Publications by authors named "Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro Bracarense"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Systematic beach monitoring as a health assessment tool: Cetacean morbillivirus under non-epizootic circumstances in stranded dolphins.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) was identified as the etiologic agent of several epizootic episodes worldwide. Most of these studies are based on unusual mortality events or identification of new viral strains. We investigated the occurrence of CeMV under non-epizootic circumstances at a world heritage in Southern Brazil by a combination of pathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular assays. From 325 stranded cetaceans, 40 were included. Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) was the most frequent species. Interstitial pneumonia and non-suppurative encephalitis were the main pathologic findings associated with CeMV infection. Intracytoplasmic immunolabelling anti-CeMV was observed mainly in lungs and lymph nodes. All samples were negative in reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. Diagnosis of CeMV is challenging in areas where epizootic episodes have not been recorded and due to post-mortem changes. We observed a CeMV prevalence of 27.5%. The results described here increase the knowledge about CeMV under non-epizootic conditions in Brazil and worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.14271DOI Listing
July 2021

Impact of deoxynivalenol on intestinal explants of broiler chickens: An ex vivo model to assess antimycotoxins additives.

Toxicon 2021 Sep 1;200:102-109. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Laboratory of Mycotoxicological Analyses (LAMIC), Santa Maria (SM), Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. Electronic address:

The impact of deoxynivalenol (DON) upon intestinal tissue of broilers was assessed by using jejunal explants in Ussing chambers and analyzing histopathological and immunohistochemical parameters; this system was also applied to evaluate the efficacy of an antimycotoxins additive (AMA). The explants were subjected to the following treatments within each experiment for 120 min: Experiment 1) T1 (control) - buffer solution, and T2 - 10 mg/L DON; and Experiment 2) T1 (control) - buffer solution, T2 - 10 mg/L DON, T3 - AMA (0.5%), and T4 - 10 mg/L DON + 0.5% AMA. In Experiment 1, DON triggered a reduction in the size of enterocytes as well as of their nuclei, an increase in cytoplasmic vacuolization and apical denudation of villi. Apoptotic cells count was also greater in DON-exposed explants. In Experiment 2, the AMA mitigated DON harmful effects; cytoplasmic vacuolization of enterocytes was reduced and the size of their nuclei was preserved. The additive also promoted a partial decrease in microvillus integrity, in size of enterocytes and in apoptotic cells count. The tested ex vivo model demonstrated the impact of DON upon the intestine as well as the efficacy of the AMA against its damaging effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2021.06.016DOI Listing
September 2021

Renicolidae infection in Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus): is parasitism implicated on renal lesions?

Parasitol Res 2021 Apr 17;120(4):1311-1320. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

Renicolid digeneans are frequently observed in the renal tubules and ureters of seabirds, such Puffinus puffinus, a migratory species distributed along the Brazilian coast. However, few studies have focused on the relationship between renicolid infection and health status in P. puffinus. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe (i) renal and systemic alterations, (ii) the renicolids and (iii) the biological aspects associated with the presence of renicolids in P. puffinus. Gross and histological assays were performed in 93 P. puffinus stranded on the Paraná coast, southern Brazil, and renicolids were submitted to morphological and molecular assays. A high prevalence of renicolids in P. puffinus (71/93) was observed. In the kidney, the main microscopic findings were lymphocytic interstitial infiltrate, ductal ectasia and tubular necrosis. The renal lesions were significantly associated with the parasite infection. The morphological (n = 84) and molecular analyses (n = 2) confirmed the species as Renicola sloanei (100% and 95.9% of nucleotide identity with R. sloanei strains from P. puffinus and from Spheniscus demersus, respectively). In both parasitized and non-parasitized animals, cardiac and skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis were the most frequent systemic changes. Therefore, the results suggest renicolids being a possible cause for the demonstrated renal alterations. A contribution of this parasite to a decreased health status of Puffinus puffinus along their migratory route is possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06959-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Tryptophan Attenuates the Effects of OTA on Intestinal Morphology and Local IgA/IgY Production in Broiler Chicks.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 Dec 23;13(1). Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Pathological Sciences, State University of Londrina, P.O. Box 10.011, Londrina, PR 86057-970, Brazil.

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by species of and that can contaminate products of plant origin that are used as animal feed. Through oral exposure, this mycotoxin primarily affects the chicken gastrointestinal system. The present study evaluated the intestinal toxic effects of OTA and the introduction of L-tryptophan to alleviate these effects in chickens. One-day-old chicks were exposed to a single OTA dose (1.4 mg/kg body weight-b.w.) and treated with or without four daily doses of L-tryptophan (100 mg/kg b.w.). Duodenal villus height/crypt depth, fecal immunoglobulin A/immunoglobulin Y (IgA/IgY) levels, and duodenal positive immunoglobulin A cells (IgA) were evaluated by histology, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry, respectively, on the 14th day. There were significant changes in the duodenal villus height, crypt depth, and levels of fecal IgA/IgY and duodenal IgA cells ( < 0.05) in groups exposed to OTA. On the other hand, groups exposed to OTA and treated with L-tryptophan showed similar levels of villus height, IgA/IgY levels, and duodenal IgA cells to those of the control group ( > 0.05). In conclusion, exposure to a single dose of OTA orally induces changes in intestinal morphology, levels of IgA/IgY antibodies, and IgA cells. Thus, treatment with L-tryptophan may be a valid alternative means to reduce the harmful effects of OTA on the intestinal mucosa, which requires further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13010005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7823272PMC
December 2020

Proteus mirabilis causing cellulitis in broiler chickens.

Braz J Microbiol 2020 Sep 17;51(3):1353-1362. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Microbiology, Laboratory of Bacteriology, Center of Biological Sciences, State University of Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid PO-BOX 6001, Londrina, Paraná, 86051-980, Brazil.

Given the need to understand the virulence profile of Proteus mirabilis isolates from cellulitis in broiler chickens and their ability to cause lesions, the present study aimed to characterize genotypically and phenotypically the virulence profiles of two strains of P. mirabilis isolated from cellulitis in broilers, as well as to evaluate their ability to experimentally reproduce the lesions in vivo. The strain with the highest virulence potential (LBUEL-A33) possessed mrpA, pmfA, ucaA, atfA (fimbriae), zapA, ptA (proteases), hpmA (hemolysin), and ireA (siderophore) genes, formed a very strong biofilm, and expressed the pattern of aggregative adhesion and cytotoxicity in Vero cells. The strain with the lowest virulence potential (LBUEL-A34) did not present the pmfA and ucaA genes, but expressed the pattern of aggregative adhesion, formed a strong biofilm, and did not show cytotoxicity. Both strains developed cellulitis in an animal model within 24 h post-inoculation (PI), and the degree of lesions was not significantly altered up to 120 h PI. The LBUEL-A33 strain was also inoculated in combination with an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC 046), and the lesions showed no significant changes from the individual inoculation of these two strains. Histological analysis showed that the LBUEL-A33 strain developed characteristic cellulitis lesions. Thus, both strains of P. mirabilis isolated in our study have several virulence factors and the ability to develop cellulitis in broilers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-020-00240-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7455630PMC
September 2020

Molecular identification and histological aspects of Renicola sloanei (Digenea: Renicolidae) in Puffinus puffinus (Procellariiformes): a first record.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2019 Aug 29;28(3):367-375. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Laboratório de Patologia Animal, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Estadual de Londrina - UEL, Londrina, PR, Brasil.

Renicolids are parasites that inhabit the renal tubules and ureters of molluscivorous and piscivorous birds. Puffinus puffinus is a migratory seabird that was identified as the definitive host of Renicola spp. Studies focusing on the renicolid species and the resulting renal lesions are valuable for their association with causes of stranding in seabirds. The aim of this study was to identify the renicolid trematodes and evaluate the histological findings in two P. puffinus stranded on the coast of Paraná state, Brazil. The parasites were evaluated by histologic, ultrastructural and molecular assays, while tissue changes were analyzed by histologic methods. The morphological and morphometrical characteristics of the parasites, along with polymerase chain reaction and sequencing assays (ribosomal and mitochondrial regions), identified the species as Renicola sloanei. The results also suggest that this helminth can be the adult form of Cercaria pythionike. The dilation of collecting ducts was the main histological finding in the kidneys. In conclusion, R. sloanei was identified, and for the first time, P. puffinus was described as a host of this digenean inducing mild renal changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612019025DOI Listing
August 2019

Impact of a Single Oral Acute Dose of Aflatoxin B₁ on Liver Function/Cytokines and the Lymphoproliferative Response in C57Bl/6 Mice.

Toxins (Basel) 2017 11 17;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 17.

Department of Pathological Sciences, State University of Londrina, P.O. Box 10.011, Londrina 86057-970, Paraná, Brazil.

Aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), a mycotoxin found in food and feed, exerts harmful effects on humans and animals. The liver is the earliest target of AFB₁, and its effects have been evaluated in animal models exposed to acute or chronic doses. Considering the possibility of sporadic ingestion of AFB₁-contaminated food, this study investigated the impact of a single oral dose of AFB₁ on liver function/cytokines and the lymphoproliferative response in mice. C57BL/6 mice were treated with a single oral AFB₁ dose (44, 442 or 663 μg AFB₁/kg of body weight) on the first day. Liver function (ALT, γ-GT, and total protein), cytokines (IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-17), histopathology, and the spleen lymphoproliferative response to mitogens were evaluated on the 5th day. Although AFB₁ did not produce any significant changes in the biochemical parameters, 663 μg AFB₁/kg-induced hepatic upregulation of IL-4 and IFN-γ, along with liver tissue injury and suppression of the lymphoproliferative response to ConA ( < 0.05). In conclusion, a single oral dose of AFB₁ exposure can induce liver tissue lesions, liver cytokine modulation, and immune suppression in C57BL/6 mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins9110374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705989PMC
November 2017

Effects of chemical castration using 20% CaCl with 0.5% DMSO in tomcats: Evaluation of inflammatory reaction by infrared thermography and effectiveness of treatment.

Theriogenology 2018 Jan 21;106:253-258. Epub 2017 Oct 21.

Animal Reproductio Laboratory (REPROA), Veterinary Clinics Department, State University of Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, PR 445 Km 380, Campus Universitário, Cx. Postal 10.011, CEP: 86.057-970, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study used infrared thermography to monitor the immediate inflammatory reaction to an intratesticular injection of 20% (calcium chloride) CaCl with 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for chemical castration and to provide evidence of the treatment's clinical viability. Six animals received a 0.25 mL intratesticular injection of 20% CaCl with 0.5% DMSO in each testis. Thermographic imaging, testicular measurement, penile spine evaluation, electroejaculation, and sperm analysis were performed before the injection. Eighty days post-injection, the cats were evaluated again, then received an orchiectomy followed by histological analysis. Infrared thermography of the testicular area was performed before (M0) and after anesthesia (M0A); after electroejaculation (M0E); 10 min (M1), 1 h, (M2) and 6 h (M3) after the injection for seven consecutive days (M4-10); after 15 (M11) and 30 days (M12); and after 80 days, before and after anesthesia and after electroejaculation (M13, M13A and M13E). No cats had a significant increase in testicular temperature or behavioral changes. All animals were azoospermic and had a 50% reduction in total testicular volume after 80 days. Histologically, the testes showed different degrees of degeneration, necrosis, calcification and replaced connective tissue, as well as Leydig cell hyperplasia in 7/12 of the testes. Infrared thermography efficiently diagnosed and monitored scrotal inflammation caused by intratesticular injection of 20% CaCl solution with 0.5% DMSO, and it is suggested that a single injection of this compound can cause azoospermia after 80 days. We concluded by infrared thermography with a clinical exam, that the adverse reactions were minimal and did not interfere with animal welfare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2017.10.013DOI Listing
January 2018

Deoxynivalenol induces toxic effects in the ovaries of pigs: An ex vivo approach.

Theriogenology 2017 Mar 9;90:94-100. Epub 2016 Nov 9.

Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a frequently found trichothecene mycotoxin that elicits toxic effects on humans and animals. In pigs, DON induces changes in digestive and immune systems. Effects on the reproductive system are scarce and mainly based in in vitro models. The aim of this study was to evaluate, using an ex vivo model, the effects of DON on the morphology of ovaries of pigs in all stages of follicular development. Six 5-month-old pigs were used for sampling the explants. Thirty-six explants were incubated for 48 hours in culture medium (n = 18) or medium containing 10 μM of DON (n = 18). After the incubation period, the explants were submitted to histologic and immunohistochemical (proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] expression) analysis. Histologic changes were scored, and a lesional score was established. Oocytes and follicular cells immunostained for PCNA were counted. Explants exposed to DON showed a significant increase in the lesional score (P = 0.0004) compared to control explants. The main histologic changes were degeneration of oocytes and granulosa cells, interstitial edema and pyknotic cells. DON induced a reduction in the number of normal follicles in all stages of follicular development: primordial (P = 0.005), primary (P = 0.04), and growing follicles (P = 0.04) compared to control group. Deoxynivalenol also induced a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the number of pyknotic oocytes in all stages of follicular development; however, no significant change in PCNA expression in oocytes or follicular cells was observed. These results indicated that DON induces toxic effects on the ovaries, affecting follicular development and interfering with reproductive parameters on pigs. Also, the present data indicate that ovarian explants are an adequate model for assessing reproductive toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2016.10.023DOI Listing
March 2017

Asymptomatic encephalitis in calves experimentally infected with bovine herpesvirus-5.

Can Vet J 2011 Dec;52(12):1312-8

Department of Veterinary Clinics, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, P.O. Box 6001, 86051-990, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

This study demonstrated that bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV)-5 infected calves can develop encephalitis and remain asymptomatic. Seven calves were infected intranasally and monitored for 30 days. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was performed from the onset of neurological signs. Multiple sections of brain and the trigeminal ganglion were submitted to histopathology. Virus detection (PCR and isolation) was performed on CSF and tissues. Four calves developed signs of neurologic disease and died. Three calves remained asymptomatic and were euthanized 30 days post-infection. Cerebrospinal fluid mononuclear pleocytosis occurred in symptomatic and asymptomatic calves. BoHV-5 was isolated and viral DNA was detected in multiple areas of the encephalon of all calves. The viral DNA was detected in the CSF of 2 calves showing neurological signs. Histologically, inflammation was noted in the brain of all calves and confirmed that the encephalitis caused by BoHV-5 may be mild and asymptomatic.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3215464PMC
December 2011

Phytic acid protects porcine intestinal epithelial cells from deoxynivalenol (DON) cytotoxicity.

Exp Toxicol Pathol 2012 May 23;64(4):345-7. Epub 2010 Oct 23.

Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Campus Universitário, Londrina, CX Postal 6001, Brazil.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of phytic acid (IP(6)) as a possible inhibitor of cellular damage induced by toxic substances such as mycotoxins on a porcine intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-1). We first observed that a dose of 5 mM phytic acid decreases cell viability and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of cell monolayer. We next investigate the effect of non-cytotoxic dose of phytic acid on the deoxinivalenol (DON) induced decreased TEER. We showed that treatment with 0.5 mM or 1.0 mM phytic acid restores the decrease in TEER caused by 25 μM DON. In conclusion this study demonstrates that phytic acid decreased the negative effects of deoxynivalenol on the membrane integrity of the IPEC-1 intestinal epithelial cell line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2010.09.008DOI Listing
May 2012

Giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) infections in dogs from Northern Paraná, Brazil.

Vet Parasitol 2007 Apr 5;145(3-4):366-70. Epub 2006 Dec 5.

Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva Patologia, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Campus Universitário, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, Pr 445 Km 380, Cx. Postal 6001, Londrina, Paraná 86051-990, Brazil.

This article describes the pathological observations of Dioctophyma renale in dogs from the northern region of the State of Paraná, Brazil. A female, 6-year-old dog, Fila Brasileiro breed and a 16-year-old, male Poodle were diagnosed positive for D. renale during routine necropsy. Clinically, both dogs demonstrated hematuria, and the Poodle had a radiographic diagnosis of prostatic tumor, but neither had a clinical diagnosis of this infection prior to necropsy. Three giant worms were observed in the urinary bladder of the first case and one within the renal pelvis of the other dog. Histological findings were similar in both cases and represented compressive atrophy due to the presence of the nematode. Additionally, aspects of the life cycle, pathogenesis and epidemiology associated with this parasitism in Brazil are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.10.027DOI Listing
April 2007

Interactions of indole acetic acid with EGF and FSH in the culture of ovine preantral follicles.

Theriogenology 2005 Sep 7;64(5):1104-13. Epub 2005 Apr 7.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, PPGCV, State University of Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.

The mechanisms that regulate the gradual exit of ovarian follicles from the non-growing, primordial pool are very poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding indole acetic acid (IAA), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) to the media for in vitro culture of ovine ovarian fragments and determine their effects on growth activation and viability of preantral follicles. The ovarian cortex was divided into small fragments; one fragment was immediately fixed in Bouin (control). The other fragments were cultured for 2 or 6 days in culture plates with: minimum essential medium (MEM) supplemented with insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS), pyruvate, glutamine, hypoxantine, bovine serum albumine and antibiotics (MEM+); MEM+ plus IAA (40 ng/mL); MEM+ plus EGF (100 ng/mL); MEM+ plus FSH (100 ng/mL); MEM+ plus IAA+EGF; MEM+ plus IAA+FSH; MEM+ plus EGF+FSH; or MEM+ plus IAA+EGF+FSH. After 2 or 6 days of culture in each treatment, the pieces of ovarian cortex were fixed in Bouin for histological examination. Follicles were classified as primordial or developing (primary and secondary) follicles. Compared to the control, in all media tested, the percentages of primordial follicles were reduced (P<0.05) and the percentages of developing follicles were increased (P<0.05) after 2 or 6 days of culture. Furthermore, culture of ovarian cortex for 6 days reduced the percentages of healthy, viable follicles when compared with the control (P<0.05), except for cultures supplemented with IAA+EGF and EGF+FSH. In conclusion, the addition of IAA and EGF or EGF and FSH to the culture media were the most effective treatments to sustain the health and viability of activated ovine primordial follicles during in vitro culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2005.03.001DOI Listing
September 2005
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