Publications by authors named "Ana Paula Pires Dos Santos"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

One year of unsolicited e-mails: the modus operandi of predatory journals and publishers.

J Dent 2021 Feb 23:103618. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: To quantify, characterize and analyze e-mail from predatory journals (PJ) received by an academic in dentistry.

Methods: E-mails received in 2019 and suspected of being potentially predatory were pre-selected. The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (OHRI) checklist was applied to identify the suspected biomedical PJ, including the following criteria: article processing charge (APC), fake impact factor, the journal being listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) and the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). We also extracted information on the lack of an impact factor on Journal Citations Reports, non-journal affiliated contact e-mail address, flattering language, article and/or personal citation, unsubscribe link, being listed in the National Library of Medicine (NLM) current catalog and indexed on Medline.

Results: A total of 2,812 unsolicited suspected e-mails were received, and 1,837 requested some sort of manuscript; among these, 1,751 met some of the OHRI criteria. Less than half (780/1,837, 42%) referred to some area of dentistry. The median APC was US$399. A false impact factor was mentioned in 11% (201/1,837) of the e-mails, and 27% (504/1,837) corresponded to journals currently listed in the NLM catalog. Journals listed in DOAJ and COPE sent 89 e-mails.

Conclusions: The email campaign from PJs was high and recurrent. Researchers should be well informed about PJs' modus operandi to protect their own reputation as authors and that of science.

Clinical Significance: Peer review and established academic practices and etiquette contribute to ensuring scientific progress, which is essential to protect the health of patients in particular and of people in general. Predatory journals constitute a threat to peer review and scientific etiquette and, as such, may hinder scientific progress and public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2021.103618DOI Listing
February 2021

Prevalence of dental anxiety in children and adolescents globally: A systematic review with meta-analyses.

Int J Paediatr Dent 2021 Mar 9;31(2):168-183. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Rio de Janeiro State University - UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background: Dental anxiety (DA) negatively impacts oral health-related quality of life, and patients with DA usually require more dental treatment time.

Aim: To describe the global prevalence of DA in children and adolescents and to examine the influence of individual factors (age, sex, and caries experience) and variables related to DA measurement on pooled prevalence.

Design: Systematic review with meta-analyses of observational studies published between 1985 and 2020 (PROSPERO CRD42014013879).

Results: Searches yielded 1207 unique records; 224 full-text articles were screened, and 50 studies were used in the qualitative and quantitative synthesis. No study was considered as having high methodological quality according to 'The Joanna Briggs Institute assessment tool'. Overall pooled DA prevalence was 23.9% (95% CI 20.4, 27.3). Pooled prevalence in preschoolers, schoolchildren, and adolescents was as follows: 36.5% (95% CI 23.8, 49.2), 25.8% (95% CI 19.5, 32.1), and 13.3% (95% CI 9.5, 17.0), respectively. DA was significantly more prevalent in preschool children (one study) and schoolchildren (two studies) with caries experience and in female adolescents (one study). The scale used for DA assessment was shown to influence pooled prevalence in preschoolers and adolescents.

Conclusion: DA is a frequent problem in 3- to 18-year-olds worldwide, more prevalent in schoolchildren and preschool children than in adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ipd.12712DOI Listing
March 2021

Reference is not evidence.

Int J Paediatr Dent 2020 Nov;30(6):661-663

Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Social Medicine, University of the State of Rio de Janeiro - UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ipd.12736DOI Listing
November 2020

Risk communication in the context of clinical research.

Braz Oral Res 2020 7;34 Suppl 2:e078. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Departamento de Odontologia Preventiva e Comunitária, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

Physicians and dentists usually make clinical decisions and recommendations without a clear understanding of the meaning of the numbers regarding the accuracy of diagnostic tests and the efficacy of treatments. This critical review aimed to identify problems in the communication of diagnostic test accuracy and treatment benefits and to suggest strategies to improve risk communication in these contexts. Most clinical decisions are taken under uncertainty. Health professionals cannot predict the outcome in one individual patient. This uncertainty invites these professionals to make decisions based on heuristics, which gives rise to several cognitive biases. Cognitive biases are automatic and unconscious, so how is it possible to mitigate their undesirable effects on risk interpretation in the context of clinical practice? Some forms of risk communication reinforce cognitive bias, while others weaken them. Maybe one of the most difficult obstacles to overcome is the difficulty to think with numbers. This difficulty probably arises from a mismatch of ancestral adaptations of the brain having to deal with modern environments, which are quite different from the ancestral ones. There are two quite common, but bad, forms of risk communication: the conditional probability and the relative risk reduction or efficacy. People, including physicians and dentists, are confused with this kind of information. The main methods discovered so far to facilitate a clearer understanding are to emphasize the base rates of the events and to use absolute numbers, that is to use natural frequencies, instead of percentages and conditional probabilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107bor-2020.vol34.0078DOI Listing
September 2020

Strategies to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic.

Braz Oral Res 2020 Jun 24;34:e068. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro - UERJ, Faculdade de Odontologia, Departamento de Odontologia Preventiva e Comunitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

The World Health Organization declared a COVID-19 pandemic on March 11, 2020, when there were 4,293 confirmed cumulative deaths. By May 17, 2020 this number increased to 315,005. The risk of death is higher above the age of 60, but there are many deaths below 60 (for example, in Sao Paulo, 25%). Due to the lack of a vaccine or specific treatment, there are at least three types of interventions used in the first wave of this pandemic: increased alertness and hygiene (e.g. Sweden); identification and isolation of infected people and their contacts (e.g. South Korea); lockdown (e.g. Italy). These interventions are complementary. Choices of the right mix of interventions will vary from society to society and in the same society at different times. The search for a miracle drug is dangerous because it is based on the mistaken belief that any treatment option is better than "nothing". Brazilian society will not be able to maintain lockdown for a long period. Naturally, in the near future, regardless of the advice from scientists, doctors and authorities, commerce, services and schools will reopen. In order to implement any strategy aimed to control the pandemic and preserve the economy, the country needs leadership that centralizes and coordinates actions. Unfortunately, the Brazilian government is not fulfilling this role; on the contrary, it is a hindrance. This negative leadership and lack of coordination are causing many deaths and are severely damaging the lives of survivors by delaying the resuming of economic and social activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107bor-2020.vol34.0068DOI Listing
June 2020

Fluoride Varnish and Dental Caries in Preschoolers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Caries Res 2019 20;53(5):502-513. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of fluoride varnish (FV) in reducing dentine caries at the patient, tooth, and surface levels as well as caries-related hospitalizations in preschoolers. We performed a systematic review of clinical trials of FV, alone or associated with an oral health program, compared with placebo, usual care, or no intervention. Bibliographical search included electronic searches of seven databases, registers of ongoing trials, and meeting abstracts, as well as hand searching. We performed random-effects meta-analyses and calculated confidence and prediction intervals. The search yielded 2,441 records; 20 trials were included in the review and 17 in at least one meta-analysis. Only one study had low risk of bias in all domains. We found no study reporting on caries-related hospitalizations. At the individual level, the pooled relative risk was 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81, 0.95); this means that in a population of preschool children with 50% caries incidence, we need to apply fluoride varnish in 17 children to avoid new caries in one child. At the tooth level, the pooled weighted mean difference was -0.30 (95% CI -0.69, 0.09) and at the surface level -0.77 (95% CI -1.23, -0.31). Considering the prediction intervals, none of the pooled estimates were statistically significant. We conclude that FV showed a modest and uncertain anticaries effect in preschoolers. Cost-effectiveness analyses are needed to assess whether FV should be adopted or abandoned by dental services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000499639DOI Listing
July 2020

Prevalence of self-reported gingival bleeding in a representative sample of the Brazilian adolescent population.

J Clin Periodontol 2018 08 19;45(8):952-958. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Instituto de Estudos em Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Aim: To estimate the prevalence of self-reported gingival bleeding in a representative sample of 12- to 17-year-old Brazilian adolescents.

Materials And Methods: Sociodemographic and oral health information were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire of the Study of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents. The adolescents answered "yes" or "no" to the question "Do your gums bleed?"

Results: 74,589 of the 102,327 eligible adolescents answered the questionnaire and 18.4% (95% CI 17.5-19.3) reported having bleeding gums. The prevalence of self-reported gingival bleeding varied as following: 21.4% (95% CI 20.3-22.6) in girls and 15.3% (95% CI 14.3-16.4) in boys; 20.5% (95% CI 19.2-21.8) in older and 17.5% (95% CI 16.4-18.6) in younger adolescents; 20.6% (95% CI 18.5-22.9) in Black people and 17.1% (95% CI 16.1-18.1) in White people. Regarding mother's level of education, the prevalences were 18.1% (95% CI 16.2-20.3), 17.6% (95% CI 16.4-18.9) and 19.3% (95% CI 17.9-20.9) for high, middle and low levels, respectively. For socioeconomic status, the equivalent figures were 16.4% (95% CI 14.3-18.7), 18.4% (95% CI 17.5-19.4) and 23.0% (95% CI 17.3-29.9).

Conclusion: Nearly one in five Brazilian adolescents reported having gingival bleeding, which might not be a serious condition, but reflect the disease and the adolescents' perception of oral health status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12959DOI Listing
August 2018

Clinical accuracy data presented as natural frequencies improve dentists' caries diagnostic inference: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial.

J Am Dent Assoc 2018 Jan;149(1):18-24

Background: The authors assessed whether dentists' diagnostic inferences differ when test accuracy information is communicated using natural frequencies versus conditional probabilities.

Methods: A parallel, randomized controlled trial with dentists was carried out in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The dentists received a question on the probability of a patient having interproximal caries, given a positive bite-wing radiograph. This question was asked using information that was formulated into either natural frequencies or conditional probabilities.

Results: Only 14 (13.9%) of the dentists gave the correct answer; 13 in the natural frequencies group, and 1 in the conditional probabilities group (P < .001). There were 7 nearly correct answers in the natural frequencies group and none in the conditional probabilities group (P = .005).

Conclusions: Representing diagnostic test accuracy in natural frequencies substantially helped dentists make diagnostic inferences. Nearly twice as many dentists overestimated the presence of interproximal caries when given information in conditional probabilities.

Practical Implications: Our study findings show information shared using natural frequencies may be more accurately interpreted by dentists than that based on conditional probabilities. Patients will probably receive different standards of care depending on the format in which dentists receive diagnostic test accuracy information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adaj.2017.08.006DOI Listing
January 2018

A systematic review of the effects of supervised toothbrushing on caries incidence in children and adolescents.

Int J Paediatr Dent 2018 Jan 21;28(1):3-11. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Social Medicine, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background: The anticaries effect of supervised toothbrushing, irrespective of the effect of fluoride toothpaste, has not been clearly determined yet.

Aim: To assess the effects of supervised toothbrushing on caries incidence in children and adolescents.

Design: A systematic review of controlled trials was performed (CRD42014013879). Electronic and hand searches retrieved 2046 records, 112 of which were read in full and independently assessed by two reviewers, who collected data regarding characteristics of participants, interventions, outcomes, length of follow-up and risk of bias.

Results: Four trials were included and none of them had low risk of bias. They were all carried out in schools, but there was great variation regarding children's age, fluoride content of the toothpaste, baseline caries levels and the way caries incidence was reported. Among the four trials, two found statistically significant differences favouring supervised toothbrushing, but information about the magnitude and/or the precision of the effect estimate was lacking and in one trial clustering effect was not taken into consideration. No meta-analysis was performed due to the clinical heterogeneity among the included studies and differences in the reporting of data.

Conclusions: There is no conclusive evidence regarding the effectiveness of supervised toothbrushing on caries incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ipd.12334DOI Listing
January 2018

Children's Toothbrushing Practices Recommended on the Internet by Pediatric Dentistry Associations.

Pediatr Dent 2016 Nov;38(7):484-488

Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe online recommendations by North and South American National Associations of Pediatric Dentistry (NAPD), intended for laypersons, concerning children's toothbrushing practices.

Methods: In February 2015, the International Association of Pediatric Dentistry (IAPD) website and the Latin American Association of Pediatric Dentistry (ALOP) Facebook webpage were searched to identify which countries had NAPD. Attempts were made to obtain the electronic addresses of ALOP national member societies, and Google and Facebook were used to identify NAPD not found using the previous strategies.

Results: Of the 35 countries in North and South America, 19 had NAPD that were shown on the Internet, and 11 of them provided data for the study. All NAPD gave advice on fluoride concentrations in toothpaste and when to start toothbrushing; most made recommendations on the amount of toothpaste, toothbrushing frequency, and when to brush, and a few gave advice on toothbrushing supervision and rinsing after toothbrushing. There was no consensus on most of the recommendations that were evaluated.

Conclusions: Only a few National Associations of Pediatric Dentistry from the Americas provide online information for parents and laypersons concerning children's toothbrushing practices. Of the information provided, some are either controversial, outdated or lack scientific evidence.
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November 2016

Fluoride Varnish Applications in Preschoolers and Dental Fluorosis in Permanent Incisors: Results of a Nested-cohort Study Within a Clinical Trial.

Pediatr Dent 2016 Oct;38(5):414-418

Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Rio de Janeiro State University, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Purpose: To compare the prevalence and severity of fluorosis in the permanent maxillary incisors of children who had participated in a two-year randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial on fluoride varnish application in the primary dentition and to assess children's esthetic perception of their teeth.

Methods: Parents of 200 one- to four-year-old children who had received biannual applications of fluoride or placebo varnish were contacted four years after the end of the trial. Two calibrated examiners assessed dental fluorosis using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index (TF) and interviewed the children regarding their perceptions of teeth appearance.

Results: Fluorosis (TF equals at least one) and esthetically objectionable fluorosis (TF equals at least three) were observed in 38 (30.9 percent) and eight (6.5 percent) children, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in fluorosis prevalence between children who had received fluoride or placebo varnish. Children's responses regarding the esthetic perceptions of their teeth showed no statistically significant difference between children with and without fluorosis.

Conclusions: Fluoride varnish applications in preschoolers were not associated with any level of fluorosis in their permanent maxillary incisors. The fluorosis found in this study did not influence the children's esthetic perception of their teeth.
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October 2016

Semiannual Fluoride Applications in Low-Risk Toddlers May Not Be More Effective Than Toothbrushing Instruction and Dietary Counseling in Controlling Dental Caries.

J Evid Based Dent Pract 2016 12 12;16(4):246-248. Epub 2016 Nov 12.

Article Title And Bibliographic Information: Effectiveness of early preventive intervention with semiannual fluoride varnish application in toddlers living in high-risk areas: A stratified cluster-randomized controlled trial. Anderson M, Dahlöf G, Twetman S, Jansson L, Bergenlid AC, Grindefjord M. Caries Res 2016;50(1):17-23.

Source Of Funding: The study was commissioned and supported by Stockholm County Council and Karolinska Institutet.

Type Of Study/design: Non-blinded, cluster-randomized controlled field trial with two parallel arms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebdp.2016.11.006DOI Listing
December 2016

Are fluoride releasing dental materials clinically effective on caries control?

Dent Mater 2016 Mar 6;32(3):323-33. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

Piracicaba Dental School, UNICAMP, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: (1) To describe caries lesions development and the role of fluoride in controlling disease progression; (2) to evaluate whether the use of fluoride-releasing pit and fissure sealants, bonding orthodontic agents and restorative materials, in comparison to a non-fluoride releasing material, reduces caries incidence in children or adults, and (3) to discuss how the anti-caries properties of these materials have been evaluated in vitro and in situ.

Methods: The search was performed on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and on Medline via Pubmed.

Results: Caries is a biofilm-sugar dependent disease and as such it provokes progressive destruction of mineral structure of any dental surface - intact, sealed or restored - where biofilm remains accumulated and is regularly exposed to sugar. The mechanism of action of fluoride released from dental materials on caries is similar to that of fluoride found in dentifrices or other vehicles of fluoride delivery. Fluoride-releasing materials are unable to interfere with the formation of biofilm on dental surfaces adjacent to them or to inhibit acid production by dental biofilms. However, the fluoride released slows down the progression of caries lesions in tooth surfaces adjacent to dental materials. This effect has been clearly shown by in vitro and in situ studies but not in randomized clinical trials.

Significance: The anti-caries effect of fluoride releasing materials is still not based on clinical evidence, and, in addition, it can be overwhelmed by fluoride delivered from dentifrices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2015.12.002DOI Listing
March 2016

Letter to the editor.

J Evid Based Dent Pract 2014 Jun 13;14(2):97-8. Epub 2014 Apr 13.

Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Social Medicine, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebdp.2014.04.028DOI Listing
June 2014

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of fluoride toothpastes on the prevention of dental caries in the primary dentition of preschool children.

Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2013 Feb;41(1):1-12

Objectives: To assess the effects of fluoride (F) toothpastes on the prevention of dental caries in the primary dentition of preschool children.

Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: A search for randomized or quasi-randomized clinical trials was carried out, without idiom restraints, in six electronic databases, registers of ongoing trials, meeting abstracts, dentistry journals and reference lists of potentially eligible studies. The search yielded 1932 records and 159 full-text articles were independently read by two examiners. Data regarding characteristics of participants, interventions, outcomes, length of follow-up and potential of bias were independently extracted by two examiners on the basis of predetermined criteria. Any disagreement was solved by consensus after consulting a third examiner. Pooled prevented fractions (PF) and relative risks (RR) were estimated separately for studies testing low F toothpastes (<600 ppm) and those testing standard F toothpastes (1000–1500 ppm).

Results: Eight clinical trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria and most of them compared F toothpastes associated with oral health education against no intervention. When standard F toothpastes were compared to placebo or no intervention, significant caries reduction at surface (PF = 31%; 95% CI 18–43; 2644 participants in five studies), tooth (PF = 16%; 95% CI 8–25; 2555 participants in one study) and individual (RR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.81–0.93; 2806 participants in two studies) level were observed. Low F toothpastes were effective only at surface level (PF = 40%; 95% CI 5–75; 561 participants in two studies).

Conclusion: Standard F toothpastes are effective in reducing dental caries in the primary teeth of preschool children and thus their use should be recommended to this age group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.2012.00708.xDOI Listing
February 2013

Inconsistencies in recommendations on oral hygiene practices for children by professional dental and paediatric organisations in ten countries.

Int J Paediatr Dent 2011 May 20;21(3):223-31. Epub 2011 Feb 20.

Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Social Medicine, University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Background: Some of the basic dental health practices that are recommended to the public by professionals are not evidence based. Incorrect oral health messages may adversely affect children's oral health behaviours.

Aim: To identify and list the recommendations concerning children's oral hygiene practices provided by dental and paediatric organisations, and to assess how these recommendations relate to the scientific evidence currently available.

Design: Cross-sectional. The authors contacted professional organisations in ten countries requesting items (brochures, leaflets or folders) containing messages on children's oral hygiene practices. They then listed these recommendations and assessed how they related to scientific evidence obtained from systematic reviews available at PubMed and the Cochrane Library.

Results: Fifty-two of 59 (88%) organisations responded to our request and 24 dental health education materials were submitted to the authors. They mentioned recommendations on oral hygiene practices for children, such as toothbrushing frequency, supervision and technique; when to start and how long toothbrushing should last; toothbrush design and replacement; flossing; gums/teeth wiping; tongue cleaning; type and amount of toothpaste and advice on toothpaste ingestion. The search at PubMed and the Cochrane Library resulted in 11 systematic reviews addressing these topics.

Conclusions: Several oral hygiene messages delivered by professional organisations showed inconsistencies and lacked scientific support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-263X.2011.01115.xDOI Listing
May 2011

Survey of Brazilian governmental health agencies shows conflicting recommendations concerning oral hygiene practices for children.

Cad Saude Publica 2010 Jul;26(7):1457-63

Instituto de Medicina Social, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The aims of this study were to detect whether recommendations concerning oral hygiene practices for children among Brazilian health agencies are consistent and to verify whether possible inconsistencies in these recommendations might be associated with an apparent gap in the scientific evidence. Fifty-four Brazilian health agencies were contacted by mail or electronic mail and were asked to send any material containing recommendations on oral hygiene practices aimed at children. A search was subsequently carried out on the Cochrane Oral Health Review Group and PubMed-Clinical Queries websites in order to assess the scientific evidence available on this subject. Forty (74%) agencies answered and 21 materials containing oral hygiene recommendations were obtained. Eleven pertinent systematic reviews were identified. This preliminary study detected some conflicting and not evidence-based oral hygiene messages, which emphasizes the need to carry out and disseminate systematic reviews on these controversial issues in order to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-311x2010000700025DOI Listing
July 2010

Amelogenesis imperfecta: report of a successful transitional treatment in the mixed dentition.

J Dent Child (Chic) 2008 May-Aug;75(2):201-6

Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The term amelogenesis imperfecta is applied to a clinically heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders that interfere with the normal development of dental enamel. These disorders cause a deficiency in the enamel's quantity and/or the quality that may result in poor dental esthetics. The purpose of this paper was to describe a case of hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta in an 8-year-old girl whose dissatisfaction with the appearance of her teeth led to impaired social functioning. Since the patient was in the mixed dentition stage, a temporary treatment aiming to improve dental esthetics, preserve oral function, and allow for the recovery of the patient's self-confidence was performed by a multidisciplinary team.
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October 2008

Oral hygiene frequency and presence of visible biofilm in the primary dentition.

Braz Oral Res 2007 Jan-Mar;21(1):64-9

Department of Diagnosis and Surgery, School of Dentistry, Rio de Janeiro State University, Av. Roberto Silveira 187/201, Centro, Petrópolis, RJ, Brazil, CEP 25685-040.

The purpose of this study was to associate oral hygiene frequency and presence of visible biofilm in the primary dentition. The sample consisted of 90 children, aged up to 4 years old, outpatients of the University Hospital of the Rio de Janeiro State University. The examinations were carried out in a dental office by a single trained examiner who was aided by an assistant. The parents answered a structured questionnaire about oral hygiene methods and frequency. Two biofilm indices, one simplified (BF1) and the other conventional (BF2), were used. BF1 classifies biofilm as absent, thin or thick, in anterior and/or posterior teeth, and provides a score for the patient, whereas BF2 classifies biofilm as absent or present, provides scores for three surfaces of each tooth and the final score is the percentage of tooth surfaces with biofilm. More than half of the parents (51 - 56.7%) reported they cleaned their child's teeth at least twice a day, while 7 (7.8%) had never cleaned their child's teeth. BF1 revealed that 12.2% (11) of the children had no visible biofilm, 37.8% (34) had thin biofilm in anterior and/or posterior teeth, 27.8% (25) had thick biofilm in anterior or posterior teeth and 22.2% (20) had thick biofilm in both anterior and posterior teeth. BF2 revealed a mean value of 21.8% (s.d. 16.5). No statistically significant correlations were found between oral hygiene frequency and the two biofilm indices (p > 0.05), indicating that oral hygiene frequency was not associated to oral hygiene quality in the evaluated sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1806-83242007000100011DOI Listing
March 2008

Comparison between two visible biofilm indices in the primary dentition.

J Clin Pediatr Dent 2006 ;30(4):292-5

Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry, Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to compare two visible biofilm indices in the primary dentition. The sample consisted of 90 children of both sexes, aged up to 4 years old outpatients of the University Hospital of the Rio de Janeiro State University. A single examiner, aided by an assistant, performed the children's dental examination for biofilm assessment. A simplified visible biofilm index (BF1), which classifies biofilm as absent, thin or thick, in anterior and/or posterior teeth, and provides a score for the patient and not for each tooth, was compared to a conventional visible biofilm index, the visible plaque index, (BF2), which classifies biofilm as absent or present and provides scores for three surfaces of each tooth. A statistically significant association and a strong positive correlation between BF1 and BF2 was found (Kruskal-Wallis p < 0.001/rs = 0.81 p < 0.001). The time required to BF1 evaluation was approximately one third of the time required to BF2 evaluation (t test p < 0.001). These results suggest that the use of a simplified visible biofilm index is feasible in the primary dentition as it showed similar findings when compared to a conventional one, besides being more practical and quicker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17796/jcpd.30.4.9n1852u276583r3vDOI Listing
October 2006

Orofacial injury in a Brazilian professional basketball player: case report.

Dent Traumatol 2006 Jun;22(3):169-71

Department of Preventive and Communitary Dentistry, University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The frequency of dental trauma has increased among children and athletes of all ages who play contact sports. This kind of trauma may result in irreversible damage to the patient. The aim of this report is to present a case of an orofacial trauma involving a professional basketball player who was elbowed by another player. The athlete reported loss of sensitivity in three teeth and computerized tomography showed fractures in three points of the malar bone. After the incident and dental follow-up, the player was made aware of the need to wear a mouthguard.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.2006.00344.xDOI Listing
June 2006

Caries prevalence and risk factors among children aged 0 to 36 months.

Pesqui Odontol Bras 2002 Jul-Sep;16(3):203-8. Epub 2002 Oct 24.

School of Dentistry, University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries and risk factors in outpatients of the Pediatric Ambulatory of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital aging up to 36 months. After signing informed consent forms, the parents answered a structured questionnaire in order to evaluate risk factors for dental caries, including socioeconomic status, oral hygiene and dietary habits. A single investigator carried out the dental examination which assessed the presence of caries, biofilm and gingival bleeding. The data were analyzed by means of the Epi Info program, utilizing the chi-squared test. The children's mean age was 22.9 months. The prevalence of caries, including white spot lesions, was 41.6%, and the mean def-s was 1.7 (+/- 2.5). The most affected teeth were the maxillary incisors, and the most common lesion was the white spot. No significant associations were found between the prevalence of caries and socioeconomic status, frequency of oral hygiene, nocturnal bottle- and breast-feeding or cariogenic food and beverage intake during the day. However, the association between caries and oral hygiene quality (dental biofilm) was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The results suggest that the presence of a thick biofilm was the most important factor for the occurrence of early childhood caries in the evaluated sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1517-74912002000300004DOI Listing
January 2003