Publications by authors named "Ana Peixoto"

74 Publications

Next Generation Sequencing of Tumor and Matched Plasma Samples: Identification of Somatic Variants in ctDNA From Ovarian Cancer Patients.

Front Oncol 2021 30;11:754094. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Cancer Genetics Group, Instituto Português de Oncologia (IPO)-Porto Research Center (CI-IPOP), Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (IPO-Porto), Porto, Portugal.

Genetic testing to detect somatic alterations is usually performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples. However, tumor molecular profiling through ctDNA analysis may be particularly interesting with the emergence of targeted therapies for ovarian cancer (OC), mainly when tumor is not available and biopsy is not viable, also allowing representation of multiple neoplastic subclones. Using a custom panel of 27 genes, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on tumor and matched plasma samples from 96 OC patients, which were combined in two groups (treatment naive and post-treatment). Overall, at least one somatic variant present in the tumor sample was also detected in the matched plasma sample in 35.6% of the patients, a percentage that increased to 69.6% of the treatment naive patients and 83.3% of those with stage IV disease, showing the potential of ctDNA analysis as an alternative to identify somatic variants in these patients, namely those that have predictive value for targeted therapy. In fact, of the two treatment-naive patients with somatic variants identified in tumor samples, in one of them we detected in ctDNA a somatic variant that was present in the tumor with a VAF of 53%, but not in the one that had a VAF of 5.4%. We also showed that ctDNA analysis has a complementary role to molecular unraveling of inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity, as exemplified by one patient diagnosed with bilateral OC in which different somatic variants from both tumors were detected in ctDNA. Interestingly, as these bilateral tumors shared a rare combination of two of the three variants identified in ctDNA, we could conclude that these morphologically different tumors were clonally related and not synchronous independent neoplasias. Moreover, in the post-treatment group of patients with plasma samples collected after surgery, those with detectable somatic variants had poor prognosis when compared with patients with no detectable somatic variants, highlighting the potential of ctDNA analysis to identify patients at higher risk of recurrence. Concluding, this study demonstrated that somatic variants can be detected in plasma samples of a significant proportion of OC patients, supporting the use of NGS-based ctDNA testing for noninvasive tumor molecular profiling and to stratify patients according to prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.754094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8515058PMC
September 2021

Body Weight and Muscle Thickness Changes after Hemodialysis: A Pilot Study with Bayesian Approach.

Clin Med Res 2021 Sep;19(3):138-140

Integrative Physiology Research Center, Research Group in Neuromuscular Physiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Jequie, Bahia, Brazil

Maintaining adequate body water balance is one aim of hemodialysis that is obtained by changing the blood volume. However, it is known that volume withdrawal is followed by water redistribution between extra- and intra-cellular spaces. In this context, the skeletal muscle tissue represents almost 50% of the total body mass, and like other soft tissues, consists of about 70%-80% water. Body weight is the main parameter used to monitor the body water change after a hemodialysis session, but it does not allow inferring about the water redistribution between extra and intracellular spaces. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the immediate impact of hemodialysis on body weight and the thickness of the rectus femoris muscle. Fifteen male patients with end-stage renal disease took part in the study. Muscle thickness, measured with ultrasound imaging, and body weight and were measured before (Pre) and after (Post) (within 5 to 10 minutes after) an hemodialysis session. Paired t-test was used to compare Pre and Post measures, and Bayesian analysis was applied to check the probability to replicate the same results (ie, the magnitude of the evidence). Our results indicated that body weight, but not rectus femoris muscle thickness, is significantly reduced immediately after hemodialysis. The rectus femoris muscle thickness seems not to be a reliable parameter to infer water redistribution after hemodialysis session.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3121/cmr.2021.1569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8445660PMC
September 2021

Purification, Characterization, and Assessment of Antimicrobial Activity and Toxicity of Portulaca elatior Leaf Lectin (PeLL).

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2021 Aug 21. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins with several bioactivities, including antimicrobial properties. Portulaca elatior is a species found at Brazilian Caatinga and data on the biochemical composition of this plant are scarce. The present work describes the purification of P. elatior leaf lectin (PeLL) as well as the assessment of its antimicrobial activity and toxicity. PeLL, isolated by chromatography on a chitin column, had native liquid charge and subunit composition evaluated by electrophoresis. Hemagglutinating activity (HA) of PeLL was determined in the presence of carbohydrates or divalent cations, as well as after heating and incubation at different pH values. Changes in the lectin conformation were monitored by evaluating intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and using the extrinsic probe bis-ANS. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Pectobacterium strains and Candida species. The minimal inhibitory (MIC), bactericidal (MBC), and fungicidal (MFC) concentrations were determined. Finally, PeLL was evaluated for in vitro hemolytic activity in human erythrocytes and in vivo acute toxicity in mice (5 and 10 mg/kg b.w. per os). PeLL (pI 5.4; 20 kDa) had its HA was inhibited by mannose, galactose, Ca, Mg, and Mn. PeLL HA was resistant to heating at 100 °C, although conformational changes were detected. PeLL was more active in the acidic pH range, in which no conformational changes were observed. The lectin presented MIC and MBC of 0.185 and 0.74 μg/mL for all Pectobacterium strains, respectively; MIC of 1.48 μg/mL for C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei; MIC and MFC of 0.74 and 2.96 μg/mL for C. parapsilosis. No hemolytic activity or signs of acute toxicity were observed in the mice. In conclusion, a new, low-toxic, and thermostable lectin was isolated from P. elatior leaves, being the first plant compound to show antibacterial activity against Pectobacterium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-021-09837-wDOI Listing
August 2021

Prophylactic Dendritic Cell Vaccination in Experimental Breast Cancer Controls Immunity and Hepatic Metastases.

Anticancer Res 2021 Jul;41(7):3419-3427

Oncology Research Institute (Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia, IPON), Federal University of the Triangulo Mineiro (Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, UFTM), Uberaba, MG, Brazil;

Background/aim: Liver metastases are among the principal mortality causes in cancer patients. Dendritic cell immunotherapies have shown promising results in some tumors by mediating immunological mechanisms that could be involved in liver metastases during primary tumor growth. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of prophylactic dendritic cell vaccination on the liver of mice with 4T1 mouse breast carcinoma.

Materials And Methods: Adult female Balb/c mice were submitted or not to vaccination with dendritic cells before the induction of 4T1 tumor lineage. Liver tissues from mice were analyzed by flow cytometry (markers CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, TNF-α, IFN-γ, T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and FoxP3) and hematoxylin-eosin. The dendritic cell vaccine was differentiated and matured ex vivo from the bone marrow.

Results: Prophylactic vaccination reduced areas of liver metastases (p=0.0049), induced an increase in the percentage of total T and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (p<0.0001), as well as FoxP3 (p<0.0001). It also increased the levels of cytokines IL-10 and IL-17 in helper T lymphocytes (p<0.0001).

Conclusion: The prophylactic dendritic cell vaccine changed the cell phenotype in the immune response of liver, and it was able to reduce metastases. Cytotoxic T cells and regulatory T lymphocytes were more present, likewise, the production of IL-10 and IL-7 simultaneously, demonstrating that the vaccine can induce a state of control of pro-inflammatory responses, which can provide a less favorable environment for metastatic tumor growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.15129DOI Listing
July 2021

MULTIPLE EVANESCENT WHITE DOT SYNDROME MASQUERADER.

Retin Cases Brief Rep 2021 Sep;15(Suppl 1):S45-S48

Department of Ophthalmology, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICB.0000000000001156DOI Listing
September 2021

Assessment of main complications of regional anesthesia recorded in an acute pain unit in a tertiary care university hospital: a retrospective cohort.

Braz J Anesthesiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Hospital Universitário São João, Departamento de Anestesiologia, Porto, Portugal.

Background: Regional anesthesia has been increasingly used. Despite its low number of complications, they are associated with relevant morbidity. This study aims to evaluate the incidence of complications after neuraxial block and peripheral nerve block.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted, and data related to patients submitted to neuraxial block and peripheral nerve block at a tertiary university hospital from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2017 were analyzed.

Results: From 10,838 patients referred to Acute Pain Unit, 1093(10.1%) had side effects or complications: 1039 (11.4%) submitted to neuraxial block and 54 (5.2%) to peripheral nerve block. The most common side effects after neuraxial block were sensory (48.5%) or motor deficits (11.8%), nausea or vomiting (17.5%) and pruritus (8.0%); The most common complications: 3 (0.03%) subcutaneous cell tissue hematoma, 3 (0.03%) epidural abscesses and 1 (0.01%) arachnoiditis. 204 of these patients presented sensory or motor deficits at hospital discharge and needed follow-up. Permanent peripheral nerve injury after neuraxial block had an incidence of 7.7:10,000 (0.08%). The most common side effects after peripheral nerve block were sensory deficits (52%) and 21 patients maintained follow-up due to symptoms persistence after hospital discharge.

Conclusion: Although we found similar incidences of side effects or even lower than those described, major complications after neuraxial block had a higher incidence, particularly epidural abscesses. Despite this, other serious complications, such as spinal hematoma and permanent peripheral nerve injury, are still rare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjane.2021.03.011DOI Listing
April 2021

The Variant C.349A>G Is Associated with Prostate Cancer Risk and Carriers Share a Common Ancestor.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Nov 4;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.

The identification of recurrent founder variants in cancer predisposing genes may have important implications for implementing cost-effective targeted genetic screening strategies. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence and relative risk of the recurrent variant c.349A>G in a series of 462 Portuguese patients with early-onset and/or familial/hereditary prostate cancer (PrCa), as well as in the large multicentre PRACTICAL case-control study comprising 55,162 prostate cancer cases and 36,147 controls. Additionally, we investigated the potential shared ancestry of the carriers by performing identity-by-descent, haplotype and age estimation analyses using high-density SNP data from 70 variant carriers belonging to 11 different populations included in the PRACTICAL consortium. The missense variant c.349A>G was found significantly associated with an increased risk for PrCa (OR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.2). A shared haplotype flanking the variant in all carriers was identified, strongly suggesting a common founder of European origin. Additionally, using two independent statistical algorithms, implemented by DMLE+2.3 and ESTIAGE, we were able to estimate the age of the variant between 2300 and 3125 years. By extending the haplotype analysis to 14 additional carrier families, a shared core haplotype was revealed among all carriers matching the conserved region previously identified in the high-density SNP analysis. These findings are consistent with c.349A>G being a founder variant associated with increased PrCa risk, suggesting its potential usefulness for cost-effective targeted genetic screening in PrCa families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694218PMC
November 2020

The role of TP53 pathogenic variants in early-onset HER2-positive breast cancer.

Fam Cancer 2021 07 14;20(3):173-180. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Genetics, Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072, Porto, Portugal.

Breast cancer is the most frequent event in Li-Fraumeni syndrome associated with germline TP53 variants. Some studies have shown that breast cancers in women with Li-Fraumeni syndrome are commonly HER2-positive, suggesting that HER2 amplification or over-expression in a young woman may be a useful criterion to test for germline variants in the TP53 gene. We assessed the prevalence of germline TP53 variants by Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing in 149 women with HER2-positive breast cancer diagnosed until age 40. The pattern of HER2 amplification was evaluated with dual-probe FISH in a subset of breast carcinomas from patients with germline TP53 variants as compared with those of noncarriers. Among 149 women tested, three presented a deleterious TP53 germline variant (2%), with one patient diagnosed at age 31 and the other two with bilateral breast cancer at ages 29/33 and 28/32, respectively. Three of the 36 patients (8.3%) with the first breast cancer diagnosed at age 31 or younger presented a pathogenic TP53 variant. Additionally, all TP53 deleterious variant carriers had a first degree relative diagnosed with different early-onset cancers (frequently not belonging to the Li-Fraumeni syndrome tumor spectrum) diagnosed at age 45 or younger. Higher levels of HER2 amplification were found in breast carcinomas of TP53 pathogenic variant carriers than in those of noncarriers. Deleterious germline TP53 variants account for a small proportion of early-onset HER2-positive breast cancers, but these seem to have higher HER2 amplification ratios. All TP53 pathogenic variant carriers found in this study had the first breast carcinoma diagnosed at age 31 or younger and a first-degree relative with early-onset cancer. Further studies are needed to clarify if HER2 status in early-onset breast cancer patients, in combination with other personal and/or familial cancer history, is useful to update the TP53 testing criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10689-020-00212-2DOI Listing
July 2021

Gene Panel Tumor Testing in Ovarian Cancer Patients Significantly Increases the Yield of Clinically Actionable Germline Variants beyond /.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Sep 30;12(10). Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Cancer Genetics Group, IPO-Porto Research Center (CI-IPOP), Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (IPO Porto), 4200-072 Porto, Portugal.

Since the approval of PARP inhibitors for the treatment of high-grade serous ovarian cancer, in addition to cancer risk assessment, and genetic testing also has therapeutic implications (germline and somatic variants) and should be offered to these patients at diagnosis, irrespective of family history. However, variants in other genes besides and are associated with ovarian cancer predisposition, which would be missed by a genetic testing aimed only at indication for PARP inhibitor treatment. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the yield of clinically actionable germline variants using next-generation sequencing of a customized panel of 10 genes for the analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from 96 ovarian carcinomas, a strategy that allows the detection of both somatic and germline variants in a single test. In addition to 13.7% of deleterious germline / carriers, we identified 7.4% additional patients with pathogenic germline variants in other genes predisposing for ovarian cancer, namely , and , representing 35% of all pathogenic germline variants. We conclude that the strategy of reflex gene-panel tumor testing enables the identification of clinically actionable germline variants in a significantly higher proportion of ovarian cancer patients, which may be valuable information in patients with advanced disease that have run out of approved therapeutic options. Furthermore, this approach increases the chance to make available genetic counseling, presymptomatic genetic testing, and gynecological cancer prophylaxis to female relatives who turn out to be healthy carriers of deleterious germline variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12102834DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7650720PMC
September 2020

Pathogenicity reclassification of two BRCA1/BRCA2 exonic duplications after identification of genomic breakpoints and tandem orientation.

Cancer Genet 2020 10 11;248-249:18-24. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Genetics, Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino Almeida, Porto 4200-072, Portugal; Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, University of Porto, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar, Porto 4099-003, Portugal. Electronic address:

The genomic consequence and clinical interpretation of large duplications are difficult to infer without determining the location and orientation of the duplicated sequence. We aimed to characterize two intragenic duplications detected in two hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) families, namely BRCA1 exon 4 to 6 and BRCA2 exon 17 to 18, previously detected by multiplex ligation probe amplification and initially classified as variants of unknown significance. Using long range PCR, with duplication-specific primers, we were able to ascertain the genomic breakpoints and observed that the two rearrangements occurred in tandem and in direct orientation. The BRCA1 c.134+440_441+870dup and BRCA2 c.7806-2083_8332-1512dup duplications here identified are predicted to cause frameshifts that create a premature stop codon and were reclassified as pathogenic. Furthermore, both families present phenotypic traits typical of HBOC syndrome. We also observed that the genomic breakpoints of these two duplications occurred within highly homologous Alu elements. Concluding, we characterized two in tandem BRCA1 and BRCA2 duplications that likely occurred by Alu-mediated homologous recombination, allowing identification of the underlying cause of the HBOC syndrome in these families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cancergen.2020.09.001DOI Listing
October 2020

Tumor Testing for Somatic and Germline / Variants in Ovarian Cancer Patients in the Context of Strong Founder Effects.

Front Oncol 2020 31;10:1318. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Genetics, Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (IPO Porto), Porto, Portugal.

Deleterious variants in the genes and homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) status are considered strong predictors of response to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi). The introduction of PARPi in clinical practice for the treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer imposed changes in the molecular diagnosis of / variants. / tumor testing by next-generation sequencing (NGS) can detect simultaneously both somatic and germline variants, allowing the identification of more patients with higher likelihood of benefiting from PARPi. Our main goal was to determine the frequency of somatic and germline / variants in a series of non-mucinous OC, and to define the best strategy to be implemented in a routine diagnostic setting for the screening of germline/somatic variants in these genes, including the c.156_157insAlu Portuguese founder variant. We observed a frequency of 19.3% of deleterious variants, 13.3% germline, and 5.9% somatic. A higher prevalence of pathogenic variants was observed in patients diagnosed with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (23.2%). Considering the frequencies of the c.3331_3334del and the c.2037delinsCC variants observed in this study (73% of all pathogenic germline variants identified) and the limitations of NGS to detect the c.156_157insAlu variant, it might be cost-effective to test for these founder variants with a specific test prior to tumor screening of the entire coding regions of and by NGS in patients of Portuguese ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.01318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7412538PMC
July 2020

Polygenic risk scores and breast and epithelial ovarian cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants.

Genet Med 2020 10 15;22(10):1653-1666. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital, Department of Clinical Genetics, Exeter, UK.

Purpose: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers.

Methods: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort.

Results: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar.

Conclusion: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0862-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7521995PMC
October 2020

Genome-wide association study identifies 32 novel breast cancer susceptibility loci from overall and subtype-specific analyses.

Nat Genet 2020 06 18;52(6):572-581. Epub 2020 May 18.

Molecular Medicine Unit, Fundación Pública Galega de Medicina Xenómica, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0609-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808397PMC
June 2020

The utility of DSM-5 indicators of loss of control eating for the bariatric surgery population.

Eur Eat Disord Rev 2020 07 3;28(4):423-432. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

School of Psychology, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.

Objectives: This study investigated the utility of DSM-5 indicators of loss of control (LOC) eating in adult bariatric surgery patients who presented with binge-eating episodes.

Methods: Participants (all women) were 40 preoperative and 28 postoperative bariatric surgery patients reporting objective binge eating (OBE), 46 preoperative and 52 postoperative with subjective binge-eating (SBE), 53 bulimia nervosa (BN) controls, and 34 binge-eating disorder (BED) controls. Face-to-face Eating Disorder Examination interviews and questionnaires were administered. ANOVA, T-test, χ , and regressions compared the groups in terms of LOC indicators endorsed and to explain disordered eating psychopathology.

Results: The indicator most commonly reported by bariatric patients with OBE was "feeling disgusted" (90% and 75% of pre- and postoperative groups), and the least endorsed was "eating alone" (40 and 28.6%). These indicators were reported by >84.9% of the BN and BED. Bariatric patients (pre- or post-surgery) with OBE only reported a higher number of indicators than patients with SBE only (t(150) = 2.34, p = .021). A higher number of indicators reported were associated with increased eating-related psychopathology (F(1,134) = 31.06, p < .001), but only for the post-surgery patients.

Conclusions: The LOC indicators proposed by DSM-5 need to be refined or revised for the bariatric population. Highlights Bariatric patients endorse fewer LOC indicators than BN or BED during a binge-eating episode. Some of the DSM-5 LOC indicators may not be suited to assess episodes of loss of control eating among bariatric patients. The Higher the number of LOC indicators reported, the higher the eating-related psychopathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/erv.2737DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7942807PMC
July 2020

Transcriptome-wide association study of breast cancer risk by estrogen-receptor status.

Genet Epidemiol 2020 07 1;44(5):442-468. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Previous transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have identified breast cancer risk genes by integrating data from expression quantitative loci and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but analyses of breast cancer subtype-specific associations have been limited. In this study, we conducted a TWAS using gene expression data from GTEx and summary statistics from the hitherto largest GWAS meta-analysis conducted for breast cancer overall, and by estrogen receptor subtypes (ER+ and ER-). We further compared associations with ER+ and ER- subtypes, using a case-only TWAS approach. We also conducted multigene conditional analyses in regions with multiple TWAS associations. Two genes, STXBP4 and HIST2H2BA, were specifically associated with ER+ but not with ER- breast cancer. We further identified 30 TWAS-significant genes associated with overall breast cancer risk, including four that were not identified in previous studies. Conditional analyses identified single independent breast-cancer gene in three of six regions harboring multiple TWAS-significant genes. Our study provides new information on breast cancer genetics and biology, particularly about genomic differences between ER+ and ER- breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987299PMC
July 2020

Nicotinic α7 receptor-induced adenosine release from perisynaptic Schwann cells controls acetylcholine spillover from motor endplates.

J Neurochem 2020 08 23;154(3):263-283. Epub 2020 Feb 23.

Laboratório de Farmacologia e Neurobiologia, Centro de Investigação Farmacológica e Inovação Medicamentosa (MedInUP), ICBAS, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Acetylcholine (ACh) spillover from motor endplates occurs after neuronal firing bursts being potentiated by cholinesterase inhibitors (e.g., neostigmine). Nicotinic α7 receptors (α7nAChR) on perisynaptic Schwann cells (PSCs) can control ACh spillover by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that adenosine might be the gliotransmitter underlying PSCs-nerve terminal communication. Rat isolated hemidiaphragm preparations were used to measure (1) the outflow of [ H]ACh, (2) real-time transmitter exocytosis by video-microscopy with the FM4-64 fluorescent dye, and (3) skeletal muscle contractions during high-frequency (50 Hz) nerve stimulation bursts in the presence of a selective α7nAChR agonist, PNU 282987, or upon inhibition of cholinesterase activity with neostigmine. To confirm our prediction that α7nAChR-mediated effects require direct activation of PSCs, we used fluorescence video-microscopy in the real-time mode to measure PNU 282987-induced [Ca ] transients from Fluo-4 NW loaded PSCs in non-stimulated preparations. The α7nAChR agonist, PNU 282987, decreased nerve-evoked diaphragm tetanic contractions. PNU 282987-induced inhibition was mimicked by neostigmine and results from the reduction of ACh exocytosis measured as decreases in [ H]ACh release and FM4-64 fluorescent dye unloading. Methyllycaconitine blockage of α7nAChR and the fluoroacetate gliotoxin both prevented inhibition of nerve-evoked ACh release and PSCs [Ca ] transients triggered by PNU 282987 and neostigmine. Adenosine deamination, inhibition of the ENT1 nucleoside outflow, and blockage of A receptors prevented PNU 282987-induced inhibition of transmitter release. Data suggest that α7nAChR controls tetanic-induced ACh spillover from the neuromuscular synapse by promoting adenosine outflow from PSCs via ENT1 transporters and retrograde activation of presynaptic A inhibitory receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.14975DOI Listing
August 2020

The Spectrum of Protein Truncating Variants in European Breast Cancer Cases.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 01 26;12(2). Epub 2020 Jan 26.

Institute of Biochemistry and Experimental Oncology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague 12853, Czech Republic.

Germline protein truncating variants (PTVs) in the gene have been associated with a 2-4-fold increased breast cancer risk in case-control studies conducted in different European populations. However, the distribution and the frequency of PTVs in Europe have never been investigated. In the present study, we collected the data of 114 European female breast cancer cases with PTVs ascertained in 20 centers from 13 European countries. We identified 27 different PTVs. The p.Gln1701* PTV is the most common PTV in Northern Europe with a maximum frequency in Finland and a lower relative frequency in Southern Europe. On the contrary, p.Arg1931* seems to be the most common PTV in Southern Europe. We also showed that p.Arg658*, the third most common PTV, is more frequent in Central Europe, and p.Gln498Thrfs*7 is probably a founder variant from Lithuania. Of the 23 rare or unique PTVs, 15 have not been previously reported. We provide here the initial spectrum of PTVs in European breast cancer cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12020292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073216PMC
January 2020

Association of Genomic Domains in and with Prostate Cancer Risk and Aggressiveness.

Cancer Res 2020 02 13;80(3):624-638. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Unité de Prévention et d'Epidémiologie Génétique, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France.

Pathogenic sequence variants (PSV) in or () are associated with increased risk and severity of prostate cancer. We evaluated whether PSVs in were associated with risk of overall prostate cancer or high grade (Gleason 8+) prostate cancer using an international sample of 65 and 171 male PSV carriers with prostate cancer, and 3,388 and 2,880 male PSV carriers without prostate cancer. PSVs in the 3' region of (c.7914+) were significantly associated with elevated risk of prostate cancer compared with reference bin c.1001-c.7913 [HR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-2.52; = 0.001], as well as elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 3.11; 95% CI, 1.63-5.95; = 0.001). c.756-c.1000 was also associated with elevated prostate cancer risk (HR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.71-4.68; = 0.00004) and elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 4.95; 95% CI, 2.12-11.54; = 0.0002). No genotype-phenotype associations were detected for PSVs in . These results demonstrate that specific PSVs may be associated with elevated risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: Aggressive prostate cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers may vary according to the specific BRCA2 mutation inherited by the at-risk individual.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-1840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7553241PMC
February 2020

The :p.Arg658* truncating variant is associated with risk of triple-negative breast cancer.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2019 1;5:38. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

25University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Breast Medical Oncology, Houston, TX USA.

Breast cancer is a common disease partially caused by genetic risk factors. Germline pathogenic variants in DNA repair genes , , , , and are associated with breast cancer risk. , which encodes for a DNA translocase, has been proposed as a breast cancer predisposition gene, with greater effects for the ER-negative and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes. We tested the three recurrent protein-truncating variants :p.Arg658*, p.Gln1701*, and p.Arg1931* for association with breast cancer risk in 67,112 cases, 53,766 controls, and 26,662 carriers of pathogenic variants of or . These three variants were also studied functionally by measuring survival and chromosome fragility in patient-derived immortalized fibroblasts treated with diepoxybutane or olaparib. We observed that :p.Arg658* was associated with increased risk of ER-negative disease and TNBC (OR = 2.44,  = 0.034 and OR = 3.79;  = 0.009, respectively). In a country-restricted analysis, we confirmed the associations detected for :p.Arg658* and found that also :p.Arg1931* was associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk (OR = 1.96;  = 0.006). The functional results indicated that all three variants were deleterious affecting cell survival and chromosome stability with :p.Arg658* causing more severe phenotypes. In conclusion, we confirmed that the two rare deleterious variants p.Arg658* and p.Arg1931* are risk factors for ER-negative and TNBC subtypes. Overall our data suggest that the effect of truncating variants on breast cancer risk may depend on their position in the gene. Cell sensitivity to olaparib exposure, identifies a possible therapeutic option to treat -associated tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-019-0127-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6825205PMC
November 2019

Genome-wide association and transcriptome studies identify target genes and risk loci for breast cancer.

Nat Commun 2019 04 15;10(1):1741. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Molecular Oncology Laboratory, CIBERONC, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, IdISSC (Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos), 28040, Madrid, Spain.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-08053-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6465407PMC
April 2019

The nonsense mutation MSH2 c.2152C>T shows a founder effect in Portuguese Lynch syndrome families.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2019 09 26;58(9):657-664. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Department of Genetics, Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

The mutational spectrum of the MMR genes is highly heterogeneous, but specific mutations are observed at high frequencies in well-defined populations or ethnic groups, due to founder effects. The MSH2 mutation c.2152C>T, p.(Gln718*), has occasionally been described in Lynch families worldwide, including in Portuguese Lynch syndrome families. During genetic testing for Lynch syndrome at the Portuguese Oncology Institutes of Porto and Lisbon, this mutation was identified in 28 seemingly unrelated families. In order to evaluate if this alteration is a founder mutation, haplotype analysis using microsatellite and SNP markers flanking the MSH2 gene was performed in the 28 probands and 87 family members. Additionally, the geographic origin of these families was evaluated and the age of the mutation estimated. Twelve different haplotypes were phased for 13 out of the 28 families and shared a conserved region of ∼3.6 Mb. Based on the mutation and recombination events observed in the microsatellite haplotypes and assuming a generation time of 25 years, the age estimate for the MSH2 mutation was 273 ± 64 years. The geographic origins of these families were mostly from the Northern region of Portugal. Concluding, these results suggest that the MSH2 c.2152C>T alteration is a founder mutation in Portugal with a relatively recent origin. Furthermore, its high proportion indicates that screening for this mutation as a first step, together with the previously reported Portuguese founder mutations, may be cost-effective in genetic testing of Lynch syndrome suspects of Portuguese ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22759DOI Listing
September 2019

Potential clinical applications of circulating cell-free DNA in ovarian cancer patients.

Expert Rev Mol Med 2018 12 18;20:e6. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Cancer Genetics Group,IPO-Porto Research Center (CI-IPOP), Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (IPO-Porto),Porto,Portugal.

Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) consists of small fragments of DNA that circulate freely in the bloodstream. In cancer patients, a fraction of cfDNA is derived from tumour cells, therefore containing the same genetic and epigenetic alterations, and is termed circulating cell-free tumour DNA. The potential use of cfDNA, the so-called 'liquid biopsy', as a non-invasive cancer biomarker has recently received a lot of attention. The present review will focus on studies concerning the potential clinical applications of cfDNA in ovarian cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/erm.2018.5DOI Listing
December 2018

Screening and characterization of BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu in Brazil: Results from 1380 individuals from the South and Southeast.

Cancer Genet 2018 12 6;228-229:93-97. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, R. Antenor Duarte Villela, 1331. Barretos 14784-400, São Paulo, Brazil; Barretos School of Health Science, Dr. Paulo Prata. Av. Loja Maçonica Renovadora, 68. Barretos 14785-002, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Portuguese immigration to Brazil occurred in several waves and greatly contributed to the genetic composition of current Brazilian population. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of a Portuguese founder Alu insertion in BRCA2 exon 3 (c.156_157insAlu) among individuals fulfilling Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) syndrome criteria in 1,380 unrelated families originated from three distinct Brazilian States. We identified the c.156_157insAlu BRCA2 mutation in nine (9/1,380; 0.65%) probands analised. In carrier probands, European ancestry had the highest proportion (80%), followed by the African (10%) and Amerindian and in most families with the rearrangement, haplotype analyses were compatible with the Portuguese ancestral haplotype. In conclusion, the present study reports a low albeit relevant frequency of the Portuguese BRCA2 founder mutation c.156_157insAlu in Brazilian patients at-risk for HBOC Brazilian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cancergen.2018.09.001DOI Listing
December 2018

Separation of Volatile Metabolites from the Leaf-Derived Essential Oil of Kunth (Piperaceae) by High-Speed Countercurrent Chromatography.

Molecules 2018 Nov 23;23(12). Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Instituto de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais (IPPN), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The technique of high-speed countercurrent chromatography was applied to the isolation of compounds in essential oil derived from the leaves of species. Plant leaves (200.0 g) were submitted to hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The resulting crude leaf essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the profile of the components. The purified fractions were composed of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes such as camphor (85.0 mg at 98.5% purity), ()-nerolidol (100.0 mg at 92.8% purity), and camphene (150.0 mg at 82.0% purity). A minor component of the essential oil, bornyl acetate (16.2 mg at 91.2% purity) was also isolated in the one-step separation protocol in 2 h. The countercurrent chromatography technique proved to be a fast and efficient method for the separation of volatile metabolites that conserved the solvent while delivering various fractions of high purity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6321170PMC
November 2018

Tetanic Facilitation of Neuromuscular Transmission by Adenosine A2A and Muscarinic M1 Receptors is Dependent on the Uptake of Choline via High-Affinity Transporters.

Pharmacology 2019 31;103(1-2):38-49. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutic, State University of Maringá, Maringá,

Background/aims: In this study, we evaluated the functional impact of facilitatory presynaptic adenosine A2A and muscarinic M1 receptors in the recovery of neuromuscular tetanic depression caused by the blockage of high-affinity choline transporter (HChT) by hemicholinium-3 (HC-3), a condition that mimics a myasthenia-like condition.

Methods: Rat diaphragm preparations were indirectly stimulated via the phrenic nerve trunk with 50-Hz frequency trains, each consisting of 500-750 supramaximal intensity pulses. The tension at the beginning (A) and at the end (B) of the tetanus was recorded and the ratio (R) B/A calculated.

Results: Activation of A2A and M1 receptors with CGS21680 (CGS; 2 nmol/L) and McN-A-343c (McN; 3 μmol/L) increased R values. Similar facilitatory effects were obtained with forskolin (FSK; 3 μmol/L) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 10 μmol/L), which activate adenylate cyclase and protein kinase C respectively. HC-3 (4 μmol/L) decreased transmitter exocytosis measured by real-time videomicroscopy with the FM4-64 fluorescent dye and prevented the facilitation of neuromuscular transmission caused by CGS, McN, and FSK, with a minor effect on PMA. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, neostigmine (NEO; 0.5 μmol/L), also decreased transmitter exocytosis. The paradoxical neuromuscular tetanic fade caused by NEO (0.5 μmol/L) was also prevented by HC-3 (4 μmol/L) and might result from the rundown of the positive feedback mechanism operated by neuronal nicotinic receptors (blocked by hexamethonium, 120 μmol/L).

Conclusion: Data suggest that the recovery of tetanic neuromuscular facilitation by adenosine A2A and M1 receptors is highly dependent on HChT activity and may be weakened in myasthenic patients when HChT is inoperative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000494058DOI Listing
March 2019

Strategies to Evaluate Bilateral Cleft Lip Treatment.

J Craniofac Surg 2018 Sep;29(6):1457-1462

Martagao Gesteira Hospital, Salvador, Brazil.

Objective: Evaluate treatment of patients with bilateral cleft lip operated during the last 10 years, using the methodology of Mortier and Anastassov.

Methods: A total of 84 patients were evaluated using a preoperative score assessing fissure severity and a postsurgical score assessing of uncorrected or secondary deformities. A pre- and postcorrelation analysis was performed to evaluate the gain and identify the main postoperative alterations, using Spearman's statistical test (P < 0.001).

Results: About 89.3% underwent surgery between 4 and 7 months. Surgical techniques used Millard 65.5% and Mulliken 34.5%. Presurgical evaluation classified fissures as mild (0%), moderate (2.4%), severe (19.1%), or very severe (78.6%). Postoperative evaluation classified results as poor (24%), satisfactory (12%), good (15, 6%), very good (34.6%), or excellent (14.3%). The postoperative changes on the lip were the notch in the vermilion and the defect in the edge of the vermilion, and in the bow of the wide cupid; in the nose, the most frequent were deficiency in the upper nasal nostril, insufficient rotation of the alar base, broad tip, and short columella; in the scar and alveolar portion, the most frequent were alveolar cleft, premaxilla protrusion, and poor scar. Spearman correlation of preoperative and postoperative was positive of 0.43.

Conclusion: The proposed measurement method is technically simple and can be performed without equipment allowing pre- and postoperative evaluation to identify the main alterations to be corrected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000004712DOI Listing
September 2018

Plasmodium vivax Infection Impairs Regulatory T-Cell Suppressive Function During Acute Malaria.

J Infect Dis 2018 09;218(8):1314-1323

Laboratório de Biologia e Imunologia de Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The balance between pro- and antiinflammatory mechanisms is essential to limit immune-mediated pathology, and CD4+ forkhead box P3 (Foxp3+) regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in this process. The expression of inhibitory receptors regulates cytokine production by Plasmodium vivax-specific T cells. Our goal was to assess the induction of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen (CTLA-4) on Treg during malaria and to evaluate their function. We found that P. vivax infection triggered an increase in circulating Treg and their expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1. Functional analysis demonstrated that Treg from malaria patients had impaired suppressive ability and PD-1+Treg displayed lower levels of Foxp3 and Helios, but had higher frequencies of T-box transcription factor+ and interferon-gamma+ cells than PD-1-Treg. Thus malaria infection alters the function of circulating Treg by triggering increased expression of PD-1 on Treg that is associated with decreased regulatory function and increased proinflammatory characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6129110PMC
September 2018

Full in-frame exon 3 skipping of confers high risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer.

Oncotarget 2018 Apr 3;9(25):17334-17348. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Unité Mixte de Génétique Constitutionnelle des Cancers Fréquents, Hospices Civils de Lyon/Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France.

Germline pathogenic variants in the gene are associated with a cumulative high risk of breast/ovarian cancer. Several variants result in complete loss of the exon-3 at the transcript level. The pathogenicity of these variants and the functional impact of loss of exon 3 have yet to be established. As a collaboration of the COVAR clinical trial group (France), and the ENIGMA consortium for investigating breast cancer gene variants, this study evaluated 8 variants resulting in complete deletion of exon 3. Clinical information for 39 families was gathered from Portugal, France, Denmark and Sweden. Multifactorial likelihood analyses were conducted using information from 293 patients, for 7 out of the 8 variants (including 6 intronic). For all variants combined the likelihood ratio in favor of causality was 4.39*10. These results provide convincing evidence for the pathogenicity of all examined variants that lead to a total exon 3 skipping, and suggest that other variants that result in complete loss of exon 3 at the molecular level could be associated with a high risk of cancer comparable to that associated with classical pathogenic variants in or gene. In addition, our functional study shows, for the first time, that deletion of exon 3 impairs the ability of cells to survive upon Mitomycin-C treatment, supporting lack of function for the altered BRCA2 protein in these cells. Finally, this study demonstrates that any variant leading to expression of only delta-exon 3 will be associated with an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.24671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915120PMC
April 2018

Targeted next generation sequencing identifies functionally deleterious germline mutations in novel genes in early-onset/familial prostate cancer.

PLoS Genet 2018 04 16;14(4):e1007355. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Cancer Genetics Group, IPO Porto Research Center (CI-IPOP), Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (IPO Porto), Porto, Portugal.

Considering that mutations in known prostate cancer (PrCa) predisposition genes, including those responsible for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer and Lynch syndromes, explain less than 5% of early-onset/familial PrCa, we have sequenced 94 genes associated with cancer predisposition using next generation sequencing (NGS) in a series of 121 PrCa patients. We found monoallelic truncating/functionally deleterious mutations in seven genes, including ATM and CHEK2, which have previously been associated with PrCa predisposition, and five new candidate PrCa associated genes involved in cancer predisposing recessive disorders, namely RAD51C, FANCD2, FANCI, CEP57 and RECQL4. Furthermore, using in silico pathogenicity prediction of missense variants among 18 genes associated with breast/ovarian cancer and/or Lynch syndrome, followed by KASP genotyping in 710 healthy controls, we identified "likely pathogenic" missense variants in ATM, BRIP1, CHEK2 and TP53. In conclusion, this study has identified putative PrCa predisposing germline mutations in 14.9% of early-onset/familial PrCa patients. Further data will be necessary to confirm the genetic heterogeneity of inherited PrCa predisposition hinted in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1007355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5919682PMC
April 2018

Mutational spectrum in a worldwide study of 29,700 families with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations.

Hum Mutat 2018 05 12;39(5):593-620. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Toronto, Canada.

The prevalence and spectrum of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been reported in single populations, with the majority of reports focused on White in Europe and North America. The Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) has assembled data on 18,435 families with BRCA1 mutations and 11,351 families with BRCA2 mutations ascertained from 69 centers in 49 countries on six continents. This study comprehensively describes the characteristics of the 1,650 unique BRCA1 and 1,731 unique BRCA2 deleterious (disease-associated) mutations identified in the CIMBA database. We observed substantial variation in mutation type and frequency by geographical region and race/ethnicity. In addition to known founder mutations, mutations of relatively high frequency were identified in specific racial/ethnic or geographic groups that may reflect founder mutations and which could be used in targeted (panel) first pass genotyping for specific populations. Knowledge of the population-specific mutational spectrum in BRCA1 and BRCA2 could inform efficient strategies for genetic testing and may justify a more broad-based oncogenetic testing in some populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5903938PMC
May 2018
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