Publications by authors named "Ana Gonzalez-Pinto"

246 Publications

Premorbid Characteristics as Predictors of Early Onset Versus Adult Onset in Patients With a First Episode of Psychosis.

J Clin Psychiatry 2021 09 14;82(6). Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Members of the PEPs Group are listed at the end of the article.

To study the differences in early-life characteristics between patients with an early onset of psychotic disorders (EOP, aged < 18 years) versus adult onset of psychotic disorders (AOP, aged ≥ 18 years) and to identify predictors of earlier onset.

278 patients with a first episode of psychosis between the ages of 7 and 35 years were recruited as part of a multicenter prospective longitudinal study conducted in Spain between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2011, with diagnoses made for AOP using the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) and for EOP using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS). Early-stage factors such as prenatal, perinatal, and other premorbid factors were registered and compared between EOP and AOP patients. To analyze the association between baseline variables and outcome, univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used, and the association or odds ratios (ORs) for significant risk factors were calculated.

224 patients with AOP (mean ± SD age = 25.6 ± 5.0 years; 65.6% male) and 54 patients with EOP (16.1 ± 1.7 years; 68.5% male) were included. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences between the groups. Specifically, compared to AOP subjects, EOP patients had more frequent obstetric complications (OCs) ( < .001), birth weight < 2.500 g ( < .028), a background of any personal psychiatric disorder ( < .001), a previous diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ( = .001), and premorbid IQ < 85 ( < .001). In the multivariate model, only OCs (OR = 5.44), personal psychiatric background (OR = 4.05), and IQ < 85 (OR = 3.96) predicted an onset of the first episode of psychosis before age 18 years.

Premorbid factors such as OCs, personal psychiatric background, and IQ < 85 could help predict which patients are more likely to have an early onset of psychosis. Awareness of these factors could help clinicians work to prevent the early transition to psychosis in children and adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.21m13907DOI Listing
September 2021

Fronto-Parietal Gray Matter Volume Loss Is Associated with Decreased Working Memory Performance in Adolescents with a First Episode of Psychosis.

J Clin Med 2021 Aug 31;10(17). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, IiSGM, CIBERSAM, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Cognitive maturation during adolescence is modulated by brain maturation. However, it is unknown how these processes intertwine in early onset psychosis (EOP). Studies examining longitudinal brain changes and cognitive performance in psychosis lend support for an altered development of high-order cognitive functions, which parallels progressive gray matter (GM) loss over time, particularly in fronto-parietal brain regions. We aimed to assess this relationship in a subsample of 33 adolescents with first-episode EOP and 47 matched controls over 2 years. Backwards stepwise regression analyses were conducted to determine the association and predictive value of longitudinal brain changes over cognitive performance within each group. Fronto-parietal GM volume loss was positively associated with decreased working memory in adolescents with psychosis (frontal left (B = 0.096, = 0.008); right (B = 0.089, = 0.015); parietal left (B = 0.119, = 0.007), right (B = 0.125, = 0.015)) as a function of age. A particular decrease in frontal left GM volume best predicted a significant amount (22.28%) of the variance of decreased working memory performance over time, accounting for variance in age (14.9%). No such association was found in controls. Our results suggest that during adolescence, EOP individuals seem to follow an abnormal neurodevelopmental trajectory, in which fronto-parietal GM volume reduction is associated with the differential age-related working memory dysfunction in this group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432087PMC
August 2021

Cognitive clusters in first-episode psychosis.

Schizophr Res 2021 Sep 1;237:31-39. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Barcelona Clinic Schizophrenia Unit, Neuroscience Institute, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Department of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Spain; Biomedical Research Networking Centre in Mental Health (CIBERSAM), Spain. Electronic address:

Impairments in a broad range of cognitive domains have been consistently reported in some individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP). Cognitive deficits can be observed during the prodromal stage. However, the course of cognitive deficits is still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify cognitive subgroups over time and to compare their sociodemographic, clinical and functional profiles. A total of 114 patients with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders were included in the present study. We assessed subjects through psychiatric scales and eight neuropsychological tests at baseline and at two-year follow-up visit. We performed the Partition Around Medoids algorithm with all cognitive variables. Furthermore, we performed a logistic regression to identify the predictors related to the different cognitive clusters at follow-up. Two distinct subgroups were found: the first cluster characterized by cognitive impairment and a second cluster had relatively intact cognition in comparison with norms. Up to 54.7% of patients with cognitive deficits at baseline tended to improve during the first two years of treatment. Patients with intact cognition at follow-up had a higher socioeconomic status, later age of onset, lower negative symptoms and a higher cognitive reserve (CR) at baseline. CR and age of onset were the baseline variables that predicted cognitive impairment. This research allows us to obtain a better understanding of the heterogeneous profile of psychotic disorders. Identifying the characteristics of patients who will present a cognitive impairment could improve early detection and intervention. These results suggest that enhancing CR could contribute to improving the course of the illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2021.08.021DOI Listing
September 2021

Lifestyle changes and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: A repeated, cross-sectional web survey.

J Affect Disord 2021 Aug 24;295:173-182. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain; Department of Medicine, Teaching Unit of Psychiatry and Psychological Medicine, University of Valencia, Blasco Ibáñez, 15, Valencia 46010, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: This study aimed to compare self-reported changes on lifestyle behaviors during two phases of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain, and to evaluate clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with lifestyles.

Methods: Two cross-sectional web surveys were conducted during lockdown (April 15-May 15, 2020) and seven months later (November 16-December 16, 2020). Lifestyle behaviors were self-reported by a multidimensional scale (SMILE-C). Two separate samples of respondents were analyzed. A multivariate regression model was performed to evaluate the association of SMILE-C scores with demographic and clinical variables.

Results: The sample comprised, 3412 participants from the first survey (S1) and in the S1 and 3635 from the second (S2). SMILE-C score decreased across surveys (p < 0.001). The rates of positive screenings for depression and anxiety were similar between the surveys, whereas those for alcohol abuse decreased (p < 0.001). Most participants in S2 reported that their lifestyle had not changed compared to those before the pandemic. Variables independently associated with an unhealthier lifestyle were working as an essential worker, lower educational level, previous mental disease, worse self-rated health, totally/moderate changes on diet, sleep or social support, as well as positive screenings for alcohol abuse, anxiety and depression.

Limitations: The cross-sectional design and recruitment by non-probabilistic methods limit inferring causality and the external validity of the results.

Conclusions: Overall lifestyle worsened seven months after the lockdown in Spain. Several demographic and clinical factors were associated with lifestyle scores. The contribution of common mental disorders to unhealthier lifestyles should be considered in order to prevent the negative impact of the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.08.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8418875PMC
August 2021

Lifestyle changes and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: A repeated, cross-sectional web survey.

J Affect Disord 2021 Aug 24;295:173-182. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain; Department of Medicine, Teaching Unit of Psychiatry and Psychological Medicine, University of Valencia, Blasco Ibáñez, 15, Valencia 46010, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: This study aimed to compare self-reported changes on lifestyle behaviors during two phases of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain, and to evaluate clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with lifestyles.

Methods: Two cross-sectional web surveys were conducted during lockdown (April 15-May 15, 2020) and seven months later (November 16-December 16, 2020). Lifestyle behaviors were self-reported by a multidimensional scale (SMILE-C). Two separate samples of respondents were analyzed. A multivariate regression model was performed to evaluate the association of SMILE-C scores with demographic and clinical variables.

Results: The sample comprised, 3412 participants from the first survey (S1) and in the S1 and 3635 from the second (S2). SMILE-C score decreased across surveys (p < 0.001). The rates of positive screenings for depression and anxiety were similar between the surveys, whereas those for alcohol abuse decreased (p < 0.001). Most participants in S2 reported that their lifestyle had not changed compared to those before the pandemic. Variables independently associated with an unhealthier lifestyle were working as an essential worker, lower educational level, previous mental disease, worse self-rated health, totally/moderate changes on diet, sleep or social support, as well as positive screenings for alcohol abuse, anxiety and depression.

Limitations: The cross-sectional design and recruitment by non-probabilistic methods limit inferring causality and the external validity of the results.

Conclusions: Overall lifestyle worsened seven months after the lockdown in Spain. Several demographic and clinical factors were associated with lifestyle scores. The contribution of common mental disorders to unhealthier lifestyles should be considered in order to prevent the negative impact of the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.08.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8418875PMC
August 2021

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy versus psychoeducational intervention in bipolar outpatients: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Alcalá, Madrid, Spain; CIBERSAM, IRyCIS, Madrid, Spain; Principe de Asturias University Hospital, Alcalá, Spain.

Introduction: Few controlled trials have assessed the impact of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on symptoms and functioning in bipolar disorder (BD). This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of MBCT adjunctive group treatment.

Material And Methods: Randomized, prospective, multicenter, single-blinded trial that included BP-outpatients with subthreshold depressive symptoms. Participants were randomly assigned to three arms: treatment as usual (TAU); TAU plus psychoeducation; and TAU plus MBCT. Primary outcome was change in Hamilton-D score; secondary endpoints were change in anxiety, hypo/mania symptoms and functional improvement. Patients were assessed at baseline (V1), 8 weeks (V2) and 6 months (V3). Main hypothesis was that adjunctive MBCT would improve depressive symptoms more than psychoeducation.

Results: Eighty-four participants were recruited (MBCT=40, Psychoeducation=34, TAU=10). Depressive symptoms improved in the three arms between V1 and V2 (p<0.0001), and between V1 and V3 (p<0.0001), and did not change between V2 and V3. At V3 no significant differences between groups were found. There were no significant differences in other measures either.

Conclusions: In our BD population we did not find superiority of adjunctive MBCT over adjunctive Psychoeducation or TAU on subsyndromal depressive symptoms; neither on anxiety, hypo/mania, relapses, or functioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rpsm.2021.08.001DOI Listing
August 2021

The prevention of relapses in first episodes of schizophrenia: The 2EPs Project, background, rationale and study design.

Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment (Engl Ed) 2021 Jul-Sep;14(3):164-176

Grupo de Investigación en Neuropsicofarmacología y Psicobiología, Departamento de Neurociencias, Universidad de Cádiz, Instituto de Investigación e Innovación en Ciencias Biomédicas de Cádiz, INiBICA, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, CIBERSAM, Cádiz, Spain.

Up to 80% of first-episode psychosis patients suffer a relapse within five years of the remission. Relapse should be an important focus of prevention given the potential harm to the patient and family. It threatens to disrupt their psychosocial recovery, increases the risk of resistance to treatment and has been associated with greater direct and indirect costs for society. Based on a previous project entitled "Genotype-phenotype and environment. Application to a predictive model in first psychotic episodes" (PEPs Project), the project "Clinical and neurobiological determinants of second episodes of schizophrenia. Longitudinal study of first episode of psychosis" was designed, also known as the 2EPs Project. It aimed to identify and characterize those factors that predict a relapse within the years immediately following a first episode. This project has focused on following the clinical course, with neuropsychological assessments, biological and neuroanatomical measures, genetic adherence and physical health monitoring in order to compare a subgroup of patients with a second episode to another group of patients which remains in remission. The main objective of the present article is to describe the rationale of the 2EPs Project, explaining the measurement approach adopted and providing an overview of the selected clinical and functional measures. 2EPs Project is a multicenter, coordinated, naturalistic, longitudinal follow-up study over three years in a Spanish sample of patients in remission after a first-psychotic episode of schizophrenia. It is closely monitoring the clinical course of the cases recruited to compare the subgroup of patients with a second episode to that which remains in remission. The sample is composed of 223 subjects recruited from 15 clinical centres in Spain with experience of the preceding PEPs Study project, albeit 2EPs being an expanded version with new basic groups in biological research. From the total sample recruited, 63 patients presented a relapse (44%). 2EPs arose to characterize first episodes in an exhaustive, novel and multimodal way, thus contributing towards the development of a predictive model of relapse. Identifying the characteristics of patients who relapse could improve early detection and intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rpsmen.2021.08.001DOI Listing
May 2020

Relevance of well-being, resilience, and health-related quality of life to mental health profiles of European adolescents: results from a cross-sectional analysis of the school-based multinational UPRIGHT project.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2021 Aug 21. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Kronikgune Institute for Health Services Research, Ronda de Azkue 1 torre del Bilbao Exhibition Centre, 48902, Barakaldo, Basque Country, Spain.

Purpose: The existing evidence suggests that a complete evaluation of mental health should incorporate both psychopathology and mental well-being indicators. However, few studies categorize European adolescents into subgroups based on such complete mental health data. This study used the data on mental well-being and symptoms of mental and behavioral disorders to explore the mental health profiles of adolescents in Europe.

Methods: Data collected from adolescents (N = 3767; mean age 12.4 [SD = 0.9]) from five European countries supplied the information on their mental well-being (personal resilience, school resilience, quality of life, and mental well-being) and mental and behavioral disorder symptoms (anxiety, depression, stress, bullying, cyber-bullying, and use of tobacco, alcohol, or cannabis). Multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were combined to classify the youths into mental health profiles.

Results: Adolescents were categorized into three mental health profiles. The "poor mental health" profile (6%) was characterized by low levels of well-being and moderate symptoms of mental disorders. The "good mental health" profile group (26%) showed high well-being and few symptoms of mental disorders, and the "intermediate mental health" profile (68%) was characterized by average well-being and mild-to-moderate symptoms of mental disorders. Groups with higher levels of well-being and fewer symptoms of mental disorders showed lower rates of behavioral problems. Mental well-being indicators strongly contributed to this classification.

Conclusion: Adolescents with the "intermediate" or "poor" mental health profiles may benefit from interventions to improve mental health. Implications for school-based interventions are discussed.

Trial Registration Number (trn) And Date Of Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03951376. Registered 15 May 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-021-02156-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8379563PMC
August 2021

Relevance of well-being, resilience, and health-related quality of life to mental health profiles of European adolescents: results from a cross-sectional analysis of the school-based multinational UPRIGHT project.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2021 Aug 21. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Kronikgune Institute for Health Services Research, Ronda de Azkue 1 torre del Bilbao Exhibition Centre, 48902, Barakaldo, Basque Country, Spain.

Purpose: The existing evidence suggests that a complete evaluation of mental health should incorporate both psychopathology and mental well-being indicators. However, few studies categorize European adolescents into subgroups based on such complete mental health data. This study used the data on mental well-being and symptoms of mental and behavioral disorders to explore the mental health profiles of adolescents in Europe.

Methods: Data collected from adolescents (N = 3767; mean age 12.4 [SD = 0.9]) from five European countries supplied the information on their mental well-being (personal resilience, school resilience, quality of life, and mental well-being) and mental and behavioral disorder symptoms (anxiety, depression, stress, bullying, cyber-bullying, and use of tobacco, alcohol, or cannabis). Multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were combined to classify the youths into mental health profiles.

Results: Adolescents were categorized into three mental health profiles. The "poor mental health" profile (6%) was characterized by low levels of well-being and moderate symptoms of mental disorders. The "good mental health" profile group (26%) showed high well-being and few symptoms of mental disorders, and the "intermediate mental health" profile (68%) was characterized by average well-being and mild-to-moderate symptoms of mental disorders. Groups with higher levels of well-being and fewer symptoms of mental disorders showed lower rates of behavioral problems. Mental well-being indicators strongly contributed to this classification.

Conclusion: Adolescents with the "intermediate" or "poor" mental health profiles may benefit from interventions to improve mental health. Implications for school-based interventions are discussed.

Trial Registration Number (trn) And Date Of Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03951376. Registered 15 May 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-021-02156-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8379563PMC
August 2021

Impact of previous tobacco use with or without cannabis on first psychotic experiences in patients with first-episode psychosis.

Schizophr Res 2021 Oct 5;236:19-28. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Barcelona Clinic Schizophrenia Unit, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Neuroscience Institute, CIBERSAM, August Pi I Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Objective: There is high prevalence of cigarette smoking in individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP) prior to psychosis onset. The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of previous tobacco use with or without cannabis on first psychotic experiences in FEP and the impact of this use on age of onset of symptoms, including prodromes.

Methods: Retrospective analyses from the naturalistic, longitudinal, multicentre, "Phenotype-Genotype and Environmental Interaction. Application of a Predictive Model in First Psychotic Episodes (PEPs)" Study. The authors analysed sociodemographic/clinical data of 284 FEP patients and 231 matched healthy controls, and evaluated first psychotic experiences of patients using the Symptom Onset in Schizophrenia Inventory.

Results: FEP patients had significantly higher prevalence of tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine use than controls. The FEP group with tobacco use only prior to onset (N = 56) had more sleep disturbances (42.9% vs 18.8%, P = 0.003) and lower prevalence of negative symptoms, specifically social withdrawal (33.9% vs 58%, P = 0.007) than FEP with no substance use (N = 70), as well as lower prevalence of ideas of reference (80.4% vs 92.4%, P = 0.015), perceptual abnormalities (46.4% vs 67.4%, P = 0.006), hallucinations (55.4% vs 71.5%, P = 0.029), and disorganised thinking (41.1% vs 61.1%, P = 0.010) than FEP group with previous tobacco and cannabis use (N = 144). FEP patients with cannabis and tobacco use had lower age at first prodromal or psychotic symptom (mean = 23.73 years [SD = 5.09]) versus those with tobacco use only (mean = 26.21 [SD = 4.80]) (P = 0.011).

Conclusions: The use of tobacco alone was not related to earlier age of onset of a first psychotic experience, but the clinical profile of FEP patients is different depending on previous tobacco use with or without cannabis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2021.07.017DOI Listing
October 2021

Lifestyle in Undergraduate Students and Demographically Matched Controls during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Spain.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 31;18(15). Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), 28007 Madrid, Spain.

Few studies have used a multidimensional approach to describe lifestyle changes among undergraduate students during the COVID-19 pandemic or have included controls. This study aimed to evaluate lifestyle behaviors and mental health of undergraduate students and compare them with an age and sex-matched control group. A cross-sectional web survey using snowball sampling was conducted several months after the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic in Spain. A sample of 221 students was recruited. The main outcome was the total SMILE-C score. Students showed a better SMILE-C score than controls (79.8 + 8.1 vs. 77.2 + 8.3; < 0.001), although these differences disappeared after controlling for covariates. While groups did not differ in the screenings of depression and alcohol abuse, students reported lower rates of anxiety (28.5% vs. 37.1%; = 0.042). A lower number of cohabitants, poorer self-perceived health and positive screening for depression and anxiety, or for depression only were independently associated ( < 0.05) with unhealthier lifestyles in both groups. History of mental illness and financial difficulties were predictors of unhealthier lifestyles for students, whereas totally/moderate changes in substance abuse and stress management ( < 0.05) were predictors for the members of the control group. Several months after the pandemic, undergraduate students and other young adults had similar lifestyles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18158133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8346054PMC
July 2021

Gender-Based Analysis of the Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Healthcare Workers in Spain.

Front Psychiatry 2021 20;12:692215. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Psychiatry, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, Spain.

This study aims to analyze from a gender perspective the psychological distress experienced by the medical workforce during the peak of the pandemic in Spain. This is a single-center, observational analytic study. The study population comprised all associated health workers of the Cruces University Hospital, invited by email to participate in the survey. It consisted of a form covering demographic data, the general health questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), and the perceived stress scale (PSS-14). We used multivariant regression analysis to check the effect of gender on the scores. We used gender analysis in both design and interpretation of data following SAGER guidelines. Females made 74.6% of our sample, but their proportion was higher in lower-paid positions such as nursery (89.9%) than in higher-paid ones. The percentage of women categorized as cases with the GHQ-28 was 78.4%, a proportion significantly higher than in the male population (61.3%, < 0.001). The multivariant regression analysis showed that being women, working as orderly hospital porters, and having a past psychiatric history were risk factors for higher scores in both the GHQ-28 and PSS-14. Women and those with lower-paid positions were at risk of higher psychological distress and worse quality of life within the medical workforce during the first wave of the pandemic. Gender analysis must be incorporated to analyze this fact better.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.692215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8329080PMC
July 2021

Gender-Based Analysis of the Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Healthcare Workers in Spain.

Front Psychiatry 2021 20;12:692215. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Psychiatry, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, Spain.

This study aims to analyze from a gender perspective the psychological distress experienced by the medical workforce during the peak of the pandemic in Spain. This is a single-center, observational analytic study. The study population comprised all associated health workers of the Cruces University Hospital, invited by email to participate in the survey. It consisted of a form covering demographic data, the general health questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), and the perceived stress scale (PSS-14). We used multivariant regression analysis to check the effect of gender on the scores. We used gender analysis in both design and interpretation of data following SAGER guidelines. Females made 74.6% of our sample, but their proportion was higher in lower-paid positions such as nursery (89.9%) than in higher-paid ones. The percentage of women categorized as cases with the GHQ-28 was 78.4%, a proportion significantly higher than in the male population (61.3%, < 0.001). The multivariant regression analysis showed that being women, working as orderly hospital porters, and having a past psychiatric history were risk factors for higher scores in both the GHQ-28 and PSS-14. Women and those with lower-paid positions were at risk of higher psychological distress and worse quality of life within the medical workforce during the first wave of the pandemic. Gender analysis must be incorporated to analyze this fact better.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.692215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8329080PMC
July 2021

Duration of untreated illness and bipolar disorder: time for a new definition? Results from a cross-sectional study.

J Affect Disord 2021 Nov 22;294:513-520. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Bipolar and Depressive Disorders Unit, Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, 170 Villarroel st, 12-0, 08036, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Background: We primarily aimed to explore the associations between duration of untreated illness (DUI), treatment response, and functioning in a cohort of patients with bipolar disorder (BD).

Methods: 261 participants with BD were recruited. DUI was defined as months from the first affective episode to the start of a mood-stabilizer. The functioning assessment short test (FAST) scores and treatment response scores for lithium, valproate, or lamotrigine according to the Alda Scale Total Score (TS) were compared between patients with short (<24 months) or long DUI. Differences in FAST scores among good (GR; TS≥7), poor (PR; TS=2-6), or non-responders (NR; TS<2) to each mood-stabilizer were analyzed. Linear regression was computed using the FAST global score as the dependent variable.

Results: DUI and FAST scores showed no statistically significant correlation. Patients with a longer DUI showed poorer response to lithium (Z=-3.196; p<0.001), but not to valproate or lamotrigine. Response to lithium (β=-1.814; p<0.001), number of hospitalizations (β=0.237; p<0.001), and illness duration (β=0.160; p=0.028) were associated with FAST total scores. GR to lithium was associated with better global functioning compared to PR or NR [H=27.631; p<0.001].

Limitations: The retrospective design could expose our data to a recall bias. Also, only few patients were on valproate or lamotrigine treatment.

Conclusions: Poor functioning in BD could be the result of multiple affective relapses, rather than a direct effect of DUI. A timely diagnosis with subsequent effective prophylactic treatment, such as lithium, may prevent poor functional outcomes in real-world patients with BD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.07.062DOI Listing
November 2021

A Multicentre, Randomised, Controlled Trial of a Combined Clinical Treatment for First-Episode Psychosis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 6;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Centre for Biomedical Research in the Mental Health Network (CIBERSAM), 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: There is evidence that early intervention contributes to improving the prognosis and course of first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, further randomised treatment clinical trials are needed.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a combined clinical treatment involving Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) as an adjunctive to treatment-as-usual (TAU) (CBT+TAU) versus TAU alone for FEP.

Patients And Methods: In this multicentre, single-blind, randomised controlled trial, 177 participants were randomly allocated to either CBT+TAU or TAU. The primary outcome was post-treatment patient functioning.

Results: The CBT+TAU group showed a greater improvement in functioning, which was measured using the Global Assessment Functioning (GAF) and Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST), compared to the TAU group post-treatment. The CBT+TAU participants exhibited a greater decline in depressive, negative, and general psychotic symptoms; a better awareness of the disease and treatment adherence; and a greater increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels than TAU participants.

Conclusions: Early intervention based on a combined clinical treatment involving CBT as an adjunctive to standard treatment may improve clinical and functional outcomes in FEP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304114PMC
July 2021

Two-year evaluation of a multifamily psychoeducational program (PROTEC) in the family burden and prognosis of bipolar patients.

Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM) G10, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Álava, España; Universidad del País Vasco, Leioa, Bizkaia, España; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Bioaraba, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Álava, España.

Introduction: Bipolar disorder causes a significant burden on the lives of patients and their families. The family is one of the targets for therapeutic intervention, related to the prognosis in patients with bipolar disorder.

Aim: To assess the effectiveness of a multifamily psychoeducational program for people with bipolar disorder, in the family burden: objective and subjective and in the variables related to the course of the patients with bipolar disorder (symptoms, adherence, functionality, hospitalizations), comparing it with a control group (CG).

Materials And Methods: A total of 148 relatives of bipolar patients and 148 bipolar patients were recruited. The sample was randomized (experimental group [EG] and CG) and with single-blind evaluations (baseline, at 5 months and one year). Clinical and sociodemographic variables were collected from families and patients (family burden self-report scale, Strauss-Carpenter Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, Morisky Green adherence Scale). Both, EG and CG received 8 multifamily sessions, applied exclusively on the relatives of patients with bipolar disorder, but in the EG a psychoeducational treatment was carried out and in the CG only playful and current topics were discussed. Bivariate and logistic regression models were used, among others.

Results: The caregivers and patients of the EG and CG did not differ in any of the baseline variables (sociodemographic and clinical) (P>.001). In the total sample, the baseline objective burden was light (mean 0.6±0.4) and the subjective ones was medium-moderate (mean 1.1±0.3). During the follow-up, in relation to the variables of the caregivers, there was a greater reduction in the objective burden in the EG compared to the CG (5 months P=.006; one year P=.002). It was found that the objective burden (P=.006) and the subjective burden (P=.003) were significantly reduced over a year in EG but not in the CG. During the follow-up, the patients whose caregivers belonged to the EG showed a greater increase in the frequency of social activity (P=.008), in the work activity (P=.002), and global functioning (P=.002), and reduced their symptoms (P≤.001). Longitudinal analyses, over a year, showed that patients in the EG had a greater improvement in functionality compared to patients in the CG (P=.001). After the intervention, adherence to pharmacological treatment improved more in EG than in the CG (P≤.001). Regarding hospitalizations, any patients in the CG were hospitalized during the 5 months after the intervention, while 27.8% of the patients in the CG were hospitalized (P≤.001); the difference between groups remained significant in the long term (one year: P≤.001; 2 years: P≤.001). There were no significant differences between groups in the pharmacological treatment of the patients in any of the evaluations.

Conclusions: The multifamily psychoeducational intervention group improved the family burden after the intervention. Likewise, bipolar patients, whose families attended the EG, improved significantly, over a year, the functionality, the frequency of social contacts, the work status, the adherence to treatment, and reduced their symptoms. In addition, in the EG, the percentage of hospitalizations during the 2 years of follow-up was significantly reduced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rpsm.2021.07.002DOI Listing
July 2021

The Role of Premorbid IQ and Age of Onset as Useful Predictors of Clinical, Functional Outcomes, and Recovery of Individuals with a First Episode of Psychosis.

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 2;10(11). Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Gregorio Marañón Health Research Institute (IiSGM), Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Research Networking Center for Mental Health Network (CIBERSAM), School of Medicine, Complutense University of Madrid (UCM), 28007 Madrid, Spain.

Background: premorbid IQ (pIQ) and age of onset are predictors of clinical severity and long-term functioning after a first episode of psychosis. However, the additive influence of these variables on clinical, functional, and recovery rates outcomes is largely unknown.

Methods: we characterized 255 individuals who have experienced a first episode of psychosis in four a priori defined subgroups based on pIQ (low pIQ < 85; average pIQ ≥ 85) and age of onset (early onset < 18 years; adult onset ≥ 18 years). We conducted clinical and functional assessments at baseline and at two-year follow-up. We calculated symptom remission and recovery rates using the Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia Schedule (PANSS) and the Global Assessment Functioning (GAF or Children-GAF). We examined clinical and functional changes with pair-wise comparisons and two-way mixed ANOVA. We built hierarchical lineal and logistic regression models to estimate the predictive value of the independent variables over functioning or recovery rates.

Results: early-onset patients had more severe positive symptoms and poorer functioning than adult-onset patients. At two-year follow-up, only early-onset with low pIQ and adult-onset with average pIQ subgroups differed consistently, with the former having more negative symptoms ( = 0.59), poorer functioning ( = 0.82), lower remission (61% vs. 81.1%), and clinical recovery (34.1% vs. 62.2%).

Conclusions: early-onset individuals with low pIQ may present persistent negative symptoms, lower functioning, and less recovery likelihood at two-year follow-up. Intensive cognitive and functional programs for these individuals merit testing to improve long-term recovery rates in this subgroup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8199787PMC
June 2021

Longitudinal outcome of attenuated positive symptoms, negative symptoms, functioning and remission in people at clinical high risk for psychosis: a meta-analysis.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Jun 16;36:100909. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, UK.

Background: Little is known about clinical outcomes other than transition to psychosis in people at Clinical High-Risk for psychosis (CHR-P). Our aim was to comprehensively meta-analytically evaluate for the first time a wide range of clinical and functional outcomes beyond transition to psychosis in CHR-P individuals.

Methods: PubMed and Web of Science were searched until November 2020 in this PRISMA compliant meta-analysis (PROSPERO:CRD42020206271). Individual longitudinal studies conducted in individuals at CHR-P providing data on at least one of our outcomes of interest were included. We carried out random-effects pairwise meta-analyses, meta-regressions, and assessed publication bias and study quality. Analyses were two-tailed with α=0.05.

Findings: 75 prospective studies were included (n=5,288, age=20.0 years, females=44.5%). Attenuated positive symptoms improved at 12 (Hedges' g=0.753, 95%CI=0.495-1.012) and 24 (Hedges' g=0.836, 95%CI=0.463-1.209), but not ≥36 months (Hedges' g=0.315. 95%CI=-0.176-0.806). Negative symptoms improved at 12 (Hedges' g=0.496, 95%CI=0.315-0.678), but not 24 (Hedges' g=0.499, 95%CI=-0.137-1.134) or ≥36 months (Hedges' g=0.033, 95%CI=-0.439-0.505). Depressive symptoms improved at 12 (Hedges' g=0.611, 95%CI=0.441-0.782) and 24 (Hedges' g=0.583, 95%CI=0.364-0.803), but not ≥36 months (Hedges' g=0.512 95%CI=-0.337-1.361). Functioning improved at 12 (Hedges' g=0.711, 95%CI=0.488-0.934), 24 (Hedges' g=0.930, 95%CI=0.553-1.306) and ≥36 months (Hedges' g=0.392, 95%CI=0.117-0.667). Remission from CHR-P status occurred in 33.4% (95%CI=22.6-44.1%) at 12 months, 41.4% (95%CI=32.3-50.5%) at 24 months and 42.4% (95%CI=23.4-61.3%) at ≥36 months. Heterogeneity across the included studies was significant and ranged from I=53.6% to I=96.9%. The quality of the included studies (mean±SD) was 4.6±1.1 (range=2-8).

Interpretation: CHR-P individuals improve on symptomatic and functional outcomes over time, but these improvements are not maintained in the longer term, and less than half fully remit. Prolonged duration of care may be needed for this patient population to optimize outcomes.

Funding: None.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219991PMC
June 2021

Clinical practice guideline on pharmacological and psychological management of adult patients with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and comorbid substance use.

Adicciones 2021 Jun 14;0(0):1569. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, CIBERSAM, Barcelona.

Substantial evidence has confirmed the high comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and a substance use disorder (SUD). This review synthesizes the pharmacological and psychosocial interventions conducted in ADHD and SUDs, and provides clinical recommendations using the GRADE approach. Our results suggest: 1) In patients with ADHD and alcohol use, atomoxetine is recommended to reduce ADHD symptoms (weak recommendation) and alcohol craving (weak recommendation). 2) In patients with ADHD and cannabis use disorder, atomoxetine is recommended to improve ADHD symptoms (weak recommendation), not to reduce cannabis use (weak recommendation). 3) In patients with ADHD and cocaine use disorder, methylphenidate is not recommended to improve ADHD symptoms or to reduce cocaine use (weak recommendation). 4) In patients with ADHD and comorbid nicotine use disorder, methylphenidate is recommended to improve ADHD symptoms (weak recommendation). Psychoestimulants, such as methylphenidate or lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, are not recommended to reduce nicotine use (weak recommendation). 5) Regarding patients with ADHD and any SUD, the use of psychostimulants is recommended to improve ADHD symptoms (weak recommendation), not to reduce substance use (weak recommendation) or to improve retention to treatment (strong recommendation). In these patients, the use of atomoxetine is recommended to improve ADHD symptoms (weak recommendation), not to decrease substance use (weak recommendation) or to improve retention to treatment (strong recommendation). Atomoxetine and psychostimulants appear to be safe in patients with any SUD (strong recommendation). Our review suggests the need for more research in this area and for larger, multisite, randomized studies to provide more definite and conclusive evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1569DOI Listing
June 2021

Clinical practice guideline on pharmacological and psychological management of adult patients with an Anxiety Disorder and comorbid substance use.

Adicciones 2021 Jun 14;0(0):1548. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Universidad de Oviedo, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Principado de Asturias (ISPA), Servicio de Salud del Principado de Asturias (SESPA) (Oviedo).

This review synthesizes the pharmacological and psychosocial interventions that have been conducted in comorbid anxiety disorders and SUDs while also providing clinical recommendations about which intervention elements are helpful for addressing substance use versus anxiety symptoms in patients with these co-occurring conditions. The best evidence from randomized controlled trials was used to evaluate treatment options. The strength of recommendations was described using the GRADE approach. Clinical trials are only available for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and for social anxiety. Concerning the comorbid substance use, all the studies have included patients with alcohol use, none of them have dealt with cocaine, cannabis or nicotine use. Although some treatments have shown benefit for anxiety symptoms without benefits for alcohol or other substance use, only limited pharmacological approaches have been assayed (sertraline, desipramine, paroxetine, buspirone, naltrexone and disulfiram). Our results suggest that 1) we can (weakly) recommend the use of desipramine over paroxetine to alleviate symptoms of anxiety in patients with a PTSD and alcohol use; 2) In these patients, the use of naltrexone to reduce symptoms of anxiety is also recommended (weak strength); and 3) SSRI antidepressants vs placebo can be recommended to reduce alcohol use (weak recommendation). Our review highlights the need for more research in this area and for larger, multisite studies with generalizable samples to provide more definite guidance for clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1548DOI Listing
June 2021

Clinical practice guideline on pharmacological and psychological management of adult patients with bipolar disorder and comorbid substance use.

Adicciones 2021 Jun 14;0(0):1528. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria BIOARABA. OSI Araba. Hospital Universitario. CIBERSAM, UPV/EHU. Vitoria.

This review synthesizes the pharmacological and psychosocial interventions that have been conducted in comorbid bipolar disorder (BD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) while also providing clinical recommendations about which intervention elements are helpful for addressing substance use versus mood symptoms in patients with these co-occurring conditions. The best evidence from randomized controlled trials was used to evaluate treatment options. The strength of recommendations was described using the GRADE approach. Very few of the randomized trials performed so far have provided consistent evidence for the management of both mood symptoms and substance use in patients with a BD. No clinical trials are available for bipolar patients using cannabis. Some treatments have shown benefit for mood symptoms without benefits for alcohol or illicit substance use. Our results suggest that 1) we can (weakly) recommend the use of adjuvant valproate or naltrexone to improve symptoms of alcohol use disorder; 2) Lamotrigine add-on therapy seems to reduce cocaine-related symptoms and is therefore recommended (moderate strength); and 3) Varenicline is (weakly) recommended to improve nicotine abstinence. Integrated group therapy is the most-well validated and efficacious approach on substance use outcomes if substance use is targeted in an initial treatment phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1528DOI Listing
June 2021

Mental health impact of the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic on Spanish healthcare workers: A large cross-sectional survey.

Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment (Engl Ed) 2021 Apr-Jun;14(2):90-105

Center for Public Health Psychiatry, Universitair Psychiatrisch Centrum, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Introduction: Healthcare workers are vulnerable to adverse mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed prevalence of mental disorders and associated factors during the first wave of the pandemic among healthcare professionals in Spain.

Methods: All workers in 18 healthcare institutions (6 AACC) in Spain were invited to web-based surveys assessing individual characteristics, COVID-19 infection status and exposure, and mental health status (May 5 - September 7, 2020). We report: probable current mental disorders (Major Depressive Disorder-MDD- [PHQ-8≥10], Generalized Anxiety Disorder-GAD- [GAD-7≥10], Panic attacks, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder -PTSD- [PCL-5≥7]; and Substance Use Disorder -SUD-[CAGE-AID≥2]. Severe disability assessed by the Sheehan Disability Scale was used to identify probable "disabling" current mental disorders.

Results: 9,138 healthcare workers participated. Prevalence of screen-positive disorder: 28.1% MDD; 22.5% GAD, 24.0% Panic; 22.2% PTSD; and 6.2% SUD. Overall 45.7% presented any current and 14.5% any disabling current mental disorder. Workers with pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders had almost twice the prevalence than those without. Adjusting for all other variables, odds of any disabling mental disorder were: prior lifetime disorders (TUS: OR=5.74; 95%CI 2.53-13.03; Mood: OR=3.23; 95%CI:2.27-4.60; Anxiety: OR=3.03; 95%CI:2.53-3.62); age category 18-29 years (OR=1.36; 95%CI:1.02-1.82), caring "all of the time" for COVID-19 patients (OR=5.19; 95%CI: 3.61-7.46), female gender (OR=1.58; 95%CI: 1.27-1.96) and having being in quarantine or isolated (OR= 1.60; 95CI:1.31-1.95).

Conclusions: One in seven Spanish healthcare workers screened positive for a disabling mental disorder during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Workers reporting pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders, those frequently exposed to COVID-19 patients, infected or quarantined/isolated, female workers, and auxiliary nurses should be considered groups in need of mental health monitoring and support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rpsmen.2021.05.003DOI Listing
June 2021

Affective symptom dimensions in early-onset psychosis over time: a principal component factor analysis of the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, IiSGM, CIBERSAM, C/Ibiza, 43, 28009, Madrid, Spain.

Early-onset psychosis (EOP) is a complex disorder characterized by a wide range of symptoms, including affective symptoms. Our aim was to (1) examine the dimensional structure of affective symptoms in EOP, (2) evaluate the predominance of the clinical dimensions and (3) assess the progression of the clinical dimensions over a 2-year period. STROBE-compliant prospective principal component factor analysis of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-21 (HDRS-21) at baseline, 6-months, 1-year and 2-year follow-up. We included 108 EOP individuals (mean age = 15.5 ± 1.8 years, 68.5% male). The factor analysis produced a four-factor model including the following dimensions: mania, depression/anxiety, sleep and psychosis. It explained 47.4% of the total variance at baseline, 60.6% of the total variance at 6-months follow-up, 54.5% of the total variance at 1-year follow-up and 49.5% of the total variance at 2-year follow-up. According to the variance explained, the mania factor was predominant at baseline (17.4%), 6-month follow-up (23.5%) and 2-year follow-up (26.1%), while the depression/anxiety factor was predominant at 1-year follow-up (23.1%). The mania factor was the most stable; 58.3% items that appeared in this factor (with a load > 0.4) at any time point appeared in the same factor at ≥ 3/4 time points. Affective symptoms are frequent and persistent in EOP. Mania seems to be the most predominant and stable affective dimension. However, depression and anxiety may gain predominance with time. A comprehensive evaluation of the dimensional structure and the progression of affective symptoms may offer clinical and therapeutic advantages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-021-01815-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Cognitive Enhancers in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Alpha-7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonists for Cognitive Deficits and Negative Symptoms.

Front Psychiatry 2021 6;12:631589. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Biocruces Bizkaia Health Research Institute, Barakaldo, Spain.

Schizophrenia is a severe and enduring disease and is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Cognitive impairment is a core clinical symptom that plays a crucial role in functional outcomes and prognosis, thus making it a relevant treatment target. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists (α7 nAChR) as adjunctive treatment to enhance cognition and ameliorate negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. A search strategy was developed for MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to May 2019. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared antipsychotic treatment plus α7 nAChR agonists with antipsychotic treatment plus placebo and determined their effects on the main cognitive domains proposed by the MATRICS initiative and on negative symptoms. Two authors independently reviewed study eligibility and data extraction and assessed the risk of bias of the studies included. According to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework, we used a random-effects model and assessed the quality of the evidence. Thirteen studies were included in the quantitative analysis. No differences were found in any of the cognitive domains assessed in four RCTs ( = 414). In contrast, nine RCTs ( = 978) presented a small effect in support of α7 nAChR agonists for negative symptoms [standardized mean difference -0.28, 95% CI (-0.56 to -0.00); = 0.05], even though the confidence to support this evidence is low according to the GRADE system. Current evidence is too weak to consider α7 nAChR agonists as an effective add-on treatment to antipsychotics to enhance cognition and negative symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.631589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055861PMC
April 2021

The effect of family environment and psychiatric family history on psychosocial functioning in first-episode psychosis at baseline and after 2 years.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 Aug 12;49:54-68. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Barcelona Clinic Schizophrenia Unit, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Neuroscience Institute, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Medicine, Institut de Neurociències, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Biomedical Research Networking Center for Mental Health Network (CIBERSAM), Barcelona, Spain; August Pi I Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of family environment styles and psychiatric family history on functioning of patients presenting first-episode psychosis (FEP). Patients with FEP and healthy controls (HC) were assessed at baseline and after 2 years. The Functional Assessment Short Test (FAST) was used to assess functional outcome and the Family Environment Scale (FES) to evaluate family environment. Linear regressions evaluated the effect that family environment exerts on functioning at baseline and at 2-year follow-up, when FEP patients were diagnosed according to non-affective (NA-PSYCH) or affective psychoses (A-PSYCH). The influence of a positive parents' psychiatric history on functioning was evaluated through one-way between-groups analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models, after controlling for family environmental styles. At baseline, FEP patients presented moderate functioning impairment, significantly worse than HC (28.65±16.17 versus 3.25±7.92; p<0.001, g = 1.91). At 2-year follow-up, the functioning of NA-PSYCH patients was significantly worse than in A-PSYCH (19.92±14.83 versus 12.46±14.86; p = 0.020, g = 0.50). No specific family environment style was associated with functioning in FEP patients and HC. On the contrary, a positive psychiatric father's history influenced functioning of FEP patients. After 2 years, worse functioning in NA-PSYCH patients was associated with lower rates of active-recreational and achievement orientated family environment and with higher rates of moral-religious emphasis and control. In A-PSYCH, worse functioning was associated with higher rates of conflict in the family. Both family environment and psychiatric history influence psychosocial functioning, with important implications for early interventions, that should involve both patients and caregivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2021.03.015DOI Listing
August 2021

Predictors of persistence in patients with schizophrenia treated with aripiprazole once-monthly long-acting injection in the Spanish clinical practice: a retrospective, observational study.

Eur Psychiatry 2021 Apr 12;64(1):e40. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Background: Poor adherence to antipsychotic drugs is a major problem in schizophrenia management and one of the most important risk factors for relapse and hospitalization. To date, there is little evidence on persistence predictors with long-acting injectable antipsychotics, especially with aripiprazole once-monthly (AOM). This study (NCT03130478) aimed to describe the impact of demographic and clinical characteristics on persistence with AOM treatment in real-world setting.

Methods: This was an observational, retrospective, non-interventional study that included adult patients with schizophrenia who were initiated on AOM during a schizophrenia-related hospitalization. Data were retrospectively collected from patients' medical records. The primary variable was persistence with AOM, measured as the number of days from AOM initiation up to all-cause AOM discontinuation during the first six months after treatment index.

Results: 140 patients were enrolled and 91 fulfilled the selection criteria. Six months after AOM initiation, 65 (71.4%) patients were still receiving AOM treatment, whereas 26 (28.6%) were not. The mean (standard deviation) time to AOM treatment discontinuation in the first six months was 138.1 (6.8) days, with most of the patients discontinuing at the first 28 days. The risk of AOM discontinuation in the first six months increases 1.05-fold annually since schizophrenia diagnosis (p=0.003); moreover, this risk increases 2.86-fold in patients with concomitant schizophrenia medication at AOM initiation compared to patients without concomitant schizophrenia treatments (p=0.02).

Conclusions: Main factors predicting persistence with AOM treatment at six months in clinical practice are fewer years since schizophrenia diagnosis and not receiving concomitant schizophrenia treatments at AOM initiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/j.eurpsy.2021.23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8260564PMC
April 2021

Predictors of persistence in patients with schizophrenia treated with aripiprazole once-monthly long-acting injection in the Spanish clinical practice: a retrospective, observational study.

Eur Psychiatry 2021 Apr 12;64(1):e40. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Background: Poor adherence to antipsychotic drugs is a major problem in schizophrenia management and one of the most important risk factors for relapse and hospitalization. To date, there is little evidence on persistence predictors with long-acting injectable antipsychotics, especially with aripiprazole once-monthly (AOM). This study (NCT03130478) aimed to describe the impact of demographic and clinical characteristics on persistence with AOM treatment in real-world setting.

Methods: This was an observational, retrospective, non-interventional study that included adult patients with schizophrenia who were initiated on AOM during a schizophrenia-related hospitalization. Data were retrospectively collected from patients' medical records. The primary variable was persistence with AOM, measured as the number of days from AOM initiation up to all-cause AOM discontinuation during the first six months after treatment index.

Results: 140 patients were enrolled and 91 fulfilled the selection criteria. Six months after AOM initiation, 65 (71.4%) patients were still receiving AOM treatment, whereas 26 (28.6%) were not. The mean (standard deviation) time to AOM treatment discontinuation in the first six months was 138.1 (6.8) days, with most of the patients discontinuing at the first 28 days. The risk of AOM discontinuation in the first six months increases 1.05-fold annually since schizophrenia diagnosis (p=0.003); moreover, this risk increases 2.86-fold in patients with concomitant schizophrenia medication at AOM initiation compared to patients without concomitant schizophrenia treatments (p=0.02).

Conclusions: Main factors predicting persistence with AOM treatment at six months in clinical practice are fewer years since schizophrenia diagnosis and not receiving concomitant schizophrenia treatments at AOM initiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/j.eurpsy.2021.23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8260564PMC
April 2021

Clinical practice guideline on pharmacological and psychological management of adult patients with depression and a comorbid substance use disorder.

Adicciones 2021 Mar 12;0(0):1559. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

IMIM-Institut Hospital del Mar d'Investigacions Mèdiques.

Co-occurrence of depression and a substance use disorder (SUD) in patients who present dual diagnoses has been long recognized as an important consideration in clinical practice. This review synthesizes the evidence of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for comorbid depressive disorders and SUDs while providing clinical recommendations about the best interventions to address these patients. The best evidence from randomized controlled trials was used to evaluate treatment options. The strength of recommendations was described using the GRADE approach. Our results suggest that 1) In patients with depression and alcohol consumption, the administration of non-selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants instead of SSRI is recommended for improvement of depressive symptoms (strong recommendation). Neither SSRI (strong recommendation) nor non-SSRI (weak recommendation) antidepressants are recommended for reduction in alcohol consumption. 2) In patients with depression and cannabis use, the use of venlafaxine is not recommended (weak recommendation). 3) In patients with depression and cocaine consumption, the use of SSRI antidepressants for improving depressive symptoms (weak recommendation) or to reduce cocaine use is not recommended (strong recommendation). The use of non-SSRI antidepressants is only recommended for improving depressive symptoms (strong recommendation). 4) The administration of bupropion to reduce nicotine consumption is not recommended (strong recommendation). 5) Regarding psychological treatment, in patients with depression and co-occurring alcohol disorder, both pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioural therapy have positive effects on internalizing symptoms and in reducing alcohol consumption (weak recommendation). Our review suggests the need for more research in this area and for larger, multisite, randomized studies to provide more definite evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1559DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical Practice Guideline on Pharmacological and Psychological management of adult patients with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders and a comorbid substance use.

Adicciones 2021 Mar 11;0(0):1504. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

CIBERSAM. Universitat de Barcelona.

Although correct diagnosis and management of patients with schizophrenia and a comorbid substance use disorder (SUD) would determine a decrease in morbidity and mortality in these patients, development of efficient therapeutic strategies is still pending. We present recommendations on the pharmacological and psychological management of these patients following the 'PICO' structure (Patient-Intervention-Comparison-Outcomes). Evaluation of the quality of studies and summary of the evidence for each question was performed following the recommendations of the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) working group. Our results suggest: 1) In patients with schizophrenia and cannabis use disorder, it is not possible to recommend one antipsychotic drug over another (between olanzapine, risperidone or haloperidol) for improving psychotic symptoms, reducing cannabis use, or improving pragmatic variables (weak recommendation). Clozapine cannot be recommended to reduce cannabis use (weak recommendation). 2) In patients with schizophrenia and cocaine use disorder we recommend haloperidol over olanzapine to reduce craving (moderate recommendation), and olanzapine over haloperidol to improve motor side effects in these patients (moderate recommendation). 3) In patients with schizophrenia and alcohol use disorder while naltrexone is recommended to reduce alcohol use (in terms of reducing alcohol craving) (weak recommendation), there is insufficient evidence to make any recommendation on the use of adjuvant acamprosate (weak recommendation). 4) In patients with schizophrenia and nicotine use disorder, adjuvant bupropion and varenicline are recommended for reducing nicotine use and nicotine abstinence (strong/moderate recommendation). 5) In patients with schizophrenia and polydrug use disorder, second-generation over first-generation antipsychotic drugs and olanzapine over other second-generation antipsychotics are recommended to improve psychotic symptoms (moderate/weak recommendation).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1504DOI Listing
March 2021

Overview of lithium's use: a nationwide survey.

Int J Bipolar Disord 2021 Mar 9;9(1):10. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Bioaraba, Research Group on Severe Mental Illness; Osakidetza, Araba University Hospital, Psychiatry Service; Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurosciences, University of the Basque Country UPV / EHU, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain.

Background: Lithium is considered the gold standard treatment for bipolar disorder (BD). Current clinical guidelines and scientific evidence support its use as a first-line treatment in BD. However, over the last two decades, there has been a downward tendency in lithium's use in several developed countries. Based on a nationwide survey, this study's objective is to analyze in a large sample of psychiatrists relevant issues of the use of lithium salts in BD.

Methods: Data were collected through an anonymous survey sent by email among 500 psychiatrists who belong to a National Society of Psychiatry (Spanish Society of Biological Psychiatry). The survey is a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 21 items on the most key aspects of lithium's use (indication, dosage, monitoring, and information for patients).

Results: 212 psychiatrists completed the survey. 70% of psychiatrists prescribe lithium to more than 50% of patients diagnosed with BD. Adverse effects are the main reason not to use lithium salts. Over 75% of the participants consider lithium salts the treatment of choice for the maintenance phase of BD, both in women and men. Most of the participants (> 50%) start lithium after the first affective episode, use conservative plasma concentrations (0.6-0.8 mmol/L), and generally prescribe it twice a day. 57% of psychiatrists who treat patients under 18 do not use lithium in this population. About 70% of the survey respondents use official protocols to inform and monitor patients on lithium treatment.

Conclusions: From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that the use of lithium in Spain is in line with the recommendations of the main international clinical guidelines and current scientific literature. The first reason not to prescribe lithium in our country is the perception of its adverse effects and not the aspects related to its practical use or its effectiveness. Considering that BD is a chronic disease with a typical onset in adolescence, the low rate of prescription of lithium salts in patients under 18 must be thoroughly studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40345-020-00215-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941362PMC
March 2021
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