstrating that Ca(2+) and the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Src are required for full activation of p38 MAPK in cells stimulated with 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). Two other vitamin D(3) metabolites, 25(OH)D(3) and 24,25(OH)(2)D(3, )also enhanced p38 phosphorylation, and to a similar extent than 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), an ability that is lost with ageing. Enterocyte exposure to the hormone also resulted in the rapid induction of c-fos protein (peaking at 5 min, +3-fold) and to a greater extent than that of mRNA induction. With ageing, 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)-dependent increase of c-fos protein level was diminished, but c-fos mRNA expression was not different from young animals. Impairment of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) activation of p38 MAPK upon ageing and abnormal hormone regulation of the c-fos oncoprotein synthesis may affect intestinal cell function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10522-006-9031-0DOI Listing
February 2007

1alpha,25(OH)(2)-Vitamin D(3) stimulates intestinal cell p38 MAPK activity and increases c-Fos expression.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2006 24;38(7):1181-90. Epub 2006 Jan 24.

Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

In intestinal cells, as in other target cells, the steroid hormone 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-Vitamin D(3) (1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)) regulates gene expression via the specific intracellular Vitamin D receptor and induces fast non-transcriptional responses involving stimulation of transmembrane signal transduction pathways. We have previously shown that the hormone activates the extracellular signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase isoforms ERK1 and ERK2 in rat intestinal cells. In the present study, we have demonstrated that 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) also induces the phosphorylation and activation of p38 MAPK in these cells. The hormone effects were time and dose-dependent, with maximal stimulation at 2min (+3-fold) and 1nM. 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)-dependent p38 phosphorylation was suppressed by SB 203580, a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK. Ca(2+) chelation with EGTA, inhibition of the c-Src-tyrosine kinase family with PP1 or protein kinase A (PKA) with Rp-cAMP, attenuated hormone activation of p38 MAPK. The physiological significance of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)-dependent activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinases was addressed by monitoring c-Fos expression. Incubation of intestinal cells with the hormone was followed by a rapid induction of c-Fos expression which was blocked by SB 203580 and partially suppressed by the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD 98059. Our results suggest that 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) activates p38 MAPK, involving Ca(2+), c-Src and PKA as upstream regulators, and that p38 MAPK has a central role in hormone-induction of the oncoprotein c-Fos in rat intestinal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2005.12.018DOI Listing
August 2006

Implication of Gbetagamma proteins and c-SRC tyrosine kinase in parathyroid hormone-induced signal transduction in rat enterocytes.

J Endocrinol 2006 Jan;188(1):69-78

Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, San Juan 670, 8000 Bahia Blanca, Argentina.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) interacts in target tissues with a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) localized in the plasma membrane. Although activation of GPCR can elicit rapid stimulation of cellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation, the mechanism by which G proteins activate protein-tyrosine kinases is not completely understood. In the present work, we demonstrate that PTH rapidly increases the activity of non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Src in rat intestinal cells (enterocytes). The response is biphasic, the early phase is fast and transient, peaking at 30 s (+120%), while the second phase progressively increases up to 5 min (+220%). The hormone activates c-Src in intestinal cells through fast changes in tyrosine phosphorylation of the enzyme. The first event in the activation of c-Src is the dephosphorylation of Tyr527 (which happens after a few seconds of PTH treatment), followed by a second event of activation with phosphorylation at Tyr416 (+twofold, 5 min). Removal of external Ca(2+) (EGTA, 0.5 mM) and chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetracetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA) (5 microM) suppressed Tyr527 dephosphorylation and Tyr416 phosphorylation, indicating that Ca(2+) is an upstream activator of c-Src in enterocytes stimulated with PTH. The G protein subunits, Galphas and Gbeta, are associated with c-Src in basal conditions and this association increases two- to threefold in cells treated with PTH. Blocking of Gbeta subunits by preincubation of cells with a Gbeta antibody abolished hormone-dependent c-Src Tyr416 phosphorylation and ERK1/ERK2 activation. The results of this work indicate that PTH activates c-Src in intestinal cells through conformational changes via G proteins and calcium-dependent modulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of the enzyme, and that PTH receptor activation leads via Gbetagamma-c-Src to the phosphorylation of the MAP kinases, ERK1 and ERK2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/joe.1.06397DOI Listing
January 2006

MAP kinases p38 and JNK are activated by the steroid hormone 1alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 in the C2C12 muscle cell line.

J Cell Biochem 2006 Mar;97(4):698-708

Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica & Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, San Juan 670, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

In chick skeletal muscle cell primary cultures, we previously demonstrated that 1alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 [1alpha,25(OH)2D3], the hormonally active form of vitamin D, increases the phosphorylation and activity of the extracellular signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase isoforms ERK1 and ERK2, their subsequent translocation to the nucleus and involvement in DNA synthesis stimulation. In this study, we show that other members of the MAP kinase superfamily are also activated by the hormone. Using the muscle cell line C2C12 we found that 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 within 1 min phosphorylates and increases the activity of p38 MAPK. The immediately upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 3/6 (MKK3/MKK6) were also phosphorylated by the hormone suggesting their participation in p38 activation. 1Alpha,25(OH)2D3 was able to dephosphorylate/activate the ubiquitous cytosolic tyrosine kinase c-Src in C2C12 cells and studies with specific inhibitors imply that Src participates in hormone induced-p38 activation. Of relevance, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 induced in the C2C12 line the stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase activating protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP-kinase 2) and subsequent phosphorylation of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) in a p38 kinase activation-dependent manner. Treatment with the p38 inhibitor, SB203580, blocked p38 phosphorylation caused by the hormone and inhibited the phosphorylation of its downstrean substrates. 1Alpha,25(OH)2D3 also promotes the phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal protein kinases (JNK 1/2), the response is fast (0.5-1 min) and maximal phosphorylation of the enzyme is observed at physiological doses of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 (1 nM). The relative contribution of ERK-1/2, p38, and JNK-1/2 and their interrelationships in hormonal regulation of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation remain to be established.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.20639DOI Listing
March 2006

Modulation of tyrosine phosphorylation signalling pathways by 1alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3.

Trends Endocrinol Metab 2005 Aug;16(6):280-7

Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, (8000) Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

Hormonally active vitamin D(3), 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), interacts with the classic vitamin D nuclear receptor that regulates gene transcription and with a putative cell membrane receptor that mediates rapid biological responses. 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) actions on target tissues regulate: mineral metabolism and intracellular Ca(2+); protein kinase cascades leading to cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis; muscle growth and contractility; and the immune system. There is evidence for underlying 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated protein tyrosine phosphorylation signalling in bone, intestine, muscle, epidermal and cancer cells. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases-1/2, p38 and/or c-jun N-terminal kinase pathways play important roles in mediating 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) actions. Studies to elucidate key regulatory metabolic steps and crosstalk sites in these pathways would enhance our understanding of the significance of tyrosine phosphorylation cascades in normal 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2005.06.003DOI Listing
August 2005

Age-related changes in the response of intestinal cells to parathyroid hormone.

Mech Ageing Dev 2004 Dec;125(12):877-88

Dpto. Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, San Juan 670, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

The concept of the role(s) of parathyroid hormone (PTH), has expanded from that on acting on the classical target tissues, bone and kidney, to the intestine where its actions are of regulatory and developmental importance: regulation of intracellular calcium through modulation of second messengers and, activation of mitogenic cascades leading to cell proliferation. Several causes have been postulated to modify the hormone response in intestinal cells with ageing, among them, alterations of PTH receptor (PTHR1) binding sites, reduced expression of G proteins and hormone signal transduction changes. The current review summarizes the actual knowledge regarding the molecular and biochemical basis of age-impaired PTH receptor-mediated signaling in intestinal cells. A fundamental understanding of why PTH functions are impaired with age will enhance our understanding of its importance in intestinal cell physiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mad.2004.05.008DOI Listing
December 2004

PTH and phospholipase A2 in the aging process of intestinal cells.

J Cell Biochem 2004 Oct;93(2):312-26

Departamento de Biologia, Bioquímica & Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahia Blanca, Argentina.

In this study we analyzed, for the first time, alterations in phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and response to parathyroid hormone (PTH) in rat enterocytes with aging. We found that PTH, rapidly stimulate arachidonic acid (AA) release in rat duodenal cells (+1- to 2-fold), an effect that is greatly potentiated by aging (+4-fold). We also found that hormone-induced AA release in young animals is Ca2+-dependent via cPLA2, while AA released by PTH in cells from aged rats is due to the activation of cPLA2 and the Ca2+-independent PLA2 (iPLA2). In enterocytes from 3 months old rats, PTH induced, in a time and dose-dependent fashion, the phosphorylation of cPLA2 on serine 505, with a maximum at 10 min (+7-fold). Basal levels of cPLA2 serine-phosphorylation were higher in old enterocytes, affecting the hormone response which was greatly diminished (+2-fold at 10 min). cPLA2 phosphorylation impairment in old animals was not related to changes of cPLA2 protein expression and did not explain the substantial increase on PTH-induced AA release with aging, further suggesting the involvement of a different PLA2 isoform. Intracellular Ca2+ chelation (BAPTA-AM, 5 microM) suppressed the serine phosphorylation of cPLA2 in both, young and aged rats, demonstrating that intracellular Ca2+ is required for full activation of cPLA2 in enterocytes stimulated with PTH. Hormone effect on cPLA2 was suppressed to a great extent by the MAP kinases ERK 1 and ERK2 inhibitor, PD 98059 (20 microM), the cAMP antagonist, Rp-cAMP, and the PKC inhibitor Ro31820 both, in young and aged animals. Enterocytes exposure to PTH also resulted in phospho-cPLA2 translocation from cytosol to nuclei and membrane fractions, where phospholipase substrates reside. Hormone-induced enzyme translocation is also modified by aging where, in contrast to young animals, part of phospho-cPLA2 remained cytosolic. Collectively, these data suggest that PTH activates in duodenal cells, a Ca2+-dependent cytosolic PLA2 and attendant AA release and that this activation requires prior stimulation of intracellular ERK1/2, PKA, and PKC. cPLA2 is the major enzyme responsible for AA release in young enterocytes while cPLA2 and the Ca2+-independent iPLA2, potentiate PTH-induced AA release in aged cells. Impairment of PTH activation of PLA2 isoforms upon aging may result in abnormal hormone regulation of membrane fluidity and permeability and thereby affecting intestinal cell membrane function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.20158DOI Listing
October 2004