Publications by authors named "Ana González"

405 Publications

Glass Ionomer Sealants Can Prevent Dental Caries but Cannot Prevent Posteruptive Breakdown on Molars Affected by Molar Incisor Hypomineralization: One-Year Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

Caries Res 2021 Jun 9:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

To evaluate the preventive effect of glass ionomer cement (GIC) against dental caries and posteruptive breakdown (PEB) on molars affected by molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH). In this randomized clinical trial, 77 children aged 5-9 years with at least 1 MIH-affected molar and without PEB or dentin caries lesions (n = 228) were included and randomly allocated to one of the following groups: (1) MIH-affected molars that remained unsealed and (2) MIH-affected molars that received GIC sealants. Dental caries and PEB were clinically evaluated after 6 and 12 months. Associations between dental caries and PEB with independent variables were evaluated using logistic regression analysis (p < 0.05). The MIH-affected molars allocated to the GIC sealant group were less likely to develop dental caries compared to those allocated to the unsealed group (OR = 0.23; 95% CI 0.06-0.95). Conversely, application of a GIC sealant was not associated with prevention of PEB (p = 0.313). Furthermore, MIH-affected molars presenting yellow-brown opacities were almost 5 times more likely to develop dental caries (p = 0.013) and PEB (p = 0.001) compared to those presenting white-creamy opacities. We can conclude that GIC sealants can prevent dental caries on MIH-affected molars; however, the same protective effect was not observed for PEB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000516266DOI Listing
June 2021

Alimentary and Pharmaceutical Approach to Natural Antimicrobials against Gastrointestinal Infection.

Foods 2021 May 19;10(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Departmento Microbiologia y Ecología, Facultad Ciencias Biológicas, Universitat de València, C/Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Burjassot, Spain.

Incidence of infection (CDI) has been increasing in recent decades due to different factors, namely (i) extended use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, (ii) transmission within asymptomatic and susceptible patients, and (iii) unbalanced gastrointestinal microbiome and collateral diseases that favor gastrointestinal domination and toxin production. Although antibiotic therapies have resulted in successful control of CDI in the last 20 years, the development of novel strategies is urged in order to combat the capability of to generate and acquire resistance to conventional treatments and its consequent proliferation. In this regard, vegetable and marine bioactives have emerged as alternative and effective molecules to fight against this concerning pathogen. The present review examines the effectiveness of natural antimicrobials from vegetable and algae origin that have been used experimentally in in vitro and in vivo settings to prevent and combat CDI. The aim of the present work is to contribute to accurately describe the prospective use of emerging antimicrobials as future nutraceuticals and preventive therapies, namely (i) as dietary supplement to prevent CDI and reduce CDI recurrence by means of microbiota modulation and (ii) administering them complementarily to other treatments requiring antibiotics to prevent gut invasion and infection progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10051124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8159093PMC
May 2021

Floral anatomy, embryology, seed, and fruit development in Cephalanthus (Naucleeae-Rubiaceae), with emphasis on C. glabratus.

Protoplasma 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste (UNNE-CONICET), Sargento Cabral 2131, C. C. 209, C. P. 3400, Corrientes, Argentina.

Information on the reproductive anatomy in genera of the tribe Naucleeae, particularly Cephalanthus, is scarce and fragmented. Of the six species in the genus, only the mature megagamethophyte of Cephalanthus occidentalis has been described. This study aims to provide information on embryological aspects in flowers of C. glabratus and to analyze the morphology and anatomy of the flowers, fruit, and seed in the six species of the genus. Cephalanthus glabratus have imperfect flowers: pistillate (PF) and staminate (SF). In the PF, the ovules are functional, while in the SF, they atrophy during the formation of the embryo sac. The mature ovule has a single integument, corresponds to the Phyllis type and the embryo sac is a Polygonum type, forming only in the PF. The presence of pollenkitt and secondary presentation of pollen were observed in the SF, as well as in the pollen formation previously described, whereas in the PF, they are absent, due to the collapse of the pollen grains inside the indehiscent anthers. The analysis of the ontogeny of the ovular excrescence in C. glabratus determined its funicular origin, calling it an aril. Its development is a pre-anthesis event, initiated during megasporogenesis. In seeds, the aril is a fleshy, white appendage which almost completely envelops the seeds of Cephalanthus, except for Cephalanthus natalensis where it is noticeably more reduced. Studies of the fruit in Cephalanthus species indicate that the infructescence is a dry schizocarp which separates into uni-seminated mericarps, except in C. natalensis that has fleshy indehiscent fruit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-021-01664-8DOI Listing
May 2021

A comparative approach to understanding the ovule, seed, and fruit development in Bulbostylis (Cyperaceae: Cyperoideae: Abildgaardieae).

Protoplasma 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Corrientes, Argentina.

In the present work, we study the ovule, seed, and fruit development in six Bulbostylis species in order to characterize the genus in a comparative approach and to identify the characteristics that can be used in taxonomy and phylogeny. Flowers and fruits at different developmental stages were analyzed using LM and SEM after processing according to standard techniques. The species studied have the following: anatropous and bitegmic ovules, weak crassinucellar ovules, obturator of integumentary origin, monosporic embryo sac of the Polygonum type, nuclear endosperm, hypostase formation, seed coat formed by tanniferous endotegmen and exotesta, and Bulbostylis-type embryo. On the other hand, the pericarp development constitutes the main variation within Bulbostylis since the cells of the exocarp may or may not present starch grains, and their inner periclinal walls may be slightly or deeply concave depending on the degree of development of the mesocarp sclereids. In a taxonomic context, the results herein obtained are in conflict with studies which suggest infrageneric groupings based on fruit micromorphology, and also with the relationship among the Bulbostylis species based on molecular analysis. This work contributes to a better understanding of the reproductive anatomy and embryology in Bulbostylis, and reveals the first insights about the origin of multiple embryos in Cyperaceae. Given the frequent presence of polyembryony in Bulbostylis, and the poor mention of this condition in the family, this work highlights an aspect in the anatomy of Cyperaceae that must be re-explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-021-01649-7DOI Listing
April 2021

Comparative anatomo-radiological study of intrahepatic venous vascularization in the Spain.

Ann Anat 2021 Sep 22;237:151740. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Institute of Clinical and Functional Anatomy, Medical University of Innsbruck (MUI), Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address:

Background: Anatomic variations in the hepatic venous system are the least understood aspect of hepatic anatomy. The variations are diverse, and data are lacking with respect to the population of Spain and methods of detection. The objective was to examine morphological patterns of variations in hepatic venous vascularization using cadaveric dissections vs. radiological imaging, and to analyze the findings with respect to Spain and to published studies.

Methods: Thirty-one livers were anatomically dissected and analyzed for their hepatic venous anatomy and then compared to the venous anatomy of livers examined in 216 CT scans from 119 men and 97 women, ranging between 27 and 89 years of age. Statistical analysis was done using the Chi squared and Fisher homogeneity tests.

Results: The hepatic portal vein showed morphological variations in cadavers vs. CT of 67.3% vs. 67.6% (p-I), 29% vs. 12.2% (p-II), 0% vs. 14.6% (p-III), 0% vs. 14.6% (p-IV), 3.2% vs. 0.5% (p-V) and 6.5% vs. 1.9% (p-VI), respectively in cadavers vs. CT. Hepatic vein pattern variation were found in 64.5% vs. 50.7% (h-I), 32.2% vs. 31.5% (h-II), 0% vs. 2.3% (h-III), 0% vs. 4.7% (h-IV), respectively in dissections vs. CT). In Accessory Hepatic Veins the frequency in pattern variation was 64.5% vs. 18.8% (a-2.1), 29.0% vs. 8.0% (a-2.2), 58.1% vs. 11.3% (a-2.3), 9.7% vs. 0.9% (a-2.4), 67.7% vs. 16.9% (a-2.5), 9.7% vs. 4.2% (a-2.6) and 0% vs. 0.5% (a-2.7), respectively, in cadavers vs. CT. CT showed in 27.2% no accessory hepatic veins. Sex was not a factor influencing patterns of variation.

Conclusion: Anatomical variants of the hepatic portal vein, the hepatic vein and accessory hepatic veins are very diverse and show greater variability in the specimens compared to those detected with radiological images, finding a wider spectrum of variations as it allows the clinician to have a more precise definition of the vasculature. A higher precision in the definition of anatomical variations is warranted for surgical planning in liver resection and transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2021.151740DOI Listing
September 2021

Molecular diagnosis in non-small-cell lung cancer: expert opinion on and testing.

J Clin Pathol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, Spain.

The effectiveness of targeted therapies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) depends on the accurate determination of the genomic status of the tumour. For this reason, molecular analyses to detect genetic rearrangements in some genes (ie, , , ) have become standard in patients with advanced disease. Since immunohistochemistry is easier to implement and interpret, it is normally used as the screening procedure, while fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) is used to confirm the rearrangement and decide on ambiguous immunostainings. Although FISH is considered the most sensitive method for the detection of and rearrangements, the interpretation of results requires detailed guidelines. In this review, we discuss the various technologies available to evaluate and genomic rearrangements using these techniques. Other techniques such as real-time PCR and next-generation sequencing have been developed recently to evaluate and gene rearrangements, but some limitations prevent their full implementation in the clinical setting. Similarly, liquid biopsies have the potential to change the treatment of patients with advanced lung cancer, but further research is required before this technology can be applied in routine clinical practice. We discuss the technical requirements of laboratories in the light of quality assurance programmes. Finally, we review the recent updates made to the guidelines for the determination of molecular biomarkers in patients with NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2021-207490DOI Listing
April 2021

SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence in Household Domestic Ferrets ().

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 2;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Animal Pathology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain.

Animal infections with SARS-CoV-2 have been reported in different countries and several animal species have been proven to be susceptible to infection with SARS-CoV-2 both naturally and by experimental infection. Moreover, infections under natural conditions in more than 20 mink farms have been reported where humans could have been the source of infection for minks. However, little information is available about the susceptibility of pet animals under natural conditions and currently there is no SARS-CoV-2 epidemiological assessment occurrence in household ferrets. In this study, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was evaluated in serum samples obtained from 127 household ferrets () in the Province of Valencia (Spain). Two ferrets tested positive to SARS-CoV-2 (1.57%) by in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on receptor binding domain (RBD) of Spike antigen. Furthermore, anti-RBD SARS-CoV-2 antibodies persisted at detectable levels in a seropositive SARS-CoV-2 domestic ferret beyond 129 days since the first time antibodies were detected. This study reports for the first time the evidence of household pet ferrets exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in Spain to date.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11030667DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001492PMC
March 2021

A cross-sectional study of Leishmania infantum infection in stray cats in the city of Zaragoza (Spain) using serology and PCR.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Mar 25;14(1):178. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Laboratorio de Inmunopatología Clínica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.

Background: Feline leishmaniosis is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by Leishmania spp. Leishmania infection in dogs is prevalent in the Mediterranean basin, but in other animals, such as cats, it could also play a role in the epidemiology of the disease. Information on the geographical distribution and epidemiological features of L. infantum infection in cats is scarce, particularly in urban stray cats living in regions where canine leishmaniosis is endemic. As diagnosis can be challenging, combining different serological and molecular methods is a useful approach. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of infection of L. infantum in apparently healthy stray cats in an endemic region of Spain (Zaragoza city) using serological and molecular methods, and to compare the results of the different techniques.

Methods: The prevalence of Leishmania infection was studied in stray cats captured in urban and peri-urban areas of Zaragoza. Blood was collected from each animal for serology and molecular analysis. Three serological methods, namely the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot (WB), were used to detect L. infantum antibodies and a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was used to detect L. infantum DNA. The results were analyzed by Fisher's exact test and Cohen's kappa statistic (κ)  to assess the level of agreement between the diagnostic techniques.

Results: Serological analysis of blood samples from 180 stray cats revealed 2.2% (4/179) Leishmania infection positivity by IFAT, 2.8% (5/179) by ELISA and 14.5% (26/179) by WB. Leishmania DNA was detected by qPCR in 5.6% (10/179) of the cats. Sixteen cats (8.9%) tested positive by only one serological technique and four tested positive by all three serological methods used. The overall rate of infected cats (calculated as the number of cats seropositive and/or qPCR positive) was 15.6%, and only two cats tested positive by all the diagnostic methods. A significant association was found between male cats and a positive qPCR result. Comparison of the techniques revealed a fair agreement in seropositivity between blood qPCR and IFAT (κ = 0.26), blood qPCR and ELISA (κ = 0.24), WB and ELISA (κ = 0.37) and WB and IFAT (κ = 0.40). The highest agreement between seropositive results was between IFAT and ELISA (κ = 0.89), and the lowest was between blood qPCR and WB (κ = 0.19). The prevalence of the feline leukemia virus antigen was 4.49% (8/178 cats) and that of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibody was 6.74% (12/178), while co-infection with both retroviruses was observed in one female cat (1/178). Leishmania ELISA and IFAT seropositivity were statistically associated with FIV status by the chi-square test.

Conclusions: The results obtained in this study, using serological tests and qPCR, indicate the existence of L. infantum asymptomatic infection in apparently healthy stray cats in the city of Zaragoza, an endemic area in Spain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04682-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7992781PMC
March 2021

Serological evidence of SARS-CoV-2 and co-infections in stray cats in Spain.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Clinical Immunology Laboratory, Veterinary Faculty, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.

A new coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 emerged in Wuhan in 2019 and spread rapidly to the rest of the world causing the pandemic disease named coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). Little information is known about the impact this virus can cause upon domestic and stray animals. The potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 has become of great interest in cats due to transmission among domestic cats and the severe phenotypes described recently in a domestic cat. In this context, there is a public health warning that needs to be investigated in relation with the epidemiological role of this virus in stray cats. Consequently, in order to know the impact of the possible transmission chain, blood samples were obtained from 114 stray cats in the city of Zaragoza (Spain) and tested for SARS-CoV-2 and other selected pathogens susceptible to immunosuppression including Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania infantum, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) from January to October 2020. Four cats (3.51%), based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the receptor binding domain (RBD) of Spike antigen, were seroreactive to SARS-CoV-2. T. gondii, L. infantum, FeLV and FIV seroprevalence was 12.28%, 16.67%, 4.39% and 19.30%, respectively. Among seropositive cats to SARS-CoV-2, three cats were also seropositive to other pathogens including antibodies detected against T. gondii and FIV (n = 1); T. gondii (n = 1); and FIV and L. infantum (n = 1). The subjects giving positive for SARS-CoV-2 were captured in urban areas of the city in different months: January 2020 (2/4), February 2020 (1/4) and July 2020 (1/4). This study revealed, for the first time, the exposure of stray cats to SARS-CoV-2 in Spain and the existence of concomitant infections with other pathogens including T. gondii, L. infantum and FIV, suggesting that immunosuppressed animals might be especially susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.14062DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical outcome of COVID-19 in patients with adult congenital heart disease.

Heart 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Departament of Cardiology, University Heart Center, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Aims: Patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) are a potentially vulnerable patient cohort in case of COVID-19. Some cardiac defects may be associated with a poor COVID-19 outcome. Risk estimation in ACHD is currently based on expert opinion. The aim of this study was to collect clinical outcome data and to identify risk factors for a complicated course of COVID-19 in patients with ACHD.

Methods: Twenty-five ACHD centres in nine European countries participated in the study. Consecutive patients with ACHD diagnosed with COVID-19 presenting to one of the participating centres between 27 March and 6 June 2020 were included. A complicated disease course was defined as hospitalisation for COVID-19 requiring non-invasive or invasive ventilation and/or inotropic support, or a fatal outcome.

Results: Of 105 patients with a mean age of 38±13 years (58% women), 13 had a complicated disease course, of whom 5 died. In univariable analysis, age (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7, per 5 years), ≥2 comorbidities (OR 7.1, 95% CI 2.1 to 24.5), body mass index of >25 kg/m (OR 7.2, 95% CI 1.9 to 28.3) and cyanotic heart disease (OR 13.2, 95% CI 2.5 to 68.4) were associated with a complicated disease course. In a multivariable logistic regression model, cyanotic heart disease was the most important predictor (OR 60.0, 95% CI 7.6 to 474.0).

Conclusions: Among patients with ACHD, general risk factors (age, obesity and multiple comorbidities) are associated with an increased risk of complicated COVID-19 course. Congenital cardiac defects at particularly high risk were cyanotic lesions, including unrepaired cyanotic defects or Eisenmenger syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-318467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944416PMC
March 2021

Prevalence of microfilariae, antigen and antibodies of feline dirofilariosis infection (Dirofilaria immitis) in the Zaragoza metropolitan area, Spain.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2021 Jan 28;23:100541. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Clinical Immunology Laboratory, Veterinary Faculty, University of Zaragoza, Miguel Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain; Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón-IA2, Universidad de Zaragoza-CITA, Miguel Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain; Department of Animal Pathology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Zaragoza, Miguel Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain.

Feline heartworm disease is a vector-borne parasitical disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis. Heartworm infection in dogs is prevalent in the Mediterranean countries. Information about the geographical distribution and epidemiological features of D. immitis infection in cats is scarce, particularly in urban stray cats that live within endemic regions for canine heartworm disease. The aim of the current study was to determine the seroprevalence of antigen and antibodies to D. immitis in feral cats in Zaragoza city, an endemic region of Spain. For this purpose, blood samples were examined for microfilariae using a direct blood smear technique and the modified Knott test. Two serological techniques for anti-D. immitis antibody detection (Solo Step® FH and in-house ELISA) and three different commercial antigen tests (DiroChek®, MegaELISA® DIRO Antigen and FASTest® HW) were performed. Blood samples from 250 stray cats were tested: 61 cats (24.40%) tested positive by the in-house ELISA, and 9 cats gave positive (3.6%) results with Solo Step® FH. The global seroprevalence of D. immitis in the feline population of the studied area of Zaragoza was 25.20% (63/250) including Solo Step® FH result and in-house ELISA. The blood exam for all samples was negative when evaluating for microfilariae and not a single cat was positive for antigen testing. This study demonstrates the presence of D. immitis infection in Zaragoza city. Veterinarians working in endemic areas should be aware of this infection in cats at risk and their susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2021.100541DOI Listing
January 2021

Ancient relaxation of an obligate short-day requirement in common bean through loss of CONSTANS-like gene function.

Curr Biol 2021 Apr 19;31(8):1643-1652.e2. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Grupo de Genética del Desarrollo de Plantas, Misión Biológica de Galicia-CSIC, PO Box 28, 36080 Pontevedra, Spain. Electronic address:

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a major global food staple and source of dietary protein that was domesticated independently in Mexico and Andean South America. Its subsequent development as a crop of importance worldwide has been enabled by genetic relaxation of the strict short-day requirement typical of wild forms, but the genetic basis for this change is not well understood. Recently, a loss of photoperiod sensitivity was shown to result from mutations in the phytochrome photoreceptor gene Ppd/PHYA3 that arose independently within the two major domesticated lineages. Here, we define a second major photoperiod sensitivity locus, at which recessive alleles associate with deleterious mutations affecting the CONSTANS-like gene COL2. A wider survey of sequence variation in over 800 diverse lines, including wild, landrace, and domesticated accessions, show that distinct col2 haplotypes are associated with early flowering in Andean and Mesoamerican germplasm. The relative frequencies and distributions of COL2 and PHYA3 haplotypes imply that photoperiod adaptation developed in two phases within each gene pool: an initial reduction in sensitivity through impairment of COL2 function and subsequent complete loss through PHYA3. Gene expression analyses indicate that COL2 functions downstream of PHYA3 to repress expression of FT genes and may function in parallel with PvE1, the bean ortholog of a key legume-specific flowering repressor. Collectively, these results define the molecular basis for a key phenological adaptation, reveal a striking convergence in the naturally replicated evolution of this major crop, and further emphasize the wider evolutionary lability of CONSTANS effects on flowering time control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2021.01.075DOI Listing
April 2021

Probiotic cellulose: Antibiotic-free biomaterials with enhanced antibacterial activity.

Acta Biomater 2021 04 30;124:244-253. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain. Electronic address:

The alarming increase of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, causing conventional treatments of bacterial infections to become increasingly inefficient, is one of the biggest threats to global health. Here, we have developed probiotic cellulose, an antibiotic-free biomaterial for the treatment of severe skin infections and chronic wounds. This composite biomaterial was in-depth characterized by Gram stain, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Results demonstrated that probiotic cellulose consists of dense films of cellulose nanofibers, free of cellulose-producing bacteria, completely invaded by live probiotics (Lactobacillus fermentum or Lactobacillus gasseri). Viability assays, including time evolution of pH and reducing capacity against electrochromic polyoxometalate, confirmed that probiotics within the cellulose matrix are not only alive but also metabolically active, a key point for the use of probiotic cellulose as an antibiotic-free antibacterial biomaterial. Antibacterial assays in pathogen-favorable media, a real-life infection scenario, demonstrated that probiotic cellulose strongly reduces the viability of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), the most active pathogens in severe skin infections and chronic wounds. Likewise, probiotic cellulose was also found to be effective to inhibit the proliferation of methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA). The combination of the properties of bacterial cellulose as wound dressing biomaterial and the antibacterial activity of probiotics makes probiotic cellulose an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment of topical infections, including severe and hard-to-heal chronic wounds. In addition, probiotic cellulose was obtained by a one-pot synthetic approach under mild conditions, not requiring the long and expensive chemical treatments to purify the genuine bacterial cellulose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.01.039DOI Listing
April 2021

Characterization of QTL and Environmental Interactions Controlling Flowering Time in Andean Common Bean ( L.).

Front Plant Sci 2020 14;11:599462. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Grupo de Genética del Desarrollo de Plantas, Misión Biológica de Galicia-CSIC, Pontevedra, Spain.

Genetic variation for response of flowering time to photoperiod plays an important role in adaptation to environments with different photoperiods, and as consequence is an important contributor to plant productivity and yield. To elucidate the genetic control of flowering time [days to flowering (DTF); growing degree days (GDD)] in common bean, a facultative short-day plant, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed in a recombinant inbred mapping population derived from a cultivated accession and a photoperiod sensitive landrace, grown in different long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) environments by using a multiple-environment QTL model approach. A total of 37 QTL across 17 chromosome regions and 36 QTL-by-QTL interactions were identified for six traits associated with time to flowering and response to photoperiod. The DTF QTL accounted for 28 and 11% on average of the phenotypic variation in the population across LD and SD environments, respectively. Of these, a genomic region on chromosome 4 harboring the major DTF QTL was associated with both flowering time in LD and photoperiod response traits, controlling more than 60% of phenotypic variance, whereas a major QTL on chromosome 9 explained up to 32% of flowering time phenotypic variation in SD. Different epistatic interactions were found in LD and SD environments, and the presence of significant QTL × environment (QE) and epistasis × environment interactions implies that flowering time control may rely on different genes and genetic pathways under inductive and non-inductive conditions. Here, we report the identification of a novel major locus controlling photoperiod sensitivity on chromosome 4, which might interact with other loci for controlling common bean flowering time and photoperiod response. Our results have also demonstrated the importance of these interactions for flowering time control in common bean, and point to the likely complexity of flowering time pathways. This knowledge will help to identify and develop opportunities for adaptation and breeding of this legume crop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.599462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840541PMC
January 2021

Plasmonic foam platforms for air quality monitoring.

Nanoscale 2021 Jan;13(3):1738-1744

Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, UNAM, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, C.P. 22800, Ensenada, B.C., Mexico.

Plasmonic reversible gas sensors are of paramount importance for the monitoring of indoor environments. Herein, we design and engineer a plasmonic foam, with a high surface area, confined inside a capillary glass tube for the live monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) in closed environments using surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering. The illumination of the sensor with light during the flow of air allows the live monitoring of the concentration of atmospheric CO through surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering. The sensor was prepared with a detection range from 10 to 40 ppm, due to health needs. The results show a sensitive, selective, reversible and robust sensor applicable to the monitoring of CO levels but also to other gas species upon appropriate functionalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr07686dDOI Listing
January 2021

Rapid mixed-methods assessment of COVID-19 impact on Latinx sexual minority men and Latinx transgender women.

PLoS One 2020 31;15(12):e0244421. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Economics, Sociology, and Statistics, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California, United States of America.

We conducted a rapid, mixed-methods assessment to understand how COVID-19 affected Latinx sexual minority men (LSMM) and transgender women (LTGW). Using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing software, one interviewer called 52 participants (randomly sampled from a larger HIV prevention pilot study aiming to increase HIV knowledge and testing frequency; n = 36 LSMM and n = 16 LTGW) between 04/27/20-05/18/20. We quantified core domains using the Epidemic-Pandemic Impacts Inventory scale and provided important context through open-ended qualitative questions assessing: 1) COVID-19 infection history and experiences with quarantine; 2) Health and healthcare access; 3) Employment and economic impact of COVID-19. Participants reported increases in physical conflict or verbal arguments with a partner (13.5%) or other adult(s) (19.2%) due to stressors associated with the safer-at-home order. Participants also reported increased alcohol consumption (23.1%), problems with sleep (67.3%) and mental health (78.4%). Further, disruptions in access to Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis or PrEP-a daily pill to prevent HIV-occurred (33.3% of 18 participants who reported being on PrEP). Many said they received less medical attention than usual (34.6%), and LTGW reported delays in critical gender-affirming hormones/procedures. Half of the participants lost their jobs (50.0%); many undocumented participants relayed additional financial concerns because they did not qualify for financial assistance. Though no COVID-19 infections were noted, COVID-19 dramatically impacted other aspects of health and overall wellbeing of LSMM and LTGW. Public health responses should address the stressors faced by LSMM and LTGW during the COVID-19 pandemic and the impact on wellbeing.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0244421PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774921PMC
January 2021

Evaluation of the performance of three serological tests for diagnosis of Leishmania infantum infection in dogs using latent class analysis.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2020 4;29(4):e018020. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Laboratorio de Inmunopatología Clínica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, España.

Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a disease caused by Leishmania infantum. Serological methods are the most common diagnostic techniques used for the diagnosis of the CanL. The objective of our study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of one in-house ELISA kit (ELISA UNIZAR) and three commercially available serological tests (MEGACOR Diagnostik GmbH) including an immunochromatographic rapid test (FASTest LEISH®), an immunofluorescent antibody test (MegaFLUO LEISH®) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MegaELISA LEISH®), using latent class models in a Bayesian analysis. Two hundred fifteen serum samples were included. The highest sensitivity was achieved for FASTest LEISH® (99.38%), ELISA UNIZAR (99.37%), MegaFLUO LEISH® (99.36%) followed by MegaELISA LEISH® (98.49%). The best specificity was obtained by FASTest LEISH® (98.43%), followed by ELISA UNIZAR (97.50%), whilst MegaFLUO LEISH® and MegaELISA LEISH® obtained the lower specificity (91.94% and 91.93%, respectively). The results of present study indicate that the immunochromatographic rapid test evaluated FASTest LEISH® show similar levels of sensitivity and specificity to the quantitative commercial tests. Among quantitative serological tests, sensitivity and specificity were similar considering ELISA or IFAT techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612020105DOI Listing
January 2021

Descemet's Membrane Detachment: An Intraoperative Complication in Cataract Surgery with Phacoemulsification.

Int Med Case Rep J 2020 1;13:673-677. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, Research Department Clínica La Luz, 1148 Lima, Peru.

Descemet's membrane detachment (DMD) is a complication fundamentally associated with cataract surgery, the subclinical presentation being higher than expected. There are many varied treatments, from simple observation to penetrating keratoplasty. We present a case report of a 78-year-old male patient, without comorbidities, who underwent cataract surgery with phacoemulsification plus intraocular lens implantation in the capsular bag of the left eye. During the intraoperative procedure, he presented a DMD (height of 350 um and length of 3 mm in Zone 1 according to the HELP algorithm), managed with adaptive viscoelastic under the soft-shell technique in the same operative act, injection of iso-expansile SF6 (20%) intracameral plus postural positioning for 2 hours carried out 48 hours after surgery plus intensive topical treatment with hypertonic sodium chloride and steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. At 72 hours after the operation of the application of the gas bubble, he presented with a transparent cornea and a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/80, which finally for his ophthalmological control at 8 weeks presented definitive resolution of the case in the AS-OCT and with a BCVA of 20/30.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IMCRJ.S283770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7718970PMC
December 2020

Morphing Projections: a new visual technique for fast and interactive large-scale analysis of biomedical datasets.

Bioinformatics 2020 Nov 27. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Section of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario de Cabueñes, Gijón, Spain.

Motivation: Biomedical research entails analyzing high dimensional records of biomedical features with hundreds or thousands of samples each. This often involves using also complementary clinical metadata, as well as a broad user domain knowledge. Common data analytics software makes use of machine learning algorithms or data visualization tools. However, they are frequently one-way analyses, providing little room for the user to reconfigure the steps in light of the observed results. In other cases, reconfigurations involve large latencies, requiring a retraining of algorithms or a large pipeline of actions. The complex and multiway nature of the problem, nonetheless, suggests that user interaction feedback is a key element to boost the cognitive process of analysis, and must be both broad and fluid.

Results: In this paper we present a technique for biomedical data analytics, based on blending meaningful views in an efficient manner, allowing to provide a natural smooth way to transition among different but complementary representations of data and knowledge. Our hypothesis is that the confluence of diverse complementary information from different domains on a highly interactive interface allows the user to discover relevant relationships or generate new hypotheses to be investigated by other means. We illustrate the potential of this approach with two case studies involving gene expression data and clinical metadata, as representative examples of high dimensional, multidomain, biomedical data.

Availability And Implementation: Code and demo app to reproduce the results available at https://gitlab.com/idiazblanco/morphing-projections-demo-and-dataset-preparation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btaa989DOI Listing
November 2020

Management of Secondary Keratouveitis in a Wasp Sting Patient in a Jungle Region of Peru.

Int Med Case Rep J 2020 20;13:663-666. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Ophthalmology, Research Department Clinica La Luz, Lima, Peru.

Wasp stings are considered an ophthalmological emergency as they can be complicated when they occur near the eyelids or especially on the cornea. Due to type I hypersensitivity response, such as epithelial defect, corneal edema, loss of endothelial cells, anterior uveitis, optic neuritis and, therefore, permanent loss of vision due to anterior segment ischemia. It warns that the wasp stinger has a saw-shaped texture, contains toxins that inflame the area where it stings. Due to the immunological and toxic effects of the stinger and its venom infiltrates the cornea. We present the case of a 32-year-old man who presented keratouveitis secondary to a wasp sting in a region of the jungle of Peru. He was treated emergency with intensive steroid therapy to reduce the toxic effects. His follow-up up to 2 months was successful, leaving only a 1 mm central leukoma where the bite occurred, which did not impair his vision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IMCRJ.S284184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685374PMC
November 2020

Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of an Intervention to Improve Coping with Intersectional Stigma and Medication Adherence Among HIV-Positive Latinx Sexual Minority Men.

AIDS Behav 2021 Jun 24;25(6):1647-1660. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA, USA.

We developed and pilot-tested an eight-session community-based cognitive behavior therapy group intervention to improve coping with intersectional stigma, address medical mistrust, and improve antiretroviral treatment adherence. Seventy-six HIV-positive Latinx sexual minority men (SMM; 38 intervention, 38 wait-list control) completed surveys at baseline, and 4- and 7-months post-baseline. Adherence was electronically monitored. Intention-to-treat, repeated-measures regressions showed improved adherence in the intervention vs. control group from baseline to follow-up [electronically monitored: b (95% CI) 9.24 (- 0.55, 19.03), p = 0.06; self-reported: b (95% CI) 4.50 (0.70, 8.30), p = .02]. Intervention participants showed marginally decreased negative religious coping beliefs in response to stigma [b (95% CI) = - 0.18 (- 0.37, 0.01), p = .06], and significantly lower medical mistrust [b (95% CI) = - 0.47 (- 0.84, - 0.09), p = .02]. Our intervention holds promise for improving HIV outcomes by empowering Latinx SMM to leverage innate resilience resources when faced with stigma.ClinicalTrials.gov ID (TRN): NCT03432819, 01/31/2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-03081-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084890PMC
June 2021

Androecium anatomy of Isertia laevis, a polysporangiate species of Rubiaceae.

Protoplasma 2021 May 16;258(3):547-557. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Sargento Cabral 2131, CC 209, 3400, Corrientes, Argentina.

In this study, we performed an anatomical analysis of the polysporangiate anthers and the development of pollen in Isertia laevis (Rubiaceae) with the aim to elucidate the internal structure of these atypical anthers. For this purpose, flowers in successive stages of development were dissected and the anthers were processed for conventional anatomical analysis. The material was examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The present study shows that the anthers of Isertia laevis have two thecae divided into multiple microsporangia. This division is due to the presence of transverse and longitudinal septa formed of parenchyma and idioblasts with crystals. The septa appear together with the microsporangia and remain in the mature anther, even developing fibrous thickening. As the anther matures, the idioblasts in the septa accumulate crystals until they break, facilitating the separation of the septa from the outer wall of the theca, and thus apparently assisting the process of dehiscence. The mature anther opens through the longitudinal dehiscence of each theca. In addition to the anatomy of the anther, the development and morphology of the pollen, and the presence of orbicules are described. The structure of the anthers of I. laevis is discussed with other polysporangiate species in the Rubiaceae and angiosperms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-020-01582-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Evaluation of bottled water quality by determining nitrate concentration.

J Water Health 2020 Oct;18(5):681-691

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Cátedra de Salud Pública e Higiene Ambiental, Junín 956 (1113), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina E-mail:

The presence of nitrate in sources of drinking water is a matter of concern because of its potential risk for human health. In many countries like Argentina, an increasing proportion of the population chooses to consume bottled water, among other reasons, for lack of water access. The present study was conducted (a) to evaluate the quality of bottled waters by determining nitrate concentration, (b) to relate bottled water quality with water access, (c) to analyze public awareness about bottled water quality and consumption habits of the population in the urban area of Buenos Aires. Two locations were selected, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (C.A.B.A.) and Malvinas Argentinas in Buenos Aires Province (PBA), with percentages of water access of 99.6% and 8.8%, respectively. Random samples from both locations (n = 100) were analyzed. A survey was conducted in order to inquire about perception of population on bottled water quality and their consumption habits. In C.A.B.A., no sample exceeded the 45 mg/L limit value in force in Argentina, while in Malvinas Argentinas, 34% of the brands analyzed showed values above it. The survey revealed that 71.7% of people consume bottled water. While people in C.A.B.A. do so mainly out of habit, safety is the priority in PBA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2020.125DOI Listing
October 2020

Earlier and slower or later and faster: Spring migration pace linked to departure time in a Neotropical migrant songbird.

J Anim Ecol 2020 12 12;89(12):2840-2851. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Migratory birds travel vast distances and the timing of migratory flights can affect survival and the ability to reproduce. For Neotropical migrant songbirds, early spring departure from wintering sites, early arrival to the breeding grounds and higher reproductive success have been related to the use of suitable habitats and environmental conditions during the non-breeding season. However, how migratory strategies are shaped by winter habitat choice is largely unknown due to the general inability to track birds from specific wintering habitats to stopovers or breeding destinations. We assessed how winter habitat (native forest vs. shade-grown coffee plantations) relates to spring departure date and migration pace in Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus. We also determined the effect of departure date and total migration duration on the arrival date of birds detected near or within their breeding range. We used a novel application of Motus radiotelemetry arrays to track individuals from their wintering grounds in the Andes of South America along their migratory journey to North America. We found variation in migratory strategies between habitats, with birds wintering in native forest departing later than birds in coffee. We present isotopic evidence for native forest being of higher quality than shade-coffee for Swainson's Thrush and hypothesize that moister conditions in forest, as shown by stable isotope (δ C) analysis of thrush whole blood, provides favourable pre-migratory conditions allowing birds to delay departure from wintering grounds. Habitat, between-site and -year variation in departure date, suggests that birds made facultative adjustments to winter habitat quality and environmental conditions. Independent of habitat, birds that departed later migrated faster and this pattern was maintained along the migration route (n = 44). Migrating earlier and slower or later and faster was unlikely to result in significant differences in arrival time to breeding destinations. Our findings reveal underappreciated complexity in migratory decisions by long-distance migrants that contrast with the current paradigm of earlier departures and arrival from optimal habitats. The next step is to understand the relative fitness benefits of early versus late schedules or whether each strategy is an equally good response to experienced conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13359DOI Listing
December 2020

BioMAX - the first macromolecular crystallography beamline at MAX IV Laboratory.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2020 Sep 5;27(Pt 5):1415-1429. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, PO Box 118, S-221 00 Lund, Sweden.

BioMAX is the first macromolecular crystallography beamline at the MAX IV Laboratory 3 GeV storage ring, which is the first operational multi-bend achromat storage ring. Due to the low-emittance storage ring, BioMAX has a parallel, high-intensity X-ray beam, even when focused down to 20 µm × 5 µm using the bendable focusing mirrors. The beam is tunable in the energy range 5-25 keV using the in-vacuum undulator and the horizontally deflecting double-crystal monochromator. BioMAX is equipped with an MD3 diffractometer, an ISARA high-capacity sample changer and an EIGER 16M hybrid pixel detector. Data collection at BioMAX is controlled using the newly developed MXCuBE3 graphical user interface, and sample tracking is handled by ISPyB. The computing infrastructure includes data storage and processing both at MAX IV and the Lund University supercomputing center LUNARC. With state-of-the-art instrumentation, a high degree of automation, a user-friendly control system interface and remote operation, BioMAX provides an excellent facility for most macromolecular crystallography experiments. Serial crystallography using either a high-viscosity extruder injector or the MD3 as a fixed-target scanner is already implemented. The serial crystallography activities at MAX IV Laboratory will be further developed at the microfocus beamline MicroMAX, when it comes into operation in 2022. MicroMAX will have a 1 µm × 1 µm beam focus and a flux up to 10 photons s with main applications in serial crystallography, room-temperature structure determinations and time-resolved experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600577520008723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7467343PMC
September 2020

Fiber-reinforced composite fixed dental prosthesis using an additive manufactured silicone index.

J Esthet Restor Dent 2020 Oct 8;32(7):626-633. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Comprehensive Dentistry Department, College of Dentistry, Texas A&M University, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Objective: Digital tools such as facial and intraoral digitizers and additive manufacturing (AM) technologies assist restorative treatments. The objective of the present manuscript was to describe a workflow procedure for treatment planning and fabricating a fiber-reinforced composite fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) replacing an absent maxillary lateral incisor, using additively manufactured silicone indices to facilitate the clinical intervention.

Clinical Considerations: The elaboration of a direct fiber-reinforced composite restoration is a technique sensitive procedure which might be time-consuming for the clinician. The digital waxing helped to determine the exact position and size of the lingual wings and connectors of the fiber-reinforced FDP and to design a three-piece index. And the AM of the index helped to transfer the information to the patient's dentition accurately.

Conclusions: The protocol minimizes the time of clinical intervention by facilitating the transference of the virtual diagnostic waxing teeth into the patient's mouth. The three-piece silicone index provides an individualized path of insertion of each index part while also providing a customized space and location of the lingual wings of the restoration.

Clinical Significance: The usage of AM silicone indices facilitates the clinical intervention by translating the size and position of the diagnostic wax-up teeth into the patient's mouth, minimizing clinical procedure's time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jerd.12628DOI Listing
October 2020

Bosworth fracture. An atypical case of irreducible ankle fracture-dislocation.

Trauma Case Rep 2020 Aug 27;28:100322. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Orthopaedics Surgery and Traumatology, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete, Spain.

An irreducible ankle-fracture dislocation in which the proximal fibular shaft fragment locks behind the posterior tibial tubercle is defined as "The Bosworth injury". Characteristically, this fracture is generally not reducible using closed methods. A high number of attempts can be counterproductive to get a good final functional result and it may also lead to the appearance of future complications. Although it is a recognized and published cause of irreducible ankle dislocation, it is an unusual and rare injury. The initial radiological diagnosis is difficult, usually going unnoticed, and it is frequently diagnosed during the surgical act, appreciating the retrotibial position of the proximal fibular fragment. The present report is the first in the medical data to describe a case of Bosworth injury in a 32-week-old pregnant woman. The initial diagnosis went unnoticed. After unsuccessful closed reduction attempt, urgent surgical intervention was performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcr.2020.100322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330149PMC
August 2020

Outcome of Root Canal Treatments Provided by Endodontic Postgraduate Students. A Retrospective Study.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 25;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Departament of Stomatology, University of Valencia (Valencia-Spain), Gascó Oliag 1, 46010 Valencia, Spain.

The aim of this study was to assess the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors that influenced complete periapical healing in teeth that underwent primary root canal treatment (RCT), in patients treated by postgraduate students in endodontics. Factors were retrieved and compared with the periapical status during the follow-up visit. Healing was considered as the absence of clinical and radiological symptoms. Variables significantly associated by the chi-squared test were included in a logistic regression model (LRM). Preoperative factors associated with healing were: American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) status ( = 0.01); the absence of preoperative pain ( = 0.04); positive response to pulp tests; when the RCT cause was caries, pain, abscess, or sinus tract; probing depth <4 mm; the absence of mobility; absence or <4 mm periapical lesion ( < 0.01). In the LRM, the factors included were: absence or <4 mm periapical lesion; probing depths <4 mm; RCT caused by caries, pain, abscess, or sinus tract; the tooth was not a bridge abutment. Postoperative factors were: teeth with direct restoration; teeth that did not act as a support for a fixed prosthetic restoration; the favorable condition of the coronal restoration ( < 0.01). In the LRM, only the status of the coronal restoration was included. Preoperative conditions and the adequate fit of the coronal restoration influenced the outcome of RCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061994DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7355894PMC
June 2020

Phenotypic Analysis of Mutants of Ergosterol Biosynthesis Genes ( and ) in the Red Yeast .

Front Microbiol 2020 16;11:1312. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

synthesizes astaxanthin, a carotenoid used in aquaculture. Astaxanthin is synthesized from metabolites of the mevalonate pathway, which are also precursors for sterols biosynthesis. The interruption of the gene, which is involved in the synthesis of ergosterol (mutant CBS.), resulted in a phenotype that overproduces carotenoids due to the activation of the SREBP pathway. In this work, we constructed other mutants of ergosterol biosynthesis in this yeast to evaluate whether they have the same phenotype as mutant CBS.. By bioinformatic analysis, the and genes of were identified, and each gene was deleted in the wild-type strain. Mutants CBS.Δ and CBS.Δ did not produce ergosterol; CBS.Δ primarily accumulated episterol, and CBS.Δ primarily accumulated ergosta-5,7,22,24(28)-tetraenol. The transcription levels of the gene of the mevalonate pathway were evaluated by RT-qPCR, which showed a slight increase in CBS.Δ, but the transcription levels were still 10-fold lower than in strain CBS.. Both CBS.Δ and CBS.Δ did not overproduce carotenoids, even though they do not produce ergosterol. Thus, the results of this study indicate that the absence of ergosterol does not activate the SREBP pathway in , but rather it depends on other alterations in sterol composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309136PMC
June 2020